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Full text of "The druggist's general receipt book : comprising a copious veterinary formulary, with numerous recipes in patent and proprietary medicines, druggists' nostrums, etc. : perfumery and cosmetics; beverages, dietetic articles, and condiments : trade chemicals, scientific processes, and an appendix of useful tables"

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BEASLEY'S BOOK OF. PRESCRIPTIONS. A new, Revised, and Enlarged 

Edition, containing .3000 Prescriptions, collected from the Practice of 

the most Eminent Physicians and Surgeons, — English, French, and 

American ; comprising also a Compendious History of the Materia 

Medica, Lists of the Doses of all Official and Established Preparations, 

and an Index of Diseases and their Remedies. By Henry Beasley. 

Octavo. Price $4.00. 

The editor, carefully selecting from the mass of materials at his disposal, has compiled a 
volume, sufficieutly comprehensive, and yet sufficiently portable, in which both physician and 
druggist, prescriber and compounder, may fi*d, under the head of each remedy, the manner in 
which that remedy maybe most effectively administered, or combined with other medicines in 
the treatment of various diseases. The alphabetical arrangement adopted renders this easy ; 
.and the value of the volume is still further enhanced by the short account given of each medi- 
cine, and the lists of doses of its several preparations. It is really a most useful and important 
publication, and, from the great aid which it is capable of affording in prescribing, it should 
be in the possession of every medical practitioner. Amongst other advantages is, that by giv- 
ing the prescriptions of some of the most able and successful practitioners of the day, it affords 
an insight into the methods of treatment pursued by them, and of the reniedies which they 
.chiefly employed in the treatment of different diseases. — London Lancet 


reference to Articles of Materia Medica, with an Index of Diseases, &c. 
By Edward John Waring, F.R.C.S., F.L.S., &c., &c. Second Ameri- 
can, from the Third London Edition. Cloth, $5.00 ; leather, $6.00. 

BIDDLE'S MATERIA MEDICA. For the Use of Students. With Illus- 
trations. By J. B. BiDDLE, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics in the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, &c., &c. 
Fourth Edition. Revised and Enlarged. $4.00 

F. W. Headland, M.D., Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians; 
&c., &c. Sixth American, from the Fourth London Edition. Revised 
and Enlarged. $3.00. 

Terms, Phrases, Contractions, "and Abbreviations, used in Prescriptions, 
with Explanatory Notes, the Grammatical Constructions of Prescrip- 
tions, Rules for the Pronunciation of Pharmaceutical Terms, &c., &c. 
By Jonathan Pereira, M.D., F.R.S., &c. From the Fifteenth London 
Edition. Cloth, $1.25 ; -leather, with tucks and pocket, $1.50. 

taining the Doses and Uses of all the Principal Articles of the Materia 
Medica, and Original Preparations ; A Table of Weights and Measures^ 
Rules to Proportion the Doses of Medicines, &c., &c. By Joseph H. 
Wythes, A.m., M.D., &c. Tenth Revised Edition." Cloth, $1.00; 
leather, tucks, with pockets, $1.25. 













1102 and 1104 Sansom Street. 


The compiler of the present volume was encouraged to its prepa- 
ration by the great success of his " Pocket Formulary," which pre- 
ceded it, and by many suggestions from correspondents as to the 
probable utility of this Book of Receipts. Such anticipations of its 
usefulness have already been more than realized by the rapid sale 
of five large editions. The compiler endeavored to produce a work 
which should be useful to those for whom it was designed. It was 
his aim to collect from various and widely scattered sources, and to 
condense into a volume of moderate size and convenient arrangement, 
a considerable amount of information that might be useful to Chem- 
ists and Druggists. And it is trusted that every purchaser will be 
able to find, in its multifarious contents, something that may be 
deemed an equivalent for so small an outlay. 

In preparing a Third Edition of the Druggist's General Receipt 
Book, the whole underwent a careful revision. While the addition 
to the work of upwards of two hundred new forms, receipts, and pro- 
cesses, collected from the most approved authorities, will, it is hoped, 
have established for it a further claim to the approbation of those for 
whose benefit it has been written. 

In the Fourth Edition, a further improvement was aimed at; much 
attention having been given, more especially, to the Chemical For- 
mulae and Processes described in the miscellaneous department of the 
work, which will now be found more complete than before. 

To the Fifth and Sixth Editions such additions have been made as 
have been rendered possible by the advance of science and discovery. 


Veterinary Materia Medica, 
Veterinary Formulary, 
Medicines for Horses, 
Balls and Ball Masses, 
Electuaries, Confections, &c., 
Powders, ..... 
Liquid Medicines — Drenches, 
Tinctures, Solutions, &c., . 
Clysters, ..... 
External Applications — Liniments, 
Embrocations, various, . 
Lotions, or Washes, 
Caustics, .... 

Fomentations, .... 
Eye Waters, .... 
Sundry Solutions, . 
Poultices, .... 
Ointments, .... 
Charges, . . ' . 
Powders (for outward use), 
Medicines for Cattle, 

Drenches, '&c., .... 

for Calves, . 
External Applications — Lotions, 
Eye Waters, .... 
Embrocations and Liniments, 
Ointments, &c., 
Medicines for Sheep and Lambs, . 
Drenches, &c., .... 
External Applications — Eye Waters, 


Powders and Ointments, 
Medicines for Swine, 
Medicines for Dogs, 

External Applications, 
Medicines for Poultry and Rabbits, 
Patent and Proprietary Medicines, Druggists' Nostrum's, &o.. 

Factitious Mineral Waters, and Salts for producing them. 
Perfumery, ...... 

Distilled Waters, .... 

Spirituous Waters, Eaux, Esprits, . 
Tinctures used in Perfumery, 
Extraits, Essences, .... 

Common French Essences, Spirits, and 

Ammoniated Perfumes, . 

Acetic Perfumes, .... 

Pot Pourri, Scented Powders, &c.. 
Pastilles, ..... 





















































the Hair, 


Skin Cosmetics — Lotions, 

Pastes, Pomades, Cold Cream, &c., 

Face Paints, ..... 

Toilet Soaps, 

Shaving Compounds, 
Hair Cosmetics, .... 

Compounds to promote the Growth of the Hair 
Liquid ditto, ..... 
Pomatums, Lotions, for embellishing the Hair, &c 
- Huiles Antiques, .... 
Washes for Cleansing the Hair, 
Compounds for Stiffening the Hair, 
Hair Dyes, ..... 
Pomatums, or Cosmetics, in Sticks, for 
Depilatories, . . . ' . 
Teeth and Mouth Cosmetics, 

Tooth Powders, .... 
Tooth Pastes, .... 

Astringent Tinctures — Mouth Washes, 
Tinctures, &c., for Toothache, 
Pastes for Toothache, 
Cements for Stopping Teeth, &c., . 
Beverages, Dietetic Articles, and Condiments, 
Beverages, and Powders for preparing them, 
Dietetic Articles — Directions for using. 
Preparations of Cod-liver, 
Condiments, &c., .... 

Curry Powders, Mixed Spices, &c.. 

Culinary Essences, Tinctures, &c.. 

Culinary Vinegar, Sauces, &c., . 

Pickles, ..... 

Trade Chemicals : Miscellaneous Preparations, Processes, and Com- 
pounds used in the Arts, in Domestic Economy, Chemical Research 
and Recreation, &c., .......... 301 


Tables of Weights and Measures, 455 

Comparison of Thermometric Scales, 

Effects of Temperature,-. 

Specific Gravities, 

Table of Chemical Equivalents, 

Table of Composition, Equivalent number, and Symbols of some 

of the more important Compounds employed in Pharmacy and 

the Arts, •. . _ 467 

Table of Neutralizing Proportions, &c., . ... . . 470 

Table of the Relation between the principal Areometers for 

liquids lighter than water,- 471 

Specific Gravities corresponding with the degrees of Baume's 

Areometer for liquids heavier than water, .... 472 
Index, 473 







A Table of the Properties and Doses of the Principal Medi- 
cinal Substances used in Veterinary Practice. 

N. B. — Where the doses are given without mentioning the 
animal intended, it must always be understood to refer to 
the horse. 

Acacia. See Gum Arabic. 

Acetate of Ammonia. Spirit of Mindererus. Diapjioretic 
and diuretic. It is also regarded as antiseptic. The solu- 
tion of the B. P. is five times stronger than that of the 
L. P. Dose, for horses and cattle, from 1 to 2 oz. For 
smaller animals, from 1 to 2 dr. Externally, in strains, 
ophthalmia, &c. 

Acetate of Copper. See Verdigris and Copper. 

Acetate of Lead. Astringent and sedative ; in doses of 30 
to 40 grains with opium, in internal hemorrhage, chronic 
diabetes, and diarrhoea; but chiefly, used externally, in 
cooling lotions, eye-waters, ointments, &c. (For Diacetate 
of Lead, see Goulard's Extract.) As antidotes for an 
overdose give Epsom or Glauber's Salts, with opiates if re- 

Acetate of Potash. Diuretic and cooling; dose for horse 
and cattle, 2 oz. In much larger doses it is a laxative, but 
not to be depended on. 

Acetate of Soda. Similar in properties and uses to Acetate 
of Potash. 



Acetic Acid. Strong acetic (or pyroligneous) acid acts as 
a rubefacient and caustic, but' is rarely employed for this 
purpose. In the Aveaker forms of common or distilled vine- 
gar, or diluted wood vinegar, it is frequently used.-* See 

Acids. See Muriatic Acid, Nitric Acid, Prussic Acid, Sul- 
, phuric Acid, &c. 

AcuPUNCTURATiON. Used in some spasmodic and paralytic 

^^GYPTIACUM. A preparation of verdigris and honey. A mild 
caustic, used as a local application to ulcers of the mouth, 
running thrush, grease, &c. Internally poisonous. 

^Ether. See Ether. 

Alcohol. Poisonous to all animals — 2 drachms will kill a 
dog. See Spirits, Ardent. 

Allspice. Pimento. A useful stimulant and carminative : 
used in cordial balls and drinks, and to correct the action of 
purgatives. Dose for horses, 2 to 4 dr. ; cattle J oz. to 1 oz. 
Dose of the Tincture, 4 ounces, in gripes. 

Aloes. The most valuable purgative for the horse, but not 
to be depended on for cattle and sheep. A horse requires 
from 4 to 8 dr. of Barbadoes aloes, from 5 to 9 dr. of Soco- 
trine, and from 6 to 10 of Cape. Mr. Youatt says 3 dr. 
of Barbadoes are equal to 4 of Cape." Mr. Morton con- 
siders a mixture of equal parts of Cape and Barbadoes aloes 
to be quite as efficacious as the latter alone. But the fine 
gourd Barbadoes aloes are the most certain in their opera- 
tion. If the animal be prepared by previous mashes, 5 dr. 
are generally, and 6 dr. almost always, sufficient. Mr. 
Blaine recommends 2 dr. every 6 hours till 8 dr. have been 
taken, as a nauseant and purgative : but Mr. Youatt 
strongly disapproves of this plan, particularly in inflamma- 
tion of the lungs. Aloes require from 18 to 36 hours to 
produce their effect, during which time the horse should not 
be ridden far or fast. Though not to be depended on for 
cattle, 4 to 6 dr. are sometimes added to the purgative salts. 
Large doses (in some cases sufficient to destroy life) have 
been given to sheep without purging. Small dogs require 
from 15 to 30 gr. : medium-sized ones, a dr. ; some larger 
ones require 2 dr., or more. Hogs can laear but a few grains. 


Externally, in the form of tincture, aloes is used as a stimu- 
. lating application to wounds. 

Alum. Astringent and styptic. Given in doses of 2 to 4 dr. 
to horses in diabetes and diarrhoea; but Bourgelat says 
that its too frequent use induces a phthisical condition. A 
dose of alum whey, consisting of 2 dr. of the powder in a 
pint of hot milk, may be given after excessive purging. 
Cattle require from 2 to 6 or 8 drachms in diabetes and red 
water ; and from 2 to 4 oz. are given to cows, to dry their 
milk. To calves and lambs it is given in dr. doses, in warm 
milk, for diarrhoea, &c. Dogs, 10 to 15 gr. Externally it 
is applied to cracked and greasy heels, joint wounds, sore 
mouths, inflammation of the eye, chronic discharges from 
the nostrils, and to arrest bleeding from wounds. Burnt 
alum is more powerful, and is used as a mild caustic, mixed 
with honey, to fungous growths, sore mouths, &c. 

Alteratives. Medicines which, without producing any con- 
siderable or immediate sensible operation, and without inter- 
fering with food or work, eifect a slow change in the diseased . 
action of certain parts, so as gradually to restore a healthy 

Ammonia, Carbonate or Sesquicarbonate of. Volatile 
Salts. Stimulant and antacid. Dose, 1 dr. to 2 dr. 
[MoiROUD says from 2 to 8 dr.] to horses in tympanitis, 
and the last stage of pneumonia. To cattle, in hoven (dis- 
tension from the fermentation of green food), 1 to 4 dr. 
[MoiROUD says to 12 dr.] The solution of carbonate of 
ammonia has the same properties as the Spirit of Hartshorn, 
which see. 

Ammonia, Aromatic Spirit of. Properties as the last. Dose, 
1^ oz. to 1 oz. ; or to cattle in hoven, 2 to 4 oz. 

Ammonia, Liquid. Water of ammonia is more pungent and 
stimulant than the carbonate, and is used for the same pur- 
poses, particularly in tympanitis and hoven, largely diluted 
with water or some aromatic infusion ; but it is chiefly used 
externally in stimulating liniments : also both internally and 
outwardly as an antidote to the bite of vipers. The dose of 
common water of ammonia may be from 2 to 6 dr. ; or for 
cattle to 2 ounces. For small animals from ^ dr. to 1^. 
The vapor from the liquid ammonia (applied by holding an 


open bottle containing it to the eye) is iised for the relief of 
amaurosis and other chronic affections of the eye. 

Ammonia, Acetate of. See Acetate of Ammonia. 

Ammonia, Muriate of. See Muriate of Ammonia. 

Analeptics. Medicines or food which restore exhausted 

Angelica. The root, in powder or infusion, is a warm tonic. 
. Dose, J oz. to 2 oz. 

Aniseed. This warm seed is used as a cordial, carminative, 
and pectoral. Dose for the horse, J oz. to 1 oz. ; or ^ dr. 
of' the essential oil. The latter is often added to pur- 
gatives to prevent griping. Cattle take 1 to 2 oz. of the 
powdered seeds. The oil is said to be poisonous to pigeons. 

Anodynes. Medicines which alleviate pain. Opium is chiefly 
employed for this purpose. 

Antimonials. The preparations of antimony (besides their 
effect in producing vomiting in cai'nivorous animals) are 
considered to have a special action on the skin and lungs. 
They are also termed resolvent, and purifiers of the blood, 
and are supposed to be useful in visceral and glandular 
obstructions, farcy, &c. Mr. Blaine says "they, lessen 
arterial action without operating very sensibly either in 
nauseating the stomach or greatly relaxing the skin." Some 
writers attribute diuretic effects to them. They are also 
said to promote condiiion. Pigs are supposed to fatten 
under their use. The principal preparations employed in 
veterinary practice are mentioned below. 

Antimony, Crude. Black [or sesqui-) Sidphuret of Antimony. 
Diaphoretic and alterative. The levigated (prepared anti- 
mony) is to be preferred. Given to horses in doses of from 
2 to 6 dr., with nitre and sulphur, in surfeit, hide-bound, 
and other skin diseases ; and to improve the coat. Mr. 
YouATT says the dose should not exceed 4 dr. For cattle, 
the dose is sometimes increased to 2 or 3 oz. Dogs tg-ke 
from 10 to 30 grains. Hogs, a drachm or more daily. 

Antimony, Liver of (Hepar Antimonii), and Crocus of 
Antimony (Crocus Metallorum), are occasionally used in 
veterinary practice ; but are uncertain in their composition 
and action. Doses, 1 to 2 drs. Mr. Clark says.these com- 


pounds, and the glass of antimony, derange the stomach, 
but that it is doubtful if they have any other effect. 

Antimony, Calix of. Diaphoretic. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. 

Antimonial Powder. Similar to James's powder. Diapho- 
retic. In colds, fevers, inflammations, &c. Dose, for horses 
or cattle, 1 or 2 dr. ; swine, 6 grains ; dogs, from 2 to 5 
grains. Less efficient than Emetic Tartar. 

Antimony, Precipitated Sulphuret of. Dose, | dr. to 2 
dr. in obstinate skin diseases. 

Antimony, Tartarized. Emetic Tartar. Diaphoretic, ex- 
pectorant, and reduces arterial action. It is also regarded 
as diuretic and febrifuge. Dose, ^ dr. to If dr. in gruel, 
3 times a day, in fevers, in inflammation of the lungs, and 
catarrhal affections. To destroy worms, 2 dr. may be given 
with powdered tin, or some other mechanical vermifuge, 
fasting, and followed by aloes; or 1 dr. for 6 mornings, 
followed on the 7 th day by a dose of physic. Mr. White 
says he has not seen any good effect from it as a vermifuge. 
Cattle require from J dr. to 1 dr. Sheep from 10 to 20 
gr. To swine and dogs it is emetic : the former require from 
2 to 5 gr. ; the latter, from 1 to 3 gr. Externally it pro- 
duces an eruption on the skin. Formed into an ointment 
with lard, it has been rubbed on externally in chest affec- 
tions, but is dangerously irritant. 

Antimony, Butter of. 3Iuriate or Chloride of Antimony. 
Used externally only, as a caustic in canker, &c. 

Antiperiodics. Remedies against those diseases which return 
at regular intervals, as agues. 

Antiseptics. Remedies which counteract putrefaction. 

Antispasmodics. Medicines which relieve spasm, as opium, 
ether, camphor, ammonia, ardent spirits, &c. 

Arnica. Nervine, sedative, and diaphoretic. 40 to 60 gr. of 
the powdered plant (the flowers in preference) have been 
given twice a day for paralysis, amaurosis, rheumatism, blows 
or falls, &c. A decoction may be used outwardly as a fo- 
mentation to bruises, wounds, &g. 

Aristulochia. See Birthwort. 

Arsenic. White Arsenic, or Arsenious Acid. Very poison- 
ous to all animals. In small doses, tonic and alterative, — 


but its operation requires to be carefully watched. It has 
been given, in doses of 2 gr., gradually increased to 20, in 
farcy and glanders. Externally, is a caustic, but dangerous 
and unmanageable. Used in solution to destroy vermin in 
cattle and sheep ; but it is not free from danger. Mr. 
YouATT remarks — " We have better and safer tonics, and 
better and safer caustics." The best antidotes are, hydrated 
^xide of iron, and calcined magnesia, in very large quantities, 
or a mixture of lime-water and linseed oil. 

AssAFCETiDA. Stimulant, antispasmodic, and expectorant. It 
"is prescribed in nervous affections and chronic coughs; also 
in farcy and worms ; and to increase the appetite and diges- 
tion. The dose is ^ dr. to 2 dr. ; but, according to Moiroud, 
may be carried to 2 oz. for the horse, and 2 or 3 oz. for 
horned cattle. Externally it is applied to indolent tu- 
mors, &c. 

Astringents. Medicines which produce a more obvious and 
decided constriction of the muscular fibres than the simple 

Balsams. Natural balsams appear to act on the mucous 
membrane generally ; but are chiefly given as diuretics and 
expectorants. See Balsam of Canada, Copaiva, Peru, &c. 

Balsam of Canada. Diuretic. Dose, | oz. to 1 oz. 

Balsam of Copaiva. As a diuretic to horses, J oz. to 1 oz. ; 
as an expectorant in chronic coughs, 1 or 2 dr. For dogs, 
J dr. to 1 dr. 

Balsam, Frtar's. Comp. Tincture of Benzoin. It is some- 
times given in ^ oz. doses to horses, in chronic cough, mixed 
with yolk of egg, gruel, or linseed tea. But more frequently 
applied to wounds, indolent ulcers, &c. 

Balsam of Lucatelli. Dose, J oz. in old coughs. 

Balsam of Tolu, and of Peru. 2 dr. in old coughs ; but too 

Balsam of Sulphur. A stimulating expectorant in old 
coughs, in doses of J oz. to 1 oz. Sometimes used as an 
outward application. 

Barbadoes Tar. Stimulant, diuretic, and expectorant. Dose, 
1 to 4 dr. or more [2 to 4 ounces — Morton], in old coughs, 


and chronic chest affections, Externally in skin diseases, 
wounds, grease, &c. 

Bark, Peruvian. Tonic, astringent, antiseptic, and anti- 
periodic. Dose for a horse, 6 or 8 dr. [to 2 or 3 oz. — 
Moiroud] in diabetes, general weakness, a tendency to gan- 
grene, &c. To small animals, 1 or 2 dr. Applied also to 
indolent and foul ulcers. 

Barley. The decoction (of Scotch or pearled barley in pref- 
erence) is given as an emollient, demulcent, or diluent drink 
in inflammatory diseases ; more frequently as a vehicle for 
more active remedies. 

Barytes. All its compounds are poisonous. The following- 
doses have been given in farcy and glanders : Muriate of 
barytes, 20 gr. gradually increased to 60 ; pure barytes, 10 
to 20 gr. ; carbonate 1 to 4 gr. A dog was killed by 15 

Basilicon, Yellow and Black. Besin Cerate. See V. 
Formulary (Digestive Ointments). 

Bay Berries. Stomachic and carminative. An ingredient 
in diapente, but rarely given alone. Dose of the powdered 
berries, ^ oz., or of the oil of bays, J dr. to a dr. The leaves 
are used in fomentations. 

Belladonna. Deadly Nightshade. Narcotic and sedative. 
Dose, of the extract from 1 to 4 dr. in diseases where there 
is undue action of the nervous and vascular systems [Mayor]. 
M. Moiroud directs from 6 to 8 dr. of the powder. For 
dogs, from 2 to 8 gr. of the powder. The extract was also 
applied to the eye, to dilate the pupil. 

Bennet, Here. Avens. Tonic and astringent. Dose, of 
the powdered root, J oz. to 1 oz. or more. 

Benzoin. Stimulant and expectorant. Dose, 1 to 3 dr. But 
seldom used. Externally it is applied, in balsamic tinctures, 
to wounds, ulcers, &c. See Tincture of Benzoin. 

BiRTHWORT. A gentle stimulant, supposed to act especially 
on the uterine system. Dose, J oz. It is given to cows in 
cleansing drinks, but it is of doubtful utility. 

Bistort Boot. Astringent. Dose, 4 to 8 dr. [or 2 oz., 
Moiroud]. The decoction is used also as an astringent and 
cleansing lotion. 


BiTTER-SwEET. Dulcamara. Diuretic, narcotic, and altera- 
tive. Dose, ^ oz. in decoction. 

Bitter Apple. See Colocynth. 

Bleeding. The quantity of blood usually abstracted from the 
horse is from 2 to 4, or, in some cases, 6 to 8 quarts ; or 
until faintness is produced. From cattle, from 2 to 6 quarts, 
or till faint. Sheep, 16 ounces. Lambs, 4 oz. Dogs in 
the proportion of 1 oz. for every 3 lb. weight. [Or 1 or 2 
oz. from a very small dog; 7 or 8 oz. from a larger one. — 
Mr. Youatt]. 

Blistering Fly. See Cantharides. Blisters are applied 
in the form of ointments, or liniments, to excite super- 
ficial inflammation, followed by vesication ; and are in- 
tended to draw away inflammatory action from more deeply 
seated but not distant parts. Also to excite the action of 
the absorbents, and to promote suppuration. See Blistering 
Ointment, and Liquid Blister, in the Formulary. 

Blue Vitriol. See Copper, Sulphate of. 

Bole, Armenian. Slightly astringent, and absorbent. Dose, 
^ oz. to 2 oz. in diarrhoea, bloody urine, &c. A common 
ingredient in drenches to dry the milk of cows ; dose, 1 to 
3 oz. It is also used outwardly as an astringent and desic- 

Borage. A decoction of the plant is pectoral and demul- 

Borax. Detergent. Applied to sore mouths, mixed with 
honey. It is supposed to be a uterine stimulant, but 
is not often used in veterinary practice as an internal 

Box Leaves. They are given, chopped with corn, as a vermi- 
fuge. They are also used as a preventive of hydrophobia. 
(See the V. Formulary.) The rasped wood is considered 
sudorific, and prescribed in rheumatic and skin diseases, and 
evenin farcy and glanders. 

Bran. Mucilaginous, and slightly laxative : given in mashes. 

Brandy. See Spirits, Ardent. 

Briony. White Briony root is poisonous. | oz. killed a 


Bromine. Poisonous. 5 gr. killed a dog. Its medical use 
is not well ascertained, but appears analogous to that of 

Broom. The Spanish broom, and particularly the seeds, are 
supposed to produce inflammation of the bladder in sheep 
and cattle. 

BucKBEAN. A bitter tonic and purgative. The powdered 
plant has been given to sheep for rot, in 1 dr. doses. — [Dr. 

Buckwheat. Slightly laxative, but chiefly used to fatten 

Buckthorn. Purgative ; principally administered to dogs. 
Dose of the juice, 2 or 3 dr. ; but it is Usually given in the 
form of Syrup. See Syrup of Buckthorn. The berries are 
more active, but seldom employed. 

Burdock. Diuretic and sudorific. Used, but rarely, in rheu- 
matism and skin diseases. 

Burgundy Pitch. • Similar to resin in its properties. It is 
chiefly used outwardly in charges, &c. 

Butter of Antimony. Chloride of Antiynony. See Anti- 
mony, Muriate of. 

Cabbage Tree Bark. Vermifuge. Dose for a horse, 2 to 4 
dr. But rarely used. 

Calamine, or Lapis Calaminaris. Slightly astringent, 
drying and healing. Sprinkled on excoriations and sores ; 
and used in ointments, lotions, eye-waters, &c. The greater 
part of what is sold is factitious, and only calculated to do 

Calamus Aromaticus. Sweet flag. A warm stomachic. 
Dose, from 1 oz. to 2 or 3 oz. in infusion. 

Calomel. Alterative, vermifuge, sialogogue, purgative ; it 
also increases the action of diuretics and diaphoretics. In 
doses of 1 or 2 dr. [20 to 60 grains, Youatt], combined 
with or followed by aloes, it is given to horses for worms ; 
or from 10 to 20 gr. as an alterative, in skin diseases, 
grease, farcy, constitutional affections, &c. If too often 
repeated, it salivates. It does not agree with cattle (see 
Mercury), but is sometimes given, in doses of from 10 to 
20 gr., in inflammation of the liver, and jaundice. Some 
writers mention much larger doses. On dogs it acts as 


a purgative, and often as an emetic, and it is very apt 
to salivate. The sanie applies to swine. Dose for dogs, 
1 to 2 gr. [Never exceeding 3. Youatt.] Many dogs 
are destroyed by calomel. Hogs require 3 to 5 gr. Poul- 
try should not have more than a grain, in divided doses, in 
the day. 

Calumba. Tonic. Dose of the powdered root, from 2 to 4 

Camphor is reputed antispasmodic, narcotic, and diuretic. 
It assists the action of diaphoretics ; is frequently added to 
fever medicines to allay irritation ; and is used as an anti- 
septic in malignant epidemics, &c. Mr. Spooner combines 
it with opium in cases of lock-jaw. Dose, 1 or 2 dr. Moiroud 
says 2 to 12 dr. Its use is questionable where active in- 
flammation exists. Externally it is used as a discutient and 
anodyne, in embrocations, eye-waters, &c. Its vapors are 
thought to act favorably on old coughs. 

Canella Bark. A warm tonic. Dose, for horses, 2 to 4 
dr. ; for cattle, 2 to 6 dr. 

Cantharides. Stimulant and diuretic. Mr. Vines says, 
'* Of all medicines given for farcy and glanders none 
equal cantharides;" but they should not be given too 
early, nor without due caution. [Mr. Blaine.] Dose, in 
debility, 3 to 5 gr. ; in dropsy, farcy, and glanders, 5 to 
8 gr. daily, gradually increasing the dose to 15 gr., sus- 
pending their use for a time when their diuretic effect is 
manifest. Of the tincture, 2 to 3 dr. in incontinence of 
urine ; and from J oz. to 2 oz. in red water. The practice 
of giving cantharides as a venereal stimulant is repro- 
bated by the best authorities. Externally it is used in 
blistering and stimulating ointments and liniments. It 
does not permanently blemish, but this effect is often pro- 
duced by other ingredients combined with it in blistering 

Capsicum. Cayenne pepper. A hot stimulant. From 10 to 
20 grs.. may be given in weakness of the stomach, and from 
20 to 60 grs. in flatulent colic, or in severe colds. It is also 
used externally as a stimulant. 

Carbonate of Ammonia ; Carbonate of potash ; and carbon- 
ate of soda. See Ammonia, Carbonate; Potash, Subcar- 
bonate; Soda, Subcarbonate. 


Caraway Seeds. Carminative and Stomachic. Dose, | oz. 
to 1 oz. ; or double that quantity to cattle. Used in cordial 
balls and drenches ; and often added to purgatives, to 
prevent griping. The essential oil is used for the same pur- 
poses, in doses of 10 to 30 drops. Mr. Youatt considers 
caraway and ginger the only cordials required for the 

Cardamom Seeds. Carminative. Dose, 1 to 4 dr. 

Carminatives are stimulants which by their rapid impression 
on the stomach, &c.. occasion the expulsion of wind, and 
relief of pain. 

Carrots. Restorative and alterative. Given to horses as 
food after severe illness : and in coughs, grease, foul humors, 
&c. Externally in poultices. 

Cascarilla. a warm, bitter tonic. Dose, 2 or 3 dr. 

Cassia. A warm stimulant. Dose, 1 to 2 dr. 

Castor. Antispasmodic. ^ oz. has been given in locked jaw. 
But rarely used. 

Castor Oil. Laxative. It is uncertain as a purgative for 
the horse, and sometimes produces much irritation in large 
doses. J pint may be given every six hours till it operates, 
with watery solution of aloes. Cattle require a pound, or 
pint ; calves, 2 to 4 oz. ; sheep and swine, 1 to 2 oz. ; dogs, 
2 to 4 dr., with syrup of buckthorn. The seeds are more 
active : from 2 to 6 are sometimes given to swine and dogs, , 
crushed and mixed with food ; but from their effects on man, 
their use would seem to require caution. 

Catechu. Terra Japonica. Astringent. Dose for a horse, 
in diabetes, diarrhoea, &c., 1 or 2 dr. [Youatt], or to 1 oz. 
[Blaine] ; cattle, 2 to 4 dr. in gruel. [It is usually com- 
bined with chalk, opium, and gum. — Youatt.] Dogs re- 
quire from 10 to 40 gr. In India it is said to be given in 
doses of 2 oz., for the purpose of taming vicious horses. 
The tincture is useful in promoting the healing of wounds. 

Cathartics. Purgatives (which see). 

Caustics. Solid or liquid substances which burn or de- 
stroy the part to which they are applied. The actual 
cautery consists in burning with an iron heated to white- 


Chalk. Antacid and astringent. Horses require from | oz. 
to 1 oz. ; cattle, 1 or 2 oz. ; sheep and swine, 1 dr. ; dogs, 
10 to 20 gr. It is often combined with catechu. Extern- 
ally it is sprinkled on sores. 

Chamomile. A mild tonic, stomachic, and febrifuge. Dose, 

1 to 4 dr. of the powdered flowers, or an infusion of J oz. 
of the flowers in a quart of water, in debility of the stomach, 
flatulence, and in the last stage of fevers, and influenza. 
It is the first tonic that should be used in convalescence. 
Ginger or some other aromatic, is usually joined with it. 

Charcoal. Antiseptic. Used as an application to foul 
ulcers, either sprinkled on them or mixed with poultices. 

Charges. Compositions of an adhesive nature, usually mixed 
with tow, which adhere to the part to which they are ap- 
plied for some time. See V. Formulary. 

Chlorate of Potash. Mr. Morton states that Mr. Sy- 
MONDS found it useful in hoven and tympanitis. Dose, 1 to 

2 dr. 

Chloride of Limb. Antiseptic and disinfectant. From 2 to 
4 dr. in a quart of water, given to horses in flatulent colic, 
and to cattle in hoven ; and in putrescent diseases. Extern- 
ally, as a wash for mange, foul ulcers, &c., and as a disin- 
fectant, J oz. to be well mixed with a pint of water, and 
after a time decanted or strained. 

Chloride of Potash. Eau de Javelle. Eecomraended by 
French authors for the same purposes as the chlorides of 
lime and soda. Dose, for hoven or tympanitis, ^ oz. to 1 oz. ; 
for sheep, ^ oz., in water, with or without the addition of 

Chloride of Soda. Labarraque's Disinfecting Solution. The 
properties and uses are the same as of chloride of lime ; it 
is perhaps better adapted for internal use. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. 
of the solution, gradually increased to 1 oz. or more, largely 
diluted. It has been tried in glanders. As a lotion, about 
1 a pint of water. 

Chlorine. Antiseptic. A strong "watery solution of chlorine 
gas is antiseptic — in large doses poisonous. It is used for 
the same purposes as the chlorides of lime, potash, and soda, 
but the latter are preferable. 


Chloride of Antimony. See Antimony, Butter of. 

Chloride of Zinc. It is a powerful caustic. A diluted 
solution is used as a disinfectant. 

Chloroform. Used to produce insensibility to pain in the 
same manner as ether ; and as a remedy for tetanus. 

Cinchona. See Bark, Peruvian. 

Cinnabar and Vermilion. Native and factitious red sul- 
phuret of mercury. Alterative and vermifuge ? Dose, |- 
oz. daily to horses, in skin diseases and obstinate coughs. 
Formerly given in larger doses, as a vermifuge. Cinnabar 
of Antimony, so called from the mode of preparation, does 
not differ from common vermilion in its properties. Care 
must be taken to get pure vermilion, as this compound, 
being used as a pigment, is sometimes adulterated with red- 
lead and other poisonous matters. 

Cinnamon. Stimulant and carminative. Dose, 2 dr. ; but 
cassia is usually substituted for it. 

Cloves. A hot stimulant, cordial and carminative. Dose, 1 
to 3 drachms in powder ; or from 10 to 20 drops of the oil ; 
the latter is a frequent adjunct to purging balls, to prevent 
griping. Cloves are also an ingredient in masticatories. 

Clysters. .These are injected into the rectum by a proper 
syringe, or a bladder and a pipe, either to unload the bowels, 
abate inflammation and pain, or to act on the system gene- 
rally, when medicines cannot be given by the mouth. See 
V. Formulary. 

CoLCHicuM. Poisonous to most animals. A diuretic and 
drastic purgative, chiefly used in rheumatic aifections. Dr. 
Lemann found it useful in constitutional ophthalmia, and in 
pneumonia, in doses of a drachm, tAvice a day, with nitre. 
According to M. Moiroud, the dose for larger animals is 
from 1 to 2 dr. For smaller, 6 or 8 gr. 

Colocynth. Bitter apple. It has little effect on the horse. 
It is purgative to dogs, and in large doses poisonous. 

Confection of Opium. Anodyne and carminative. Dose, 4 
to 6 dr., in flatulent colic. 

Confection of Hoses. Shghtly astringent ; but only used to 
form astringent powders, &c., into balls. Masses formed 
with it retain their consistence well. 


CoPAiVA. See Balsam of Copaiva. 

Copper. All the compounds of this metal are poisonous. In 
small doses they are tonic. The antidotes are white of eggs, 
milk, iron filings, or hydrated sulphuret of iron. 

Copper, Acetate of. Crystallized (commonly called distilled) 
verdigris. Caustic and cleansing. Stronger than common 

Copper, Diacetate of. See Verdigris. 

Copper, Diniodide of. Tonic, and promotes absorption. 
"Dose, 1 to 2 dr. daily, in farcy, glanders, swelled legs, &c., 
and topically, to ill-conditioned ulcers. 

Copper, Nitrate of. Sometimes used as a caustic. 

Copper, Sulphate of. Blue Vitriol. Tonic and styptic. In 
doses of ^ dr. gradually increased to 2 dr. or more daily, it 
is given in diabetes, farcy, &c. Small doses may be given 
in balls with gentian and ginger ; larger doses in gruel. 
It has been thought useful in glanders ; but Mr. Youatt 
says it is only proper in nasal discharges without fever. 
Dose for cattle, 1 to 2 dr. Sheep 20 to 40 gr. Rabbits 
(in sniffles), 1 or 2 gr. twice a day. Externally the solution 
is used for the foot-rot of sheep ; and as a cleansing wash for 
foul ulcers in horses and cattle. Used also in the solid state 
to destroy proud flesh. 

Copper, Ammonio-Sulphate of. Tonic and astringent. Dose, 
1 to 2 dr. twice or thrice a day. 

Cordials. Warm stimulating medicines, such as spices, and 
the aromatic seeds, fermented liquors and spirits, &c., which 
temporary restore exhausted strength, revive the spirits, and 
rouse the system generally. The best modern practitioners 
condemn their indiscriminate employment, as the source of 
much mischief. For cordial balls, &c., see V. Formulary. 

Coriander Seeds. A mild aromatic stimulant and car- 
minative, used in cordial balls and drinks. Dose, J oz. to 
1 oz. 

Corrosive Sublimate. One of the most virulent poisons. 
In small doses it is alterative .and diuretic. It has been 
tried in doses of 2 to 5 gr,, gradually increased to 10 or 
20, in farcy and glanders, but rarely with lasting benefit. 
Externally it is used as a powerful caustic. A dilute 


solution is employed as a wash for scab and lice in sheep, 
but the practice is not free from danger. Applied to 
wounds in cattle it has proved as fatal a poison as when 
swallowed. The antidote for an overdose is white of egg, 
or milk, or the hydrated sulphuret of iron ; with demulcent 
CowHAGE. Vermifuge ; but has little eifect on the horse. 

Cream or Tartar. Cooling, laxative, and diuretic. Seldom 
given alone ; but combined with antimonials, mercurials, or 
sulphur, as an alterative in skin diseases ; and used as an 
adjunct to aloes in purging balls. Cattle require 2 to 3 oz. ; 
when given in larger doses it should be given in plenty of 
warm water. Sheep require ^ oz. to 1 oz. Dogs, 5 to 20 

Creasote. Tonic, stimulant, and antiseptic. Dose, 20 to 30 
drops daily, in gruel or linseed tea, in glanders. Exter- 
nally in lotions and ointments, to fistulous wounds, unhealthy 
ulcers, &c. 

Crocus of Antimony. See Antimony, Liver of. 

Croton Seeds and Oil. Purgative. The oil produces great, 
irritation in the horse. Dose, about 20 drops : 30 drops 
have proved fatal. The powdered seeds and the meal or 
ground cake left after expressing the oil, are also used ; 
3 gr, of the former and 6 of the latter being considered 
equivalent to 1 dr. of aloes. It operates with less cer- 
tainty, and produces more debility, than aloes, but is some- 
times preferred on account of its more speedy action. It is 
usually given in the form of a ball, 20 or 30 gr. being 
mixed with 1 oz. linseed meal. Mr. Norton gives from 
12 to 24 grains of the seed. Mr. Youatt prescribes 30 
grains of the powdered seeds in a drink, in tetanus and 
brain fever, followed by smaller doses (10 gr.) every 6 
hours. It will purge rapidly when placed upon the tongue, 
but is then likely to inflame the mouth. From 10 to 20 
gr. are sometimes added to salts in purging drenches for 
cattle, in extreme cases. One drop of the oil purges a dog 

Cummin Seed. A warm carminative. Dose, from 1 to 4 
drachms of the powdered seeds ; or from 6 to 20 drops of 
the oil. 

Cusparia, or Angustura Bark. An aromatic bitter tonic. 
Dose, 1 to 4 dr. in debility, diabetes, diarrhoea, &;c. 


Cyanide of Potassium. It possesses the same poisonous 
and medical properties as prussic acid. Mr. Lafore has 
given it with success in a case of idiopathic tetanus of the 
horse; but it failed to cure traumatic tetanus. Dose, 4 

Daffy's Elixir. Sometimes given in colic or gripes. 

Dalby's Carminative. Given to calves in diarrhoea. Dose, 
J a bottle. 

Detergents or Detersives. Remedies which cleanse foul 
; ulcers. 

DiAPENTE. A compound powder, reputed cordial and sto- 
machic. Too much of what is sold in the shops is almost 
worthless. Dose, J oz. to 1 oz. 

Diaphoretics. Medicines which promote perspiration. 

Digestives. Mildly stimulating applications, which excite 
healthy action in indolent ulcers, wounds, &c. 

Digitalis. Foxglove. Sedative and diuretic. It reduces 
the frequency of the pulse and diminishes irritability. It is 
poisonous to animals generally ; 6 gr. will kill a dog. It 
is asserted, however, that it produces no effect on poultry. 
The common dose of the powdered leaves for a horse, is 
from 10 to 30 gr. Mr. Youatt prescribes 60 gr., with 
emetic tartar and nitre, in inflammation of the chest ; 
but its effect on the pulse must be carefully watched. 
To cattle, ^ dr. to 1 dr. Sheep, 5 to 15 gr. Dogs, 1 
to 2 gr. An infusion of the leaves is applied to inflamed 

Diuretics. Medicines which increase the flow of urine. 
Some of them, juniper, capivi, squills, broom, &c., appear 
to carry off water only ; while the alkaline salts remove 
solid matters also, and thus purify the blood. Diuretics 
are employed to lessen the quantity of the circulating 
fluid in fevers and inflammations. The legs of many horses 
cannot be kept fine, nor the grease be subdued without the 
use- of diuretics. Plenty of water should be allowed with 
them. But their too frequent use is injurious. 

Dog-grass. It is emetic to dogs. 

Dover's Powder. Sudorific to cattle in rheumatism. Dose, 
1 drachm. 


Eggs. Nutritive and demulcent. Sometimes given in diar- 
rhoea. They constitute the best antidote to poisoning by 
corrosive sublimate. 

Elaterium. It has little effect on the horse. 

Elder. An infusion of the flowers is given in catarrhal 
complaints. The leaves boiled with lard form an emollient 
ointment, which is a common application to sore udders. 
The fresh leaves of the dwarf elder are given (according to 
BouRGELAT and Moiroud) with some success as a deobstru- 
ent and aperient, in swelled legs, dropsy, and farcy. 

Elecampane. The root is reputed stimulant, diaphoretic, 
diuretic, stomachic, and expectorant. Dose, 4 to 8 dr. in 
chronic catarrh, dropsical swellings, indigestion, &c. 

Emetic Tartar. See Antimony, Tartarized. 

Emetics. Medicines which excite vomiting. It is scarcely 
possible to produce this effect in herbivorous animals. 

Emollients. Medicines which soften and relax the tissues 
of the organs. 

Epsom Salt. A cooling laxative. It is not to be depended 
on as a purgative for the horse ; but in doses of 4 or 5 oz., 
in a large quantity of water, repeated three times a day, 
it is useful as a laxative and diuretic in inflammatory 
diseases. Cattle require from 12 to 20 oz., with ginger or 
any of the warm seeds. It is sometimes rendered more 
active by aloes or gamboge. Calves require from 1 to 2 oz., 
according to their age and strength. Sheep, J oz. to 2 oz. 
Dogs, from 1 to 3 dr. wrapped in tissue paper. A large 
elephant takes a pound and a half, preceded by a dr. of 
calomel. — Youatt. 

Ergot of Rye. It promotes parturition. Dose for a mare, 
2 or 3 dr. A cow, 2 dr. repeated at intervals of half an 
hour. A ewe, 20 to 40 gr. Bitch, 5 to 10 gr. [Mr. 
Spooner says from 2 to 4 gr.], or an infusion of a scruple 
given at three times, at intervals of half an hour. Larger 
doses than the above are indicated by M. MoiROUD. 

Errhines. Remedies which excite a discharge from the 


Escharotics. Caustics. Substances which desti-oy the sur- 
face to which they are applied. 



Ether. A diffusible stimulant and antispasmodic ; used chiefly 
in colic. Dose, ^ oz. to f oz. ; cattle, ^ oz. to 1 oz. ; dogs, 
7 to 14 drops. It is used outwardly in cooling lotions and 
eye-waters. The vapor, inhaled by means of a proper 
apparatus, produces insensibility to pain ; but some of 
the experiments with this agent have proved most unfortu- 

Ethiops Mineral. The mildest of the mercurial compounds. 
Alterative and vermifuge. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. daily in farcy, 
glanders, grease, skin diseases, and worms, alone, or with 

, cream of tartar. Eor cattle, 1 dr.; swine, 3 to 10 gr. ; 
dogs, 5 gr. in mange. With an equal weight of prepared 
antimony it forms Antimonial Ethiops — a more efficient 

EuPHORBiUM. Very acrid and poisonous. Used in blisters, 
chiefly to economize the more expensive flies ; but irritates 
extremely. It is employed in the form of tincture and oint- 
ment as a local stimulant. 

Excitants. Medicines which quicken the circulation, pro- 
duce warmth, and render the organs more active. 

Fennel Seeds. A weak carminative and diuretic. Dose, 
J oz. to 2 oz. 

Fern. Powdered male* fern is given in doses of 6 dr., fol- 
lowed by a mercurial purgative, for expelling worms. M. 
MoiROUD carries the dose to 4 oz. ; or 5 or 6 dr. for smaller 

Fcenugreek Seeds. Emollient, nutritive, and stomachic. 
Dose, 1 oz. daily, to promote condition in horses, and in 
diseases of the chest. It is also added to the food of swine, 
to promote their fattening. Used also externally in fomen- 

Forge Water. The water of the blacksmith's forge is some- 
times given as a tonic, or applied as a wash to ulcerated and 
cankered mouth. 

Foxglove. See Digitalis. 

Galangal Root. A warm aromatic ; similar in properties to 
ginger. Dose, J oz. of the powder, or 1 oz. in infusion. 

Galbanum. Stimulant, expectorant, and antispasmodic. 
Dose, 2 to 4 dr. But rarely used, assafoetida being 
stronger and cheaper. 


Gall Nuts. Astringent; in diarrhoea. Dose of the powder 
for horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr. Calves, |- dr. to 1 dr. 
Dogs, 4 to 8 grains. 

Gamboge. A drastic purgative. The dose for a horse is 
said to he from 2 to 6 dr., hut its purgative eifect cannot 
be depended on, and it gripes. 3 dr. have been known to 
cause great prostration ; and the horse being killed, marks 
of intense inflammation were found in its stomach and 
bowels. It is a bad medicine for herbivorous animals. 2 
dr. are sometimes added to salts and other purgatives for 
cattle. Sheep have been killed by 2 dr. A few grains are 
given to dogs, to destroy and expel worms. 

Garlic. A stimulating expectorant. Dose, 1 oz. in chronic 
coughs and asthmatic complaints, made into balls with 
liquorice powder ; or boiled in milk. It is a common 
remedy for coughs and chest affections in all domestic 
animals. It is also reputed vermifuge. Eor the croup in 
fowls it is given in doses of 5 gr. 

Gentian Root. Tonic and stomachic ; in debility, after severe 
illness, &c. Dose for a horse, 2, 3, or 4 dr. of the powder; 
or from J dr. to 1 dr. of the extract. (See V. Formulary, 
Tonic Balls.) Cattle, 2 to 4 dr. or more. Sheep, 20 to 60 
gr. Generally joined with ginger. An infusion is recom- 
mended as a wash to ulcers. 

Ginger. Stimulant and carminative ; a general ingredient 
in cordial and tonic medicines. Dose, 1 to 3 dr., or in 
flatulent colic, 2 to 6 dr. Cattle, 2 to 6 dr. Calves, 20 to 
30 gr. Sheep, 30 to 60 gr. The smaller of the above 
doses may be added to all aperient medicines. It is also 
used as a masticatory. Dose of the tincture, J ounce to 2 

Glass, Powdered. Used to destroy worms in dogs. Mr. 
Blaine recommends as much as will lie on a sixpence, with 

Glauber's Salt. Sulphate of Soda. Aperient and diuretic. 
Seldom given to horses as a purgative (Mr. Clarke says 
1 lb', produces scarcely any effect) ; but it is said to be 
useful in doses of 6 oz. 3 times a day, in epidemic catarrh. 
To cattle the usual dose is 16 oz., or from 12 to 20 oz., 
with ginger or caraway. It is considered more diuretic than 
Epsom salts. 


Goulard's Extract of Lead. Solution of Diacetate of Lead. 
Cooling and astringent. Used externally only, in lotions, 
&c., in the same cases as sugar of lead. (See Lead, Acetate 
of.) For inflamed eyes, 1 dr. or IJ to a pint of water ; for 
other purposes it is made stronger. 

Grains of Paradise. A warm stimulant ; chiefly used in 
cattle medicines. Dose, 3 to 6 dr. 

Gruel. A decoction of oatmeal. Nutritive and demulcent. 

GuAiACUM [Gum]. Sudorific and expectorant. It has been 
given to horses, in doses of 4 dr., in chest affections, farcy, 
, rheumatism, &c. ; and to cattle in doses of 4 or 6 dr. But 
its utility is doubted. The guaiacum wood is given to the 
amount of 4 oz., in decoction, repeated 2 or 3 times in 24 

Gum Arabic. Emollient and demulcent. Used in inflam- 
matory aff'ections of the bowels, or of the respiratory or 
urinary organs. Dose, for horses and cattle, 1 to 4 oz., 
dissolved in water. For smaller animals, from ^ oz. to 1 
oz. It is also used to suspend in water insoluble powders 
and oils. Gum senega! and gum tragacanth are used for 
the same purposes. The latter will thicken twenty times as 
much water as Gum Arabic. [For Gum Ammoniac, Ben- 
zoin, &c., see Ammoniacum, Benzoin, &c.] 

Hartshorn, Spirits of. See Ammonia. It is chiefly used 
in stimulating liniments, and for the bites and stings of 
venomous reptiles and insects. For salt of hartshorn, see 
Ammonia, Carbonate of. 

Hellebore, White. Poisonous to all classes of animals. 
In small doses, it has been strongly recommended as a 
nauseant and diaphoretic, in inflammatory diseases; but 
it requires to be very carefully watched, otherwise a fatal 
collapse may be induced. The usual dose is 20 gr. every 
four or six hours till nausea is produced, or the pulse 
affected. Mr. Youatt says it cannot safely be given in 
doses of a drachm, but that it is given with advantage in 
ounce doses in chronic grease. Externally, it is used in 
ointments and washes for the mange ; but even in this Avay 
its use requires caution. It is also blown into the nostrils 
as a sternutatory. 

Hellebore, Black. The root is used as an irritating 
seton for cattle, and introduced into fistulous sores of the 


Hemlock, Spotted. A narcotic poison. In doses of a 
drachm of the powdered leaves, or the extract, gradually 
increased, it is sometimes given to quiet obstinate coughs. 
It is also an ingredient in some old remedies for farcy, 
scirrhous tumors and cancer. For dogs, from 1 to 4 gr., 
in coughs and cancerous diseases. A decoction of the herb 
is used as a fomentation to painful tumors. Water hem- 
lock is a more virulent poison, and often destroys cattle. 
M. MoiROUD says that the ruminants bear hemlock better 
than other animals. Mr. Youatt considers both common 
and water hemlock harmless to the horse, though he admits 
that cows have been poisoned by the latter. 

Henbane. Narcotic and sedative. Dose, 15 to 20 gr. of the 
powder [1 to 2 dr. of the extract, Morton] twice or three 
times a day, to allay arterial action. On dogs it acts as on 
man : dose 3 to 5 gr. German horsedealers are said to give 
a plump appearance to diseased horses by mixing henbane 
seeds with their corn. 

Honey. Demulcent, emollient, and slightly laxative. Used 
in cough medicines, and to make up balls. Horses are fond 
of it. Externally, it is detergent, and is, perhaps, useful in 
defending ulcers from the air. 

Hops. Tonic and slightly anodyne, but chiefly used in fomen- 

HoREHOUND. Sometimes given in coughs ; a quart of the de- 
coction, or 1 oz. of the powder. 

Horseradish. Stimulant and diuretic. Said to be useful in 
dropsical complaints, and in recent epidemics, attended with 
chronic inflammation. The fresh root is rasped and mixed 
with bai'ley meal. 

Iodine. Alterative, and promotes absorption. Used exter- 
nally and internally to reduce glandular swellings, and 
scirrhous and other tumors. 5 gr. of iodine, or IJ or 2 dr. 
of the compound tincture, may be given twice a day in farcy. 
Cattle take from 5 to 10 gr., and from 1 to 2 dr. of the 
compound tincture. Dogs J to 1 gr. twice daily. The 
compound iodine ointment is used to disperse glandular 
enlargements. It is rapidly superseding cantharides. 

Iodide of Iron. Tonic and alterative, promoting the action 
of the absorbents. Dose, J dr. to 1 dr. 


Iodide of Potassium, or Hydeiodate of Potash. It pos- 
sesses the same properties as iodine, but irritates less. It is 
often combined with iodine, which it renders soluble in water. 
The dose, by itself, is rather larger than of iodine — from 15 
to 30 gr. twice a day; to cattle, 5 to 10 grains. 

Ipecacuanha. Little used in veterinary practice, except as 
.a sudorific, in combination with opium (Dover's powder). 
A drachm or two may be given to horses in asthmatic affec- 
tions. It purges sheep, purges or vomits the pig and dog. 
Dose for the latter, 4 to 20 gr. [From 2 to 30 gr. — 
MoiROUD.] 3 oz. killed a horse [Mr. B. Clarke]. 

Iron. The preparations of this metal are tonic ; some of 
them (as the sulphate and muriate) astringent and styptic. 
The usual doses for a horse are, 2 oz. of iron filings, once or 
twice a day, with corn, or in a mash ; 1 to 3 or 4 dr. of the 
sulphate ; 2 to 6 dr. of the sesquioxide or carbonate, or 
of rust of iron, or of the powdered scales ; 1 to 3 dr. of 
tartarized iron ; and ^ to IJ dr. of the iodide. Cattle, 2 to 
4 dr. of the sulphate in chronic diarrhoea. For sheep, a 
sixth or eighth of the above doses. [M. Moiroud pre- 
scribes much larger doses than the above.] The muriated 
tincture of iron is prescribed in doses of 2 or 3 dr. for in- 
continence of Tirine. The sulphate is sometimes used exter- 
nally in astringent lotions. 

Jalap. Purgative, but has little or no such effect on the 
horse or other herbivorous animals. It is sometimes added 
to other purgatives, but probably without any benefit. Dose 
for swine, ^ dr. to 2 dr. Dogs, 15 to 40 gr. Cats, 10 to 
20 gr. ; but it is rather uncertain. 

Jamaica Pepper. See Allspice. 

James's Powder. Similar to antimonial powder, but con- 
sidered more certain and uniform in its operation. Dose, 
20 to 30 gr. in fever and inflammatory complaints. It is 
also given to dogs as a remedy for distemper, 4 gr. twice a 

Jatropha Seeds. The seeds of the physic nut (J. curcas) 
are given as croton seeds, doubling the dose. 

Juniper Berries. Diuretic and slightly stimulant. Dose 
for a horse, 1 to 2 oz., or 1 to 2 dr. of the essential oil ; for 
cows, 2 or 3 oz. ; sheep, | to J oz. An extract from the 


berries (prepared by evaporating a clear decoction, or rather 
a cold infusion of the berries, to the consistence of treacle) 
is much used on the Continent as a vehicle for various 

Kermes Mineral. A preparation of antimony, similar to 
the precipitated sulphuret, not much used in this country, 
but highly esteemed in France. Dose for horses, 1, 2, or 3 
dr. For cattle, 4 dr. or more. For a good-sized dog, IJ 
gr. gradually increased. 

Lard. Half a pound, with warm water, is laxative and emol- 
lient. It is also used to make up balls, and is thought to 
prevent griping, as well as to preserve their consistence. It 
forms a common basis for ointments. 

Laudanum. Tincture of Opium. See Opium. 

Lavender. The compound spirit is carminative and cordial. 
Dose, J oz. in peppermint water. 

Lead. The preparations of this metal are poisonous. See 
Acetate of Lead, and Goulard's Extract of Lead. 

Lead, White and Red. Common ingredients in ointments 
and plasters. Also sprinkled on sores as desiccatives. 
They are likewise used for dusting sheep for the fly. 

Lime. Quicklime is sometimes used as a caustic ; the powder 
dusted over foul ulcers, greasy heels, &c. 

Lime- Water. Antacid and tonic. Sometimes given in dia- 
betes, from 2 to 4 quarts. Used also as a wash for sores, 
and as an injection into the nostrils in glanders and chronic 
discharges. Mixed with linseed oil, it forms a liniment for 

Lime, Chloride of. See Chloride of Lime. 

Linseed. Demulcent and pectoral. A decoction of the seeds 
is very mucilaginous, and is used for colds, sore throats, 
and internal inflammations ; also to counteract the effects of 
corrosive and irritant poisons, and as a vehicle for more 
active medicines. Lindseed meal is used for poultices. 
Linseed oil is laxative. Dose for a horse, a pint or a pint 
and a half; for cattle, 1 or 2 pints; sheep, 2 or 3 oz. 

Liquorice. Demulcent and pectoral, in coughs, &c. Dose, 
J oz. to 2 oz. of the powdered root; or | oz. of the foreign 
extract (Spanish or Italian juice). 


Liver of Sulphur. See Sulphuret of Potassium. 

Lobelia Inflata. It is poisonous to horses, and produces 
salivation in cattle ; but its remedial powers have not been 

Logwood. Astringent. 2 or 3 dr. of the extract, or a de- 
coction of 3 or 4 oz. of the wood, may be given in diar- 
rhoea, &c. 

Lotions. Washes. Liquid applications, with which external 
parts are bathed. 

Madder. Formerly supposed to be useful in glanders and 
farcy, and as a preventive of the effects of the bites of 
venomous reptiles ; but it is nearly discarded from modern 
practice. It is sometimes given to pigs, but with what 
specific intention it is difiicult to say. It colors the bones 
of animals fed with it. 

Magnesia. Antacid and laxative. From ^ oz. to 3 oz. to 
horses and cattle, with some warm carminative in flatulent 
distension. To calves in diarrhoea, J oz. Either the com- 
mon or the calcined magnesia may be used. 

Magnesia, Sulphate of. See Epsom Salt. 

Mallow. Demulcent. A handful of the leaves is boiled in 
a quart of water. More frequently used as a lavement. 
The root of the marshmallow is preferred ; a decoction of 
2 or 4 ounces is given as a drink in both coughs and internal 
inflammations, and used as a clyster, and as a fomentation. 

Malt. Nutritive, pectoral, and alterative. It is given, in the 
form of mashes, in chest affections, when no inflammation is 
present, and in grease, farcy, and mange. 

Manna. Slightly laxative and pectoral. Dose, 2 oz. with 
honey, or dissolved in water, in inflammatory disease and 
chronic coughs. 

Mashes. See Bran Mash, &c., in Y. Formulary. 

Mercury, or Quicksilver. The preparations of this metal 
are alterative, most of them purgative, and all apt to produce 
salivation. Dogs may be easily salivated, but graminivorous 
animals with greater difficulty. The editor of '' Clater's 
Cattle Doctor" says, "Mercury does not seem to agree with 
herbivorous animals, in any form or in any disease." The 
preparations in use are indicated below. 


Mercurial Ointment. Applied to callous swellings, en- 
larged joints, mange, scab in the sheep, &c. The weaker 
ointment is generally sufficient. 

Mercury with Chalk. Alkalized mercury. A mild pre- 
paration. Dose, from 1 to 3 dr., in farcy, glanders, &c. 

Mercury, Subchloride of. See Calomel. 

Mercury, Bichloride (or Chloride, B. P.). See Corrosive 

Mercury with Sulphur. Black Sulphuret of Mercury. 
See Ethiops Mineral. 

Mercury, Red Sulphuret of. See Cinnabar. 

Mercury, Nitric Oxide. See Red Precipitate. 

Mercury, Black Oxide. Dose, 1 to 2 dr. [Morton.] 

Mercury, Ammonio-Chloride. See White Precipitate. 

Mercury, Nitrated Ointment of. See Ointment, Citrine. 

Mercury, Acid Nitrate of. Used as a caustic. See Caus- 
tics, y. Formulary. 

Milk. Sometimes given in quantities of 1 to 3 quarts, in 
acute inflammations, coughs, and all internal irritations, 
especially those occasioned by acrid and corrosive poisons. 
It is a convenient vehicle for administering medicines to the 
dog or cat. 

MiNDERERUs' Spirit. See Acetate of Ammonia. 

Mint, and Peppermint. Carminative, cordial, and sudorific. 
A strong infusion of the plant, or the distilled water, may 
be given in flatulent colics. Dose, 1 or 2 pints ; used 
chiefly as vehicles for more active remedies. Dose of the 
oil of peppermint, 20 to 30 drops, or to 60 drops of oil of 
spearmint. A few drops of the oil are added to purgative 
medicines, to prevent griping. The other mints have similar 

Mithridate. Cordial and anodyne. ^ oz. to 1 oz. may be 
given in flatulent colic, but would be injurious in inflamma- 

Mullein. An infusion of the flowers is given as a demul- 
cent for the same purposes as linseed tea. A decoction 
of the leaves is used in emollient fomentations and cata- 


Muriatic (or Hydrochloric) Acid. Spirit of Salt. Tonic 
and antiseptic ; but principally used to dissolve calcareous 
concretions in the bladder. It lias been used in the pestilent 
epidemics of cattle. Dose, for a horse, 1^ to 2 or 3 dr. in 
plenty of water, twice a day. Externally as a caustic, 
strongly recommended by Youatt. 

Muriate of Ammonia. Sal Ammoniac. Formerly used in 
influenza or epidemic catarrh. It is said also to have proved 
useful in farcy, and perhaps deserves trial in other chronic 
diseases. It renders the blood more fluid. Its use requires 
■caution. 2 oz. produced inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane of a horse ; 2 dr. killed a dog, and \ dr. a rabbit. 
M. MoiROUD states the dose to be from 2 to 8 dr. for horses 
and cattle, and for small animals from a scruple to a drachm, 
largely diluted. Externally it is a frequent ingredient in 
discutient lotions to splints, old strains, bruises, indolent 
tumors, &c., in horses and cattle. It is also employed as an 
embrocation to sore teats. 

Muriate of Antimony. See Antimony, butter of. 

Muriate of Barytes. Poisonous ; in small doses, alterative. 
It has been tried in glanders and farcy, with the usual ill 
success. Dose, J dr. in milk. 

Muriate of Copper. Used externally only as a mild caustic. 

Muriate of Lime. Chloride of Calcium. Alterative and 
resolvent in glandular diseases ; but rarely used in veterinary 
practice. It has been proposed in glanders and farcy. In 
an overdose it is poisonous. We have not met with any 
specific statement of doses. 3| dr. killed a dog. 

Muriate OF Soda. Chloride of Sodium. See Salt, common. 

Mustard. Stimulant ; but little used as an internal remedy. 
Flour of Mustard, with or without vinegar, is applied 
externally as a rubefacient, to relieve internal inflamma- 

Myrrh. Tonic, expectorant, antiseptic, and balsamic. From 
1 to' 3 dr. to a horse, in chronic cough. To cattle, 2 to 4 
dr. or more. The tincture is used for ulcers of the mouth 
in all animals, and to indolent sores. 

Naphtha. Rectified wood naphtha is used instead of spirit of 
wine, for making tincture of myrrh and aloes. This spirit 


may be givep also in 2 oz. doses internally, forming an 
admirable stimulant and diaphoretic. 

Naphthaline. A stimulating expectorant. It possesses 
many of the properties of camphor, and a solution of it in 
spirits may be substituted for camphorated spirit, and with 
oils, &c., for liniments and ointments. The ointment is sub- 
stituted for tar ointment. 

Narcotics. Medicines which induce stupor or sleep, and ease 

Nauseants. Medicines which produce nausea, diminish arte- 
rial action, and thus abate inflammation. 

Nettle Seed. It is said to be given with the horse's corn, 
to give a smooth coat, and an appearance of condition and 

Nitee. Nitre of Potash. Cooling and diuretic. In colds, 
fevers, and inflammatory complaints of the horse, from 2 to 
4 dr. may be given daily, in plenty of water, or linseed tea, 
till the desired efi"ect is produced. An ounce is often given, 
but smaller doses repeated are better. Cattle, 2 to 4 dr. 
[1 oz. in 24 hours for some days. — Moiroud.] Swine and 
sheep, 30 to 40 gr. ; dogs, 4 to 10 gr. A strong solution is 
applied to gangrenous wounds. 

Nitric Acid, Nitrous Acid, or Aquafortis. Used exter- 
nally only, as a strong caustic ; or largely diluted (2 dr. to a 
pint of water) as an antiseptic wash to foul ulcers. 

Nitrate of Silver. Lunca^ Caustic. Tonic ; but rarely 
given to animals, except to dogs in cholera, in doses of 
|- to J of a gr. Externally caustic. It is the best caustic 
that can be applied to the bites of rabid animals. A weak 
solution (10 gr. to 1 oz. rain-water) is used to excite slug- 
gish w^ounds, and to remove opacity from the cornea of the 

Nux Vomica. Poisonous to all animals. Given in doses of 
8 to 10 gr., gradually increased to 30 gr,, in paralysis of the 
horse ; but its efi"ect requires to be carefully watched. It 
has been tried in glanders and farcy, but without much suc- 
cess. In small doses it invigorates the digestive functions. 
A few grains will destroy a dog. A drachm has killed a 
horse. See Strychnine. 

Nutgalls. See Gall-nuts. 


Nutmegs. Stimulant and perhaps narcotic. Sometimes given 
in colic, but not much in use. 

Oak Bark. Astringent and tonic. Dose, ^ oz. to 2 oz. in 
powder, or boiled in water, for diarrhoea, diabetes, and 
debility in horses. To cattle, in dysentery, and in red- 
water (after purgatives), ^ oz. to 1 oz. The powdered bark 
and the decoction are applied to unhealthy wounds, &c. In 
France, a mixture of oak bark, gentian, and chamomile, is 
used as a substitute for Peruvian bark. 

Oil, Fish. Common whale oil is a good preventive of the fly, 
• and does not injure the wool. 

Oil of Spike. As sold for veterinary purposes, it consists of 
turpentine, colored, and merely scented with foreign oil of 
lavender. It is used in warm liniments. 

Oil oe Turpentine. See Turpentine. 

Oil of Tar. See Tar. 

Oils, Expressed. Olive, almond, and linseed oils are laxa- 
tive, demulcent, and emollient. Dose, 3 to 16 oz., or a 
pint. In the latter dose they are given (especially linseed 
oil) as a substitute for castor oil: they are harmless, but 
rather uncertain in their operation. (See Castor Oil.) 
They are useful in poisoning by acrid and- corrosive 
poisons. Olive oil is used, both inwardly and outwardly, 
as a remedy for the bites of reptiles and stings of insects. 
Externally they are used in liniments and ointments. Oil 
of bays is gently stimulant and antispasmodic, but chiefly 
used outwardly. 

Oils, Essential or Volatile, The essential oil of pepper- 
mint, cloves, aniseed, caraway, &c., possess in a concentra- 
ted state the carminative properties of the drugs from which 
they are distilled. They are frequently added to purgative 
medicines to prevent griping. Oil of Juniper is diuretic, 
in doses of 1 to 3 dr. Oil of origanum is almost exclusively 
used outwardly in stimulating liniments. Oil of bitter 
almonds is poisonous. 

Oils, Empyreumatic. Oil of amber and other empyreumatic 
oils are antispasmodic ; but mostly used in outward appli- 
cations. The fetid oil, called Dippel's Animal Oil (or oil 
of hartshorn), is sometimes given as a worm medicine, 
in doses of 1 oz. (sometimes increased to 2 oz.) to horses, 
or a drachm to small animals. As an outward application, 


it is sometimes added to powders against the fly in sheep ; 
but injures the wool. Oil of paper or rag is an empy- 
reumatic fluid obtained by burning the substances. Mixed 
with water it is used in inflammation of the eyes, mouth, 

Oils, Compound. See Oils and Liniments in the Veterinary 

Ointments. See V. Formulary. 

Olive Oil. See Oils, expressed. 

Onions. Stimulant and diuretic. They are said to be useful 
in colic and gripes. Externally used in poultices to promote 

Opium. Anodyne, antispasmodic, sedative, indirectly astrin- 
gent, and in large doses narcotic or stupefactive, and 
capable of destroying life. In combination with ipecacu- 
anha and tartarized antimony it is sudorific. The dose for 
horses in ordinary cases is from ^ dr. to 1 dr. But in lock- 
jaw, spasmodic colic, and other urgent cases, it may safely 
be given in doses of 2 dr., and even (according to Moiroud) 
to 4 dr. YoUATT states the dose as 1 dr. to 3 dr. In 
inflammation of the bowels, after bleeding, it is recommended 
to give 2 dr. at once, and 1 dr. every hour afterwards until 
it takes effect. To cattle, the dose is from 10 to 40 gr. ; or 
in lockjaw, &c., 1 dr. Calves, 10 gr. Sheep, 2 to 4 gr. 
Much larger doses have been given with impunity. Dogs 
require from J gr. to 2 gr., according to size and case. M. 
Moiroud says the dose for dogs should not exceed that pre- 
scribed for man. Mr. Blaine thinks they are much less 
affected by it than men. The dose of tincture of opium is (for 
horses) from 1 to 2 oz.; of the extract 20 to 30 gr. Ex- 
ternally, opium is used in anodyne liniments, and is useful 
in inflammation of the eye. See Eye-waters, Liniments, &c., 
in Veterinary Formulary. 

Opodeldoc. Soap liniment. Used externally only, in stimu- 
lating liniments. 

OriganUxM. Wild Marjoram. Stimulant. The essential oil is 
hot and pungent, and a frequent ingredient in liniments for 
old strains, and in blisters. 

Orpiment. Yellow Arsenic. Poisonous. Used, mixed with 


lard, for fistulous sores, warts, &c., but is not free from 

OxYMEL. Cooling and pectoral. Used in catarrhal affections. 
Dose, 3 to 4 oz. 

OxYMEL OF Squills. A stimulating expectorant. Seldom 
used in veterinary practice. 

Palm Oil. Emollient. Used in compounding ointments and 
liniments ; and of late much commended as a basis of aloetic 
, and other balls. It has also been given as a laxative; dose, 
12 oz. or more. 

Peppermint. Carminative. The distilled water and the essen- 
tial oil are chiefly used. See Mint. 

Pepper, Black, White, and Long. Warm stimulant cordials. 
The latter kind is chiefly used in veterinary practice. It 
must be carefully avoided in inflammatory complaints. Dose 
for horses and cattle, 2 to 4 dr. For Jamaica Pepper, see 

Pepper, Cayenne. The ground pods of some species of 
capsicum. See Capsicum. 

Periwinkle. The plant, in decoction, or chopped up in a 
mash, is said to relieve quinsy. Pulverized and mixed with 
Ethiops Mineral, it has been vaunted as a remedy for 

Peruvian Bark. See Bark. 

Petroleum. See Barbadoes Tar. 

Pewter. The scrapings are given to dogs for worms. Dose, 
^ dr. to 1 dr. Tin filings are safer. See Tin. 

Phellandrium. The seeds of water-fennel (Ph. aquaticum) 
are used in Germany in chronic catarrhal affections. Dose, 
J oz. to 1 oz. 

Physic. In veterinary practice this term is applied to 
purgatives. See Physic or Purging Balls, Veterinary 

Pimento. See Allspice. 

Pitch. Stimulant, balsamic, probably diuretic ; but rarely 
given internally. It is more frequently used externally in 
charges and warm plasters. For liquid pitch, see Tar. 


Pitch, Burgundy. Stimulant. Used in charges, and warm 
and strengthening plasters. 

Pomegranate. The rind of the fruit is given (in decoction or 
powder) as an astringent to cattle in diarrhoea. Dose, from 
J oz. to 1 oz. The bark of the root is used to destroy 
worms. MoiROUD directs 5 or 6 oz. to be boiled in water 
for some hours, and the decoction given in divided doses. 

Poppy-Heads. Anodyne ; but principally used in fomenta- 
tions. (See also Syrup of Poppies.) An extract prepared 
by evaporating the expressed juice of the ripe capsules and 
tops, is said to be nearly half the strength of opium. Of the 
ordinary extract (from the decoction), 5 grs. are said to 
equal 2 of opium. — Lebas. 

Potash, Caustic. Fused Hydrate of Potash. A powerful 

Potash, Subcarbonate. Salt of Tartar or Prepared Kali. 
Antacid and diuretic. Dose for a horse, from 2 to 4 dr. 
or more. It is seldom given alone, but sometimes joined 
with tonics, stomachics, purgatives, and with other diu- 
retics. The bicarbonate is milder, and may be given in 
larger doses. 

Poultices. Are useful in relieving inflammation and pain. 
See V. Formulary. 

Precipitate, Red. A mild caustic, and detergent to indolent 
and foul ulcers. 

Precipitate, White. Principally used to destroy vermin in 
the horse and other animals. 

Prussiate of Potash. Ferro-prussiate of potash may proba- 
bly be found useful in veterinary practice ; but its properties 
and uses are not yet properly ascertained. It must not be 
confounded with the simple prussiate of potash (cyanide of 
potassium), which is an energetic poison. See Cyanide of 

Prussic Acid (Medicinal). A strong poison to all animals. 
Rarely used in veterinary practice. May be given by enema 
in tetanus. The dose Mr. Morton states to be from J dr. 
to 1 dr. Mr. Youatt recommends a lotion composed of a 
drachm of the medicinal acid in a pint of water, to allay 
cuticular irritation in dogs. 


Pulse. The following table, from Vatel, is inserted as a 
useful remembrancer to the practitioner : 

Table of the Number of Pulsations in a Minute in various 
Animals. — In the horse, 32 to 38 [36 to 40 — White] ; ox or 
cow, 35 to 42 [42 to 45 — Clater; 50 to 55 — Spooner] ; ass, 
48 to 54 ; sheep, 70 to 79 ; goat, 72 to 7(5 ; dog, 90 to 100 ; 
cat, 110 to 120 : rabbit, 120 ; guinea-pig, 140 ; duck, 136 ; 
hen, 140 ; heron,' 200. 

Purgatives, Cathartics or Laxatives. Medicines which more 
, or less strictly promote evacuations from the bowels. Aloes 
is almost the only purgative for the horse that is at once 
certain and safe. For cattle, Epsom or Glauber's salt is 
the most preferable. Aloes, gamboge, or linseed or castor 
oil, is sometimes combined with them. Sulphur is used 
when a very strong purgative is not required ; yet this de- 
mands some caution. See those various articles. 

Quassia. A tonic bitter. Dose, 1 or 2 dr., with a little 
ginger, in debility of the stomach. Its poisonous effects on 
insects and small animals suggest caution in its use. 

Quicksilver. See Mercury. 

Quinine, Sulphate of. Tonic. Dose, J dr. to 1 dr. Kec- 
ommended by Mr. MoRTOiSr in the prostration which follows 
influenza. But too expensive for general use. It is given 
to dogs in chorea, in doses of 2 to 5 gr. 

Ragwort. The herb is said to produce a kind of lethargy or 
staggers in horses and cattle. Externally it is used as a 
poultice in quinsy. 

Raking. Removing hardened faeces from the lower bowel by 
the hand. 

Ranunculus repens. Acrid stimulant. It is poisonous to 

Reed. The great reed (Arundo donax), and the Bankside 
reed (Arundo phragmitis), are reputed diuretic. The former 
is supposed to have the property of diminishing the secretion 
of the milk. 

Refrigerants. Cooling Medicines. See Temperants. 

Resin or- Rosin. Diuretic. J oz. to 1 oz. may be given 
daily to horses in their corn, for swelled legs. The yellow 
or amber resin is preferable. Externally it is adhesive and 


gently stimulating ; and is a common ingredient in digestive 
• ointments, and in plasters and charges. 

Rhododendron. Supposed to be useful in the rheumatism of 
cattle. Dose, ^ oz. to 1 oz., boiled in water. 

Rhubarb. Tonic and stomachic. Scarcely laxative to large 
animals. From J oz. to 1 oz. is given in jaundice, to horses 
and cattle. On dogs it acts as a purgative, but an uncertain 
one, in doses of ^ dr. to 1 dr. 

Rosemary. A mild stimulant and carminative. The essen- 
tial oil is chiefly used in warm liniments and ointments; 
but is sometimes given in doses of ^ dr. to 1 or 2 dr. in 

Rue, Stimulant, uterine, antispasmodic, and vermifuge. It 
is also supposed to resist contagion and poisons. A decoc- 
tion or infusion of 2 to 4 oz. of the fresh herb in water or 
beer is given for worms ; as an antidote to the bite of vipers ; 
with diuretics in farcy ; with box leaves as a preventive of 
hydrophobia ; and with camphor and opium in locked-jaw. 
The bruised leaves are put into horses' ears for the staggers. 
It is given to poultry for the cure of roup. Externally rue 
is used in fomentations as a stimulant, antiseptic, and discu- 

Saffron. Cordial, antispasmodic, and uterine ; but too weak 
and expensive for veterinary use. 

Sage. Stimulant and tonic. In habitual relaxation of the 
bowels. The powder may be given in a ball, or the herb 
infused. The infusion is used as a mouth-wash. 

Sago. Nutritive and demulcent. Used in the form of 

St. John's Wort. Vulnerary. The flowers were formerly 
an ingredient in Fryar's Balsam and other similar com- 
pounds. An infused oil of the plant is sometimes used in 

Sal Ammoniac. See Muriate of Ammonia. 

Sal Prunella. Fused Nitre. Its uses and doses are the 
same as nitre. 

Salicine. Tonic. Dose, 10 to 30 gr. 

Salt, Common, or Culinary. In small doses it is tonic, 
digestive, and alterative ; in large doses purgative and ver- 



mifuge. As a digestive, 1 oz. may be sprinkled on the 
horse's corn. As a purgative, or to expel worms, the dose 
may be from 4 to 6 oz. It is also a common ingredient in 
laxative clysters. For cattle, an ounce or more may be 
sprinkled on the hay, to assist digestion ; as a purgative, 4 
to 8 oz. may be given, but it is not suitable in inflammatory 
or febrile diseases. Sheep require 2 oz. as a purgative ; or 
smaller doses daily as a preventive of the rot. To dogs a 
teaspoonful or one and a half will act as an emetic ; smaller 
doses as a vermifuge. Half a teaspoonful of a solution of 
- salt, as strong as it can be made, is given to poultry as an 
emetic in roup. Externally, salt dissolved in water is used 
as a discutient, as a stimulant to old strains, and as a colly- 
rium in chronic ophthalmy. 

Salts, Epsom and Glauber's. See Epsom Salts, and Gi-lau- 
ber's Salts. 

Sarsaparilla, and China Root, are diaphoretic and altera- 
tive ; but seldom used in veterinary practice. 

Savin. An acrid stimulant. The powder is given in doses of 
1 to 2 dr. (with or followed by aloes) for worms, but its 
efficacy is doubtful. Long-continued use of savin is reported 
to have occasioned the hair to fall off". Externally it is ap- 
plied, in powder or ointment, to warts. 

ScAMMONY. An uncertain as well as expensive purgative, far 
inferior to aloes. 

Scutellaria. Skull-cap. Mr. Youatt and others regard 
this plant as a preventive of hydrophobia. Dose, 40 gr. 
daily, gradually increased. 

Sea Water. Laxative. Dose, 2 or 3 pints. 

Sedatives. Medicines which produce quiet and relieve pain. 

Senna. Purgative ; but rarely used in veterinary practice. 5 
or 6 ounces aie required to purge a horse. 

Serpentary. Stimulant, tonic, diaphoretic, and antiseptic. 
It is also supposed to resist the effects of the bites of ser- 
pents, &c. Dose, from J to 1 oz. or more; but rarely 

Setons. These consist of cord, tape, or a mixture of horse- 
hair and hemp twisted together ; they are inserted through 


a portion of the skin to excite irritation and discharge. Mr. 
Morton uses cotton cord soaked in a cantharidal liquid. 
See No. 15, Blistering Solutions, V. F. 

SiMARUBA. Tonic and stomachic, for the same purposes as 
gentian. Seldom used. 

Soap. Antacid and diuretic. Dose ^ oz. to 2 oz. 

Soda. Prepared natron, carbonate, or subcarbonate of soda. 
The common washing soda is generally sufficiently pure. 
Antacid and diuretic. Dose, 2 to 4 dr. It is sometimes 
added to aloes as a corrective, and to tonics in weakness of 
the stomach. The bicarbonate of soda is milder, and may 
be given in larger doses. 

Soda, Chloride of. See Chloride of Soda. 

Soda, Sulphate of. See Glauber's Salts. 

Sodium, Chloride of. The modern name of common salt. 
See Salt, Common. 

Soot. Some French veterinarians prescribe from 2 to 3 oz. 
of soot as a vermifuge. Also used externally in mange, &c. 
We presume wood-soot is intended. 

Spermaceti. Demulcent and pectoral. Dose, J oz. to horses 
in cough ; and to cows, after calving. Externally emollient, 
in ointments. 

Spider's Web. Externally, styptic. Internally has been 
given to dogs in convulsive fits, in |^-grain doses. 

Spirit of Hartshorn. This ammoniacal liquor is stimu- 
lant, antacid, and antispasmodic. Dose, ^ oz. But more 
frequently used in stimulating liniments, and as an appli- 
cation to the bites and stings of venomous reptiles and 

Spirits of Sal Volatile. This also owes its pungency to 
ammonia. Dose, | oz. 

Spirits, Ardent. Brandy, gin, and rum are given as stimu- 
lants and antispasmodics, especially in colic. Dose, from 2 
to 4 or 5 oz. with warm water, Rectified spirits of wine 
may be given in the same way, in smaller doses (1 to 2 oz.) ; 
but is more commonly employed for making tinctures ; and 
externally in lotions. 

Spirit of Mindererus. See Acetate of Ammonia. 


Spirit of Nitre, Sweet. Spirit of Nitric JEther. Diu- 
retic, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose for horses, in 
fever, ^ oz. 3 times a day. In colic, from '^ oz. to 2 oz. 
Cattle, ^ oz. to 1 oz. in low fevers. Sheep, 1 dr. Dog, 
from 10 to 20 drops. 

Squill. A stimulating expectorant. Dose for a horse, 1 dr. ; 
for cattle, IJ to 2 dr. It is-also applied in frictions to the 
abdomen. Moiroud has seen it remove ascites. 

Starch. Demulcent. Chiefly used in clysters, but sometimes 
also in drinks. Dose, 1 to 2 oz., rubbed smooth with a little 
cold water, and then boiled in 3 or 4 pints of water. It is 
occasionally used in fomentations. 

Stavesacre Seeds. Poisonous. 2 dr. will destroy a horse. 
Only used outwardly to destroy vermin, either powdered and 
mixed with grease, or infused in vinegar. 

Steel, Salt of. See Iron, Sulphate of. For the other prep- 
arations (so called) of steel, see Iron. 

Stimulants. See Excitants. Diffusible stimulants are those 
which produce a sudden and temporary excitement of the 
circulation and of the nervous system. 

Stomachics. Medicines which invigorate the stomach and 
promote digestion. 

Stoppings. Compositions employed to keep the feet moist 
and supple. The term is also applied to mechanical plugs 
for the feet when they are dry and diseased, as cow-dung, 
clay, tar, &c. 

Storax. Balsamic and expectorant. Dose, \ oz. But rarely 

Strychnia. The active principle of nux vomica: chiefly used 
in paralysis. Dose, 1 to 3 grains ; to be very cautiously 
increased if necessary , 15 grains have proved fatal. Dose 
for the dog, l-16th to l-8th of a grain. 

Styptics. Astringent applications employed locally to stop 

Sublimate, Corrosive. Bichloride of Mercury. See Corro- 
sive Sublimate. 

Sugar, Syrup, and Treacle. These are used to sweeten 

drinks ; and to give form to balls and other compounds. 
Sugar of Lead. See Lead. Acetate of. 


Sulphate of Copper. Blue Sto7ie. See Copper, Sulphate of. 

Sulphate of Iron. See Iron, Sulphate of. 

Sulphate of Magnesia. See Epsom Salts. 

Sulphate of Potash. Purgative ; but seldom used. Dose, 
2 to 4 ounces, in colic, &c. 

Sulphate of Quinine. Tonic. Dose, | dr. to 1 dr. 

Sulphate of Soda. See Glauber's Salt. 

Sulphate of Zinc. White Vitriol. See Zinc, Sulphate of. 

Sulphur, or Brimstone. It is in 3 forms — roll brimstone, 
flowers of sulphur, and black brimstone or sulphur vivum. 
The flowers are generally used. The black is very impure, 
and sometimes contains arsenic. Sulphur is laxative, altera- 
tive, and pectoral. Dose, to horses, as an alterative in 
skin diseases, grease, want of condition, &c., 1 oz. As a 
laxative, 4 or 5 oz., but it is rarely employed with this view, 
and very large doses are not always safe. To cattle, as a 
laxative, 6 or 8 oz. Sheep, 2 or 3 oz. Dogs, 1 dr. in milk. 
Swine, 2 dr. It is used outwardly in ointments, for mange 
in all animals. As an alterative it is usually combined 
with antimonials and nitre. 

Sulphuret of Iron. It has been used in hemorrhage, 
dysentery, and worms. The hydrated persulphuret (see 
Ferri persulphuretum hydratum. Pocket Formulary) is 
strongly recommended by Bouchardat as an antidote for 
metallic poisons ; also as a remedy for incipient farcy. Dose, 
1| oz. to 8 oz. 

Sulphuret of Mercury. See Ethiops Mineral, and Cin- 

Sulphuret of Potash. Mr. Blaine prescribes 2 dr. with 
astringents, in diabetes. In large doses it is poisonous. 

Sulphuric Acid. Poisonous. The strong acid [oil of viti^iol) 
is used as a powerful caustic. It is also used in ointments, 
or mixed with tar to form an external application. In small 
doses, about 1 to 2 dr., plentifully diluted, it is, rarely, 
given as a tonic. The diluted acid (1 oz. to a pint) is used 
as a lotion in grease, foul ulcers, &c. 

Supertartrate (Bitartrate) of Potash. See~ Cream of 

Syrup of Buckthorn. Purgative. Seldom given to horses. 


except when used in forming powders into balls. Dose for 
cattle, 2 to 4 oz. with castor oil. A common physic for 
dogs ; dose 2 to 4 dr. 

Syrup of Poppies. A mild anodyne and sedative. Dose for 
dogs, 1 dr. Seldom given to large animals. 

Tannin (or Tannic Acid). The astringent principle of nut- 
galls. A powerful astringent in diarrhoea, &c. Dose, 5 to 
10 gr. Catechu is more generally used. 

Tansy. Tonic and vermifuge. Externally in fomentations. 

Tar, Barbadoes. See Petroleum. 

Tar. Internally, in old coughs, from 2 to 4 dr. Externally 
it is cleansing and gently stimulating. It is particularly 
useful in thrushes and all diseases and wounds of the feet 
both of horses and cattle, to punctured wounds, and for the 
cure of mange and other skin diseases. Mixed with fish 
oil, it is applied Avith a brush to hard, brittle feet. Tar 
water (see Formulary) is also given in chronic coughs. Oil 
or spirit of tar is used in mange ointments, and as a dressing 
for sheep. The latter requires some caution : sheep have 
been killed by it. 

Tartar Emetic. See Antimony, Tartarized. 

Tea. Tonic, in simple indigestion, or when connected with 
staggers [Delafond]. Dose, 4 to 6 dr., infused in 3 or 4 
pints of water. 

Tempbrants. Medicines which moderate the circulation and 
reduce animal heat. 

Tin. Vermifuge. A drachm of the filings daily to dogs. A 
horse requires from 1 to 3 oz. 

Tobacco. An acro-narcotic poison. In small doses, diuretic 
and emetic. Principally used as a wash for the mange, and 
to destroy lice and fly in sheep. But it is not aftogether 
safe, as it is apt to be absorbed. It vomits the dog, pig, 
and cat : but there are safer emetics. Herbivorous animals 
are less rapidly aifected by it, but instances of its having 
proved fatal to them are recorded. In some parts of France, 
jockeys are said to stupefy vicious horses for sale by tobacco 
diiFused in spirits. 

Tonics. Medicines which give tone to the fibres, and in- 
vigorate the system when relaxed and debilitated. The 
principal tonics used in veterinary medicines are gentian. 


Peruvian bark, chamomile, and other vegetable bitters and 
astringents ; and the preparations of iron, copper, arsenic, 
zinc, &c. The over free use of them, particularly when 
fever and inflammation are present, is a frequent source of 

ToEMENTiL Root. Astringent. Dose, 1 oz. to 1| oz. Its 
presence in pastures is supposed to prevent the rot in 

TuRBiTH Mineral. Suhsulphate of Mercury. An irritating 
purgative, and in large doses,, poisonous. Dose, J dr. 
in farcy. Griven to dogs as an emetic ; dose, 1 gr. to 
3 gr. 

Turmeric. A weak aromatic stimulant. Supposed to be use- 
ful in jaundice, or yellows. Dose, 1 oz. 

Turpentines. They are all stimulant, diuretic, and expec- 
torant ; and in larger doses, vermifuge and purgative. Dose 
of common turpentine, ^ oz. to 1 oz. They are used in 
digestive ointments. Oil or spirit of turpentine is a more 
stimulating diuretic, in doses of 2 to 4 dr. ; it is also con- 
sidered efficacious as an antispasmodic in colic (gripes), and 
as a remedy for worms. Dose for the latter purposes, 
from 2 to 4 oz., or sometimes still larger doses for worms. 
To cattle (in hoose from worms in the bronchial passages) 
about 2 oz. To sheep, in rot, 1 dr. It is not a safe medi- 
cine for dogs ; but is sometimes given in doses of 2 dr. 
with olive oil. Externally, it is used in stimulating lini- 
ments, embrocations, ointments, &c. It is very irritating 
to the skin of the horse, and also of the dog, instantly 
producing great excitement. Like the common and Venice 
turpentine, it enters into the composition of some digestive 

UvA Ursi. Bearherry. Astringent. Dose, 4 to 6 dr., in 
diabetes. But Girardi says it inflames the stomach. 

Valerian. A stimulant, acting chiefly on the nervous sys- 
tem. Dose, for horses and cattle, 1 to 4 oz. in powder. 2 
oz. twice a day have been given to a horse without any 
observable efi'ect. In dogs it is said to act as a vermifuge. 
Dose, 1 to 4 dr. 

Verdigris. Subacetate [or Uiacetate) of Oopper. Tonic, 
caustic, poisonous. It has been given in doses of 1 dr. to 
2 dr. daily, in farcy and glanders. Externally, detergent 


and caustic, in ointments, and in the form of ^gyptiacum. 
The crystallized acetate of copper is more powerful in its 

Verjuice. Properties and uses the same as of vinegar ; but 
preferred by some for outward use. 

Vermilion. See Cinnabar. 

Vinegar. Diaphoretic, cooling, and antiseptic. In com- 
bination with honey, it is used in coughs. In large quanti- 
ties, it irritates the stomach ; a pint is said to have destroyed 
a horse. It should always be plentifully diluted. Vinegar 
which contains much sulphuric acid should be avoided. 
It is chiefly used as an external application, as a lotion 
for strains, bruises, sprains, and inflammations ; and hot 
as a revulsive. The vapors are thought to possess disinfect- 
ing properties, but are less eff'ectual than chlorine. 

Vitriolated Zinc. White Vitriol. See Zinc, Sulphate of. 

Vitriol, Blue. See Sulphate of Copper. 

Walnut. The green shells are astringent, and sometimes 
applied, bruised, as a cataplasm, or in decoction as a lotion. 

Water. Besides its use as a drink, and as a vehicle for 
medicines, water is used remedially, on the hydropathic 
system. Bugs wetted with cold water, and well covered 
with dry ones, are used to produce perspiration, assisting 
their operation by copious draughts of cold water, adding 
4 oz. of sweet spirit of nitre to each pailful. This treat- 
ment is said to have succeeded in epidemics of pleuropneu- 

Wax. Chiefly used in making cerates, plasters, charges, &c. 

Whey. A cooling and nutritive drink in inflammatory dis- 
eases, and during convalescence from them. 

Willow Bark. Possesses in some degree the same proper- 
ties as Peruvian bark. Dose, in powder or decoction, 1 to 
4 oz. 

Wine. Stimulant. In wine countries it is frequently given 
as a restorative. Port wine has been given as an astringent 
in obstinate diarrhoeas. Dose for horses and cattle, J pint 
tg a bottle. 

Winter Bark. A warm tonic and stomachic. Dose, 2 to 
6 dr. 


Wolfsbane. Aconite. A virulent poison. 

Wormwood. A bitter tonic and vermifuge. An infusion 
from 2 to 4 oz. of the dry, or twice as much of tlie fresh 
herb, may be given in dropsy, and diseases of general 
debility ; or from 2 to 4 dr. of the powder may be given in a 
ball. A few drops of the essential oil are often added to 
aloes, &c., for worms. 

Wort. See Malt. 

Yew. It is not used medicinally. The leaves are poisonous 
to horses and cattle, producing symptoms which resemble 
those of apoplexy. To counteract its effect, it is recom- 
mended to give 10 gr. of croton meal, and afterwards 
drenches of gruel with vinegar. The croton to be repeated 
in 6 hours if it has not operated. 

Zedoary. a weak aromatic stimulant, formerly prescribed 
in jaundice, but now rarely employed. It is weaker than 

Zinc, Chloride op. In solution this constitutes Sir W. Bur- 
nett's disinfecting fluid. Much diluted it is applied as a 
detergent lotion of foul ulcers. The dry salt is a powerful 

Zinc, Oxide of. Flowers of Zinc. A mild astringent and 
tonic ; dose, \ oz. ; but chiefly used in dusting ulcers and 
excoriations, to promote skinning. 

Zinc, Sulphate of. Wldte Vitrol. Tonic. Dose, for the 
horse, 1 to 4 dr. frequently combined with cantharides. 
Externally, astringent, detersive, styptic, and healing ; in 
lotions and ointments, to indolent ulcers, grease, &c. It 
is a frequent ingredient in eye-waters, — about 3 gr. to an 
ounce of water. A saturated solution is used as an injec- 
tion for quitters. 


Witm tax 3axm. 


The roots, seeds, and other dry substances are to be reduced 
to powder ; and it is of importance that the aromatic seeds, 
especially, should have been recently powdered. The drugs 
should be of good quality. It is hoped that the trash sold 
as horse-powders will not much longer be known in estab- 
lishments which have any pretension to respectability. 
After this general notice it will be unnecessary to occupy 
the space by repeating the words "powdered," "freshly 
powdered," "genuine," &c. Balls should not be too hard, 
but merely stiff enough to retain their form, and should be 
wrapped in soft paper. 

l_Mode of administering Balls. — The horse should be backed 
into the stall, the tongue drawn gently out with the left 
hand on the off side of the mouth, and then fixed by press- 
ing the fingers against the side of the lower jaw. The ball 
being now taken between the tips of the fingers of the right 
hand, must be passed rapidly up the mouth, as near the 
palate as possible, until it reach the root of the tongue ; it 
must then be delivered with a slight jerk, so that the hand 
being immediately withdrawn, and the tongue liberated, the 
ball may be forced through the pharynx into the oesopha- 
gus. A slight tap under the chin may then be given, or a 
draught of water to assist in carrying it down.] 

COMMON MASS, as a basis for balls in general.' Mix with 
the hand equal weights of linseed meal and treacle, and add 
a little palm oil. — Cherry. 


ALTERATIVE BALLS. The term alterative is applied to 
medicines which, without any sensible operation, or with a 
laxative or diuretic operation so gradual as not to interfere 
with the usual work or diet, produce a favorable change in 
the system, and, in common language, "purify the blood." 
Alterative balls are given in skin diseases, swelled legs, 
grease, foul humors, &c. ; usually 1 daily, or every other 

Diuretic Alterative Balls. 1. Dried common sodal oz., Castile 
soap 6 dr., resin 2 oz., liquorice powder ^ oz., Barbadoes tar 
to form 6 balls ; 1 daily. — White, 

2. Acetate of potash J oz., resin ^ oz., fenugreek 1 oz., 
treacle enough to form a mass for two balls ; 1 daily. 

Laxative Alterative Balls. 1. Aloes 4 oz., soft soap 4 oz., 
common mass 24 oz. ; mix ; dose, 1 oz. — V. C. 

2. Socotrine aloes 8 oz., soft soap 8 oz., common mass 16 
oz. ; mix ; dose, 1 oz. — V. C. 

3. Aloes 10 dr., soap 12 dr., caraways 12 dr., ginger, 4 
dr., treacle q. s. for 4 balls ; 1 daily. — White. 

4. Aloes 1 dr., diuretic mass (No. 1 or 3) 9 dr. 

5. Antimonial powder 1 dr., aloes 1 or 2 dr., diuretic 
mass (No. 1 or 3) 1 oz. 

Antimonial or Biaplioretic Alterative Balls. 1. Levigated 
antimony 2 or 4 dr., caraway seeds 4 dr., treacle q. s. to 
form a ball. — White. 

.2. Prepared antimony 2 dr., nitre 3 dr., sulphur 2 dr., 
linseed meal 2 dr., palm oil to form a mass; one every night 
in megrims. — Clater. 

3. Tartarized antimony 2 dr., elecampane 2 oz., guaia- 
cum 6 dr., sulphur 1 oz., treacle and flour to form 6 balls ; 
1 daily. 

4. Tartarized antimony 3 dr., ginger a scruple, soap 1 oz. 
Por 3 balls ; one every other morning. — Vines. 

5. Emetic tartar 5 oz., ginger 3 oz., opium 1 oz., and syrup 
to make 16 balls. 

Mercurial Alterative Balls. 1. Ethiops mineral 4 oz., sulphur, 
prepared antimony, cream of tartar, cinnabar, of each 5 oz., 
honey to form a mass for 12 balls ; 1 every morning for a 
month in farcy. — Taplin. 

2. Calomel | dr., aloes 1 dr., Castile soap 2 dr., oil of 
juniper 30 drops, syrup to form a ball — White. 


3. Blue pill 1 dr., black antimony 2 dr., diuretic mass 4 
dr., aloes 1 dr. ; for a ball daily. 

4. In grease : prepared antimony, sulphur, nitre, Ethiops 
mineral, of each 3 oz., Castile soap 10 oz., oil of juniper 3 
dr., syrup of honey q. s. for 12 balls; 1 every morning for 

2 or 3 weeks. — Taplin. 

5. Quicksilver 2 parts, sesquioxide of iron 1 part, confec- 
'tion of roses 3 parts. Rub together till the quicksilver dis- 
appears. Dose, OSS. to oij- with common or other mass q. 
s. — Dr. Collier's Blue Pill. 

6. Strong mercurial ointment ^ ft), powdered ginger 3 
oz., liquorice powder 10 oz., treacle to mix for 12 balls. — 

Alterative Tonic Balls. See Tonic Balls. 

ASTRINGENT BALLS. These are given in diarrhoea, 

diabetes, &c. 

1. (V. C. Astringent Mass.) Catechu 1 oz., cinnamon 1 
oz., common mass 6 oz. ; mix; dose, 1 oz. 

2. Peruvian bark 12 oz., grains of paradise 2 oz., gentian 

3 oz., honey q. s. for 16 balls; 1 every morning; for dia- 
betes. — Ryding. 

3. Catechu J oz., alum 3 dr., cascarilla 2 dr., flour 2 dr., 
treacle q. s. — White. 

4. Catechu 2 dr., opium J dr., linseed meal 2 dr., treacle 
to form a ball. For profuse staling, 1 night and morning ; 
if they confine the bowels, add 1 dr. of aloes — C later. 

5. Peruvian bark \^ oz., alum |- oz., treacle q. s. For 
the same purpose. — Lawrence. 

6. Oak bark 1 oz. (or peruvian bark \ oz.), opium 1 dr., 
ginger 2 dr., syrup to form a ball;" for diarrhoea. — 

7. Opium 1^ dr., prepared chalk 6 dr., cassia 1|^ dr., tar- 
tarized antimony 2 dr., syrup to form a ball; for the same. — 

8. Nutgalls 2 dr., cassia ^ dr., conserve of roses to form 
a ball. 

9. Burnt rhubarb 1 dr., compound powder of chalk 3 dr., 
common mass 6 dr. ; for diari-hoea. 

10. Tormentil or bistort 1^ dr., marshmallow root J oz., 
chalk 2 dr., syrup to form a ball. 

11. For bloody urine. Acetate of lead 10 gr., sulphate 
of zinc 40 gr., catechu 4 dr., conserve of roses to form a 
ball; once daily. — Blaine. 


12. Powdered opium J dr., soda 1 dr., powdered cassia 
or ginger IJ dr., flour and syrup to form a ball. 

13. For diabetes. Catechu J oz., alum |^ dr., sugar of 
lead 10 gr., with conserve of roses to form a ball. See also 
Tonic Pills. 

COUGH BALLS; Expectorant Balls. The following for- 
mulae are chiefly intended for chronic coughs and thick- 
ness of wind. The bowels "Should be kept open by mashes 
and an occasional laxative. Coughs occasioned by worms 
require a difierent treatment. In coughs connected with 
inflammation of the chest, and epidemic catarrh, see Balls 
for Inflammation of the Lungs. 

1. Aloes 2 oz., digitalis (powdered) 1 oz., common mass 
13 oz. ; dose, 1 oz., twice a day. — Mokton. 

2. Emetic tartar ^ dr., digitalis J dr., nitre IJ dr., tar 
enough to form a ball ; every night. — Youatt. 

3. Powdered squill 1 dr., gum ammoniac 3 dr., opium 
J dr., syrup to form a ball. — White. 

4. Ipecacuanha 1 dr., camphor 2 dr., liquorice powder 1 dr., 
honey to form a ball ; to be given every morning. — Blaine. 

5. Sulphur J oz., assafoetida 1 oz., liquorice powder 1 oz., 
Venice turpentine 1 oz., for 4 balls ; one every night for 
4 times. — Hinds. 

6. Calomel 26 gr., gum ammoniacum 2 dr., balsam of 
Peru 1 dr., p. squill 1 dr., honey to form a ball.; one every 
morning. — Blaine. 

7. P. marshmallow root and liquorice, of each 1 dr., 
elecampane, sulphur, and Kermes mineral, of each |- dr., 
honey to form a ball ; twice a day. — Lebas. 

8. Squill 2 dr., gum ammoniac 4 dr., ipecacuanha 4 dr., 
opium 4 dr., pimento 1 oz., balsam of sulphur 4 oz., Cas- 
tile soap 2 oz., treacle to form a mass for 6 balls ; one twice 
a day. — Hinds. 

9. Spermaceti 1 oz., balsam of copaiva 1 oz., benzoin 2 
dr., sulphur 2 oz., elecampane 2 oz., p. squill 4 dr., emetic 
tartar 2 dr., syrup of poppies to form a mass for 8 balls. — 
B. Clarke. 

10. Liquorice powder ^ oz., linseed or barley meal 1 oz., 
tar 1 dr., honey to form a ball. 

11. Castile soap, aniseed, liquorice, of each 5 oz., Bar- 
badoes tar 6 oz., ammoniacum 3 oz., balsam of Tolu 1 oz., 
honey q. s. to make a mass for 12 balls : one every morning 
for a fortnight. — Taplin. 


12. Digitalis 1 dr., nitre 2 dr., liquorice 4 dr., tar enougli 
to form a ball. — ClaIer. 

13. Digitalis ^ dr., camphor 1 dr., emetic tartar 1 dr., 
nitre 3 dr., linseed meal 1 dr., make up with Barbadoes 
tar, and give one daily. — Spooner. See also Mixed Balls 
(Pectoral Cordial). 


1. Antimonial powder 2 dr., digitalis 3 dr., nitre 3 dr., 
cream of tartar 3 dr., honey to form a ball ; 1 every, 4, 6, 
or 8 hours, in inflammation of the lungs. — Blaine. 

2. Digitalis 1 dr., emetic tartar 1|- dr., nitre 3 dr., honey 
q. s. ; when the pulse intermits, reduce the dose to half. — 


3. Nitre 6 dr., emetic tartar 2 dr., flour and syrup to 
form a ball ; twice a day. — White. 

4. Digitalis 1 dr., emetic tartar 1 dr., nitre 3 dr., sulphur 

1 dr., linseed meal 2 dr.; beat together with palm oil. — 

5. Epidemic catarrh. To the last add 2 drachms of the 
Physic Mass (No. 10) : repeat this twice. 

6. For pneumonia. White hellebore J dr. (or extract of 
belladonna 2 dr., or digitalis 1 dr., or calomel 1 dr. with 
opium J dr.) emetic tartar 5j, nitre and linseed meal each 

2 dr. ; one twice a day. — Spooner. 

7. In the advanced stage, when suppuration has taken 
place. Carbonate of ammonia 1|^ dr., opium 1 dr., aniseed 
^ oz., syrup to form a ball. — Spooner. 

8. Cough Ball. Digitalis ^ dr., camphor and emetic 
tartar each 1 dr., nitre 3 dr., and linseed meal 1 dr., to be 
made up with Barbadoes tar. 

CORDIAL BALLS. For exhaustion from over-exertion, and 
as a stimulant to weak stomachs. But their frequent and 
unnecessary use is hurtful. 

1. Ginger and gentian equal parts, treacle to form a 
mass; dose, 1 oz. to IJ oz. — V. C. 

2. Caraway, bruised raisins, of each 4 parts, ginger and 
palm oil, of each 2 parts. — Youatt. 

3. Aniseed, caraway, cardamom, each 1 oz., saffron 2 dr., 
sugar candy 4 oz., liquorice powder IJ oz., Spanish juice 


. (softened -^ith water) 2 oz., oil of aniseed | oz., wheat flour 
q. s. ; dose, 1 oz. to IJ oz. — Bracken. 

4. Aniseed, caraway, sweet fennel, liquorice, of each 
4 oz., of ginger and cassia, each IJ oz., honey to form a 
mass. — White. 

5. Ginger, caraway, each 4 ft), gentian 1 ft), palm oil 4J 
ft), beat together ; dose, 1 oz. to IJ oz. — Clater. 

s6. Gentian 8 oz., ginger 4 oz., coriander 8 oz., caraway 
8 oz., oil of aniseed | oz., treacle q. s. ; dose, 1^ oz. — 

7. Aniseed, caraway, ginger, each 8 oz., gentian, grains 
of paradise, cumin, and turmeric, each 4 oz., cassia 2 oz., 
oil of caraway 2 dr., treacle to form a mass ; dose, 1^ oz. 
To keep it moist, add 2 oz. of acetate of potash. 

8. Cumin, aniseed, caraway, each 4 oz., ginger 2 oz., 
treacle q. s. ; dose, 1|- oz. to 2 oz. — White. 

9. Pimento 1 ft), sifted barley meal 2 ft), treacle q. s. — 
B. Clarke. 

MIXED BALLS. Cordial Astringent Ball Cordial Ball 
(No. 2) 1 oz., catechu 1 dr., opium 10 gr. ; to washy horses, 
before or after a journey. — Youatt. 

Cordial Anodyne Balls. 1 Cordial mass (No. 6) 10 dr., 
camphor 1 dr., opium 20 gr. — Blaine. 

2. Opium ^ dr. to 2 scruples, soap 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., 
aniseed 4 dr., oil of caraway J dr., treacle q. s. — White. 

Balsamic Cordial Ball. Cordial mass (No. 6) 1 oz., myrrh 1 
dr., balsam of Tolu 1 dr. — Blaine. 

Pectoral Cordial Balls. 1. For old coughs. Fenugreek, 
aniseed, cumin, safflower, elecampane, coltsfoot, sulphur, of 
each 3 oz., liquorice juice 1 oz., olive oil 8 oz., honey 8 oz., 
Genoa treacle 12 oz., oil of aniseed 1 oz., wheat meal \^ ft, 
or q. s. ; one ball or 2 oz. (dissolved in water or warm wort), 
every day for 12 or 15 days if required. — QuiNCY. 

2. Elecampane |- oz., ginger 1^ dr., squill 1 dr., oil of 
aniseed 20 drops, syrup of Tolu q. s. — White. 

Diuretic Cordial Balls., to fine the legs of debilitated and over- 
worked horses, and sometimes given in old coughs, &c. 1. 
Resin 2 oz., soap, nitre, caraway, of each 2 oz., ginger IJ 
oz., sulphur 2 oz., oil of caraway J dr., oil of juniper ^ dr., 
syrup to form a mass. 


2. Soap and common turpentine each 4 dr., ginger 1 dr., 
opium ^ dr., caraway seed q. s. for 1 dose. — White. 

3. Strained turpentine 8 oz., resin 4 oz., olive oil 2 oz., 
soap 8 oz. : melt together and add powdered ginger 6 oz., 
pimento 6 oz., liquorice powder q. s. to form a mass. 

4. Resin 4 dr., nitre 2 dr., and ginger 1 dr., with suffi- 
cient soap to form a ball. — Spooner. 

DIURETIC BALLS. For swelled legs, grease, &c., for 

carrying oif bad humors, and in many chronic dis- 

. eases. The too free use of diuretics injures the kidneys, 

■ and weakens the system. See Alterative Balls (Diuretic), 

page 59. 

1. Resin, soap, nitre, of each equal parts, beaten together 
into a mass ; dose, 1 oz. to 1| oz. — V. C. 

2. Common turpentine 4 oz., Castile soap 4 oz., caraway 
8 oz., ginger 1 oz., flour q. s. — White. 

3. Resin 16 oz,, white soap 16 oz., nitre 8 oz., dried com- 
mon soda 2 oz., oil of juniper 4 oz. ; beat together, adding 
flour if required ; dose, 1 oz. to 1 J oz. 

4. Nitre 1 ib, Castile soap ^ Hb, common turpentine 1 ft), 
barley meal 2J ft), or sufficient ; dose, about 1 oz. — B. 

5. White soap 8 oz., nitre 3 oz., resin 3 oz., camphor 3 
dr., oil of juniper 3 dr. For 6 balls ; 1 every, or every 
other morning. — Taplin. 

6. Common turpentine 16 oz., sulphur 24 oz., nitre 8 oz., 
honey 8 oz., flour or linseed meal q. s. ; dose 1^ oz. 

7. Camphor 2 dr., nitre 1 oz., flour and syrup to form a 
ball : for stoppage of water. — White. 

8. Yellow resin 4 ft), common turpentine 2 ft), yellow soap 
2 lb, melt together, and add nitre 1 ft). — Blaine. 

9. Common turpentine (or powdered resin) J oz., linseed 
meal ^ oz., ginger J dr., palm oil q. s. — YoUATT. 

10. Yellow resin 2 oz., common turpentine 4 oz., soap 3 
oz., melt together, stir in 1 oz. sweet oil, add oil of aniseed 
I oz., oil of juniper ^ oz., ginger 2 dr., linseed meal q. s. ; 
mix, and divide into 8 balls ; 1 a day till the water is aff"ected. 
— Hinds. 

11. Resin 2^ ftj, cream of tartar J ft), sulphur | ft), lin- 
seed meal 1 ft), palm oil 1 ft) ; dose, 1 oz. to 2 oz. — Clater. 

12. Nitre 1 oz., vermilion ^ oz., resin 1 oz., camphor J 
oz., honey q. s. for 4 balls. — Lebas. 


' 13. Powdered yellow resin 4 dr., nitrate of potash 2 dr., 
p. ginger 1 dr.; beat up with soap. — Spooner. 

14. Nitre 8 oz., oxysulpliuret of antimony 1 oz., sulphur 
8 oz,, resin 8 oz., oil of juniper 1 oz., yellow soap 8 oz., 
treacle to form a mass ; dose 1^ oz. 

15. White soap 1 oz., extract of juniper berries q. s. for 

2 balls. BOURGELAT. 

Tonic Diuretic Ball. Gentian 1 dr., ginger J dr., sulphate 
of iron 2 dr , diuretic mass (No. 11) J oz., oil of juniper 
10 drops, syrup of squills | oz. ; twice a day in dropsy of 
chest ; less frequently in swelled legs. — Clater. 

Tonic and Diuretic Ball for Pleurisy. Sulphate of copper 
IJ dr., ginger and gentian 2 dr. each, with Venice turpen- 
tine. — Spooner. See also Leicester Red Balls. (Miscella- 
neous Balls.) 


1. Emetic tartar ^ dr., camphor ^ dr., nitre 2 dr., com- 
mon mass 6 dr., or q. s. for 1 ball; to be given once or 
twice a day. — Morton. 

2. Camphor 1 dr., nitre 6 dr., antimonial powder 2 dr., 
flour and syrup to form a ball. — White. 

3. Antimonial powder 2 dr., nitre 3 dr., cream of tartar 
2 dr., honey to form a ball; in influenza, twice a day, after 
a mild laxative. — Blaine. 

4. See Balls for Inflammation of Lungs, No. 4. — Clater. 

says he has tried the various preparations of arsenic, anti- 
mony, copper, mercury, zinc, aconite, digitalis, hemlock, 
henbane, hellebore, nightshade, &c., in glanders, without 
any specific or curative efi"ect. Mr Youatt considers it 
useless to attempt the cure of glandered horses ; but that 
farcy in its early stages and mild form may be successfully 
treated. Mr. Blaine says, " All the mercurials have been 
used with benefit in farcy ; but they must be discontinued 
as soon as the mouth is affected, or sickness, loss of appetite, 
&c., produced." 

1. Ethiops mineral 2 dr., blue pill 1 dr., prepared anti- 
mony 3 dr., diuretic mass 4 dr. One every morning. 

2. Strong mercurial ointment 2 to 3 dr., guaiacum 3 dr., 
soap 4 dr., fenugreek 12 dr., treacle to form a mass, for 6 
balls. [See Mercurial Alterative Balls, p. 59.] 



3. Sulphate of copper 1 dr., corrosive sublimate 8 gr-., 
linseed powder J oz. — White. 

4. Corrosive sublimate 10 gr., gradually increased to 20, 
gentian 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., syrup to form a ball ; to be 
given night and morning till some effect is produced ; when 
the mouth is affected, the sublimate may be exchanged for 1 
dr. sulphate of copper. — Youatt. 

5. Corrosive sublimate 10 to 20 gr., opium |^ to 1 dr., 
powdered aniseed ^ oz., with syrup to make a ball. 

6. Sulf)hate of copper 1 dr., calomel 20 gr., common tur- 
. pentine 3 dr., liquorice powder and syrup q. s. for one ball. 

■ ■ — Coleman. 

7. Sulphate of copper 1 dr., white arsenic 8 gr., corrosive 
sublimate 8 gr., linseed powder J oz., syrup to form a ball. 
— White. 

8. Ethiops mineral 2 dr., opium 10 gr., liquorice powder 
and mucilage to form a ball ; to be given twice a day till the 
breath or urine is affected. — Hinds. 

9. Sulphate of iron 2 dr., Peruvian bark 1 oz., opium 
J dr., syrup to form a ball. — Smith. 

10. Cantharides 4 gr., gradually increased to 6 or 8 gr., 
gentian, ginger, and caraway, each 1 dr., syrup q. s. ; every, 
or every other day. — Vines. 

11. Sulphate of iron 2 dr., iodide of potassium 10 gr., 
ginger 1 dr., gentian 2 dr., made into a ball with treacle. — 

12. Diniodide of copper 1 dr., gentian IJ dr., pimento 
1 dr., cantharides 5 gr. ; for one ball. — Morton. 

13. Sulphate of zinc 15 gr., cantharides 7 gr., pimento or 
ginger 15 gr., treacle and oatmeal to form a ball ; 1 daily. 
— Bracy Clark. 

14. Sublimate, arsenic, verdigris, each 8 gr., sulphate of 
copper 20 gr., for one ball (with common mass q. s.) ; the 
dose may be gradually increased, carefully watching its 
effects, but should never exceed 15 gr. of sublimate and 
arsenic. — Blaine. 

15. Sublimate 10 gr., gentian 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., linseed 
meal ^ oz., palm oil to form a ball ; night and morning for 
a fortnight ; for farcy. — Clater. 

16. Sulphate of copper ^ dr. to 1 dr., ginger and gentian, 
each 1 dr., linseed meal and palm oil to form a ball ; morn- 
ing and night for a fortnight, then daily as long as neces- 
sary : in glanders. — Clater. 

17. Strong mercurial ointment 3 oz., white soap 2 oz.. 


starch 2 oz. ; form a mass and divide into 12 balls; 1 every 
morning. — Moiroud. 

18. Assafoetida 3 oz., vermilion 2 oz., muriate of lime 3 
dr., galangal 1 oz., strong mercurial ointment 2 oz. ; beat 
together into a uniform mass, and divide into 6 balls ; one 
every other morning. — Lebas. 

19. Ethiops mineral 8 oz., powdered burdock root 16 
oz., treacle q. s. ; make into 32 balls. — Moiroud. 

20. Antihecticum Poterii 2 dr., with 6 dr. of cordial ball ; 
every other day. — Lawrence. 

21. Calomel 1 oz., assafoetida 4 oz., galangal powder 1 
oz., mercurial ointment 2 oz. Mix, and form 6 balls. One 
every other morning. — Lebas. 

22. Hydrargyro-iodide of potassium (see Hydrargyri et 
Potassii lodidum, Pocket Formulary) 3 oz., powdered althaea 
root, and honey q. s. to make 100 balls. Give from one to 
eight daily, gradually increasing the dose to the latter num- 


BALLS FOR GREASE. See Diuretic Balls, and Alterative 


1. For hepatitis without purging : calomel 1 dr., antimo- 
nial powder 2 dr., aloes 3 dr., syrup to form a ball ; one 
every four or five hours, till the bowels are opened. — 

2. Calomel ^ dr., aloes 1 dr., soap 2 dr., rhubarb J oz., 
syrup to form a ball ; to be given every 12 hours, till it 
purges moderately. — White. 

3. Aloes 2 dr., calomel 1 dr., syrup to make a ball, twice 
a day. — Youatt. 

4. Opium 1 dr., calomel 1 dr., emetic tartar 2 dr. ; liquor- 
ice powder 3 dr., syrup to form a ball ; once every 12 hours. 
— White. 

5. Opium |- dr., calomel 1 dr., resin 3 dr., carbonate of 
potash 2 dr., with soft soap. To be preceded by blisters to 
the side, and purgative draughts. — Spooner. 

Yellows [Jaundice) without Fever. 1. Calomel 1 dr., aloes 2 
dr., soap 2 dr. ; for one ball ; night and morning till purged, 
then so as to keep them lax. — Blaine. 

2. Calomel J dr. ; aloes 1| dr., Castile soap 2 dr., rhubarb 
3 dr., syrup to form a ball. — White. 


3. In the latter stage, when not costive, calomel 12 gr., 
sulphate of copper 1 dr., gentian 3 dr., oak bark 3 dr., 
chamomile 3 dr.. syrup to form a ball ; once or twice a day. 
— Blaine. 

PHYSIC OR PURGING BALLS. The animal should be 
prepared by bran mashes for two days, and the ball given 

. fasting in the morning. Gentle exercise with a ball is use- 
ful, but not after it begins to operate. Genuine Barbadoes 
alone should be used (from the gourd not melted), and the 
-dose seldom need exceed 6 dr. A week should be allowed 
after the operation of one ball before another is given. See 
Aloes, in the Veterinary Materia Medica. 

1. (V. C. Cathartic Mass.) Bruised B. aloes 8 oz., 
olive oil 1 oz. ; melt together in a vessel placed in hot 
water ; remove it from the fire, add 3 oz. of treacle, and 
stir altogether ; dose, 6 to 12 dr., equal to 4 to 8 dr. of 

2. (V. C. Stronger.) To each dose of the last add from 4 
to 8 drops of croton oil. 

3. B. aloes 4 to 8 dr., soap 3 to 4 dr., ginger 1 dr., oil of 
cloves 10 drops (or oil of caraway or aniseed 20 drops), water 
1 dr. or q. s. ; beat together into a mass. — White. Mr. W. 
says is the best that can be employed. 

4. B. aloes 15 oz., ginger 1 oz. ; mix and beat up with 8 
oz. of palm oil. Dose, 1 oz. to 1|. — Youatt. 

5. B. aloes 24 dr.. Cape aloes 12 dr., olive oil 4 dr. ; tre- 
acle 12 dr. ; dose, 7 to 14 dr. ; mix as No. 1. — Morton. 

6. B. aloes 5 dr., 7^ dr., or 9 dr., oil of caraway 10 drops ; 
made up with palm oil or lard. — Mr. Blaine's Nos. 1, 2, 
and 3. 

7. Melt B. aloes (in a tin vessel immersed in boiling 
water) with a fifth of its weight of treacle, and Avhile soft, 
pour it into paper moulds ; 1 oz. is a full dose for a 
large-sized saddle or coach horse. — B. Clark. [For a con- 
venient apparatus for melting and casting these balls, see 
Mr. Bracy Clark's Pharmacopoeia Equina ; or Vol. V. of 
the Pharmaceutical Journal.] 

. 8. B. aloes 5 to 8 dr., cream of tartar 2 dr., oil of 
cloves 10 drops, treacle to form a ball. — Peall. 

9. Aloes 7 dr., Castile soap 4 dr., aromatic powder 1 
dr., oil of caraway 6 drops ; mucilage to form a ball. — 

10. B. aloes 7|- parts, Socotrine aloes 7|- parts, ginger 


1 part ; mix the powders, add 7 J parts of palm oil and 
beat to a mass ; keep it in a jar closely covered ; dose, IJ 
oz. to If oz, — Clater. 

11. B. aloes 13|- oz., lard 6 oz., treacle If oz., water 1| 
oz. ; put them in an earthen vessel, placed in boiling water ; 
mix, and form the mass into 18 balls. — McEwbn. 

12. Aloes and hard soap each 5 oz., pearl ashes 1 oz. 
powdered ginger 1 oz. Melt in a ladle and divide, while 
warm, into 8 balls. 

Mercurial Physic Balls. 1. Cathartic mass (No. 10 above) 
10 to 14 dr., calomel 1 dr. to 1|- dr. ; mix. — Clater. 

2. For stomach staggers : aloes 1 oz., calomel J oz., casca- 
rilla 3 dr., syrup to form a ball. — White. 


1. Ipecacuanha 1 dr., aloes 3 to 4 dr., liquorice powder 
and mucilage to form a ball. — HlNDS. 

2. Aloes 3 to 4 dr., soap 3 dr., oil of caraway 20 drops, 
syrup q. s. — White. 

3. Aloes 3 to 4 dr., soap 4 dr., emetic tartar 2 dr., muci- 
lage to form a ball. — Hinds. 

For other formulae, see Alterative Balls (laxative). 

NAUSEATING- BALLS. These are given in inflammatory 

1. Powdered white hellebore ^ dr., linseed meal 4 dr., 
treacle to form a ball ; one night and morning till some 
effect is produced ; in inflammation of the kidneys. — 

2. White hellebore 20 gr., common mass or other proper 
material to form a ball ; give one every 4, 6, or 8 hours, till 
symptoms of nausea appear, taking care not to carry it too 
far. — Percival. See Fever Balls. See Hellebore, in 
Veterinary Materia Medica. 

STOMACHIC BALLS. For indigestion and during recovery 
from debilitating diseases which have impaired the appetite. 
A mild purge should be previously given. 

1. Gentian, quassia, grains of paradise, of each 3 dr., 
Venice turpentine q. s. for 1 ball. — Blaine. 

2. Gentian 2 or 3 dr., carbonate of soda 1 dr., ginger 1 
dr., treacle to form a ball. — White. 

3. Chamomile 2 dr., calumba 2 dr., common salt 1 dr., 
fenugreek 2 dr., syrup to form a ball. 


4. Myrrh 1| dr., cascarilla 2 dr., Castile soap, 1 dr., 
syrup to form a ball. — White. 

5. Laxative Stomachic Ball. Aloes 3 dr., rhubarb 3 dr., 
subcarbonate of soda, 2 dr., ginger, 1^ dr., treacle to form a 
ball. — White. 

6. Calumba and chamomile in powder, each 2 dr., Venice 
treacle |- oz., oil of caraway 25 drops, honey q. s. — Law- 

' RENCE. See Tonic Balls, for other formulae. 

TONIC BALLS. In diseases attended with general debility, 
- and to restore strength after a tedious illness. 

Vegetable Tonics. 1. Peruvian bark 1 oz., opium J dr., gin- 
ger IJ dr., oil of caraway 20 drops, treacle to form a ball. — 

2. Sulphate of quinine 1 dr., gentian, oak bark, and 
honey to form a ball. — Moiroud. 

8. Gentian 1 dr., ginger ^ dr., cascarilla 1 dr., treacle 
and linseed meal to form a ball. — Clater. 

4. Myrrh 2 dr., mustard flour 1 dr., cantharides 5 gr., 
chamomile 4 dr., Venice turpentine q. s.. for one ball. — 

5. Grentian 4 dr., chamomile 2 dr., carbonate of iron 1 
dr., ginger 1 dr., syrup q. s. for one ball. — Youatt. 

6. Quassia 2 dr., canella 2 dr., opium J dr., ginger 1 dr., 
treacle q. s. — White. 

Mineral Tonics. 1. Sulphate of iron 4 oz., ginger 4 oz., 
common mass 10 oz. ; beat together to form a mass ; dose, 1 
oz. to 1^ oz. — V. C. 

2. Sulphate of iron J oz., aromatic powder 2 dr., muci- 
lage q. s. to form a ball. — White. 

3. Scales of iron 12 oz., gentian 8 oz., honey to form a 
mass. — Moiroud. 

4. Myrrh 3 dr., sulphate of iron 2 dr., chamomile 3 dr., 
ginger 1 dr., Venice turpentine or palm oil to form a ball. — 

5. Gentian 4 dr., chamomile 2 dr., carbonate of iron 1 dr., 
ginger 1 dr., syrup for one ball. — Youatt. 

■ 6. Sulphate of iron 2 dr., carbonate of potash 2 dr., cas- 
carilla 2 dr., caraway 4 dr., treacle q. s. — White. 

7. Sulphate of iron 1 dr., carbonate of soda 2 dr., myrrh 
1 dr., ginger 1 dr., cantharides 6 gr., caraway J oz., treacle 
q. -s. — White. 

8. Tonic mass. Sulphate of copper 2 oz., ginger 2 oz.. 


common mass 12 oz., beat together ; dose 1 oz. tolj oz. — 
V. C. 

9. Sulphate of copper and ginger, of each 1 dr., canella 
4 dr., conserve of roses q. s. for one ball. — Blaine. 

10. White arsenic 5 to 10 gr., aniseed ^ oz., opium J dr., 
treacle, q. s. ; sometimes 2 dr. of sulphate of zinc may be 
added. — White. 

11. Arsenic 10 gr., gentian and cascarilla, of each 3 dr., 
conserve of roses q. s. — Blaine. 

3fild Alterative Tonics. To promote condition ; a mild dose 
of physic should be previously given. 

1. Aloes, 1 dr.. Winter bark 2 dr., verdigris, 1 dr., trea- 
cle or honey q. s. 

2. Arsenic 8 gr., pimento 1 dr., extract of gentian 4 dr. ; 

3. Nitre 1 oz., sulphur 6 dr., physic mass ^ oz., gentian 
6 dr., ginger J oz., palm oil q. s. for 4 balls. One daily, 
after an attack of stomach staggers. — Clater. 

Tonic Condition Ball. Ginger and camphor, of each 1 dr., 
gentian and sulphate of iron, of each 2 dr. ; make up with 
linseed meal. — Spooner. 


1. Calomel 1 or 2 dr. at night, and an aloetic ball in the 
morning. — Clater. 

2. Emetic tartar 2 dr., ginger a scruple, linseed meal and 
treacle to form a ball ; one every morning an hour before 
feeding. — Youatt. 

3. Calomel 8 gr., arsenic 8 gr., tin filings 1 oz., Venice. 
turpentine ^ oz. ; mix ; and give every morning fasting for 
a fortnight. — Blaine. 

4. Common salt |- oz., gentian 2 dr., rust of iron 2 dr., 
savin 1 dr., treacle to form a ball, to be given every morning 
for a week ; then a purging ball. 

5. B. aloes 6 dr., ginger 1| dr., oil of wormwood 20 
drops, subcarbonate of soda 2 dr., syrup to form a ball; J 
dr. or 1 dr., of calomel may be added, or given the previous 
night ; to be repeated at intervals of ten days if required. — 

6. Emetic tartar 2 dr., common mass 6 dr. ; to be given 
for six mornings, and a purging ball on the seventh. 

7. Assafoetida 2 dr., calomel 1 or 2 dr., savin 1^ dr., oil 
of wormwood 20 drops, syrup q. s. ; at night, and a physic 
ball in the morning. 


8. Emetic tartar 1 dr., sulphur 1 dr., linseed meal 4 dr., 
palm- oil to form a ball ; one every morning after a mercurial 
physic ball. — Clater. 

9. For long round worms. Emetic tartar 2 dr., ginger 
|- dr., tin filings 6 dr., linseed meal 1 dr., palm oil to form 
a ball. 

10. Assafoetida 4 oz., gentian 2 oz., strong mercurial 
. ointment 1 oz., honey to form a mass, for 16 balls ; one or 

more every morning. — 'Lebas. 


G-arlic Ball. Beat garlic to a paste with enough linseed or 
liquorice to form a mass ; dose, 10 dr. 

Camphor Ball. Mix into a ball 2 dr. of camphor with 
liquorice powder and syrup enough to give it a proper 

Iodine Ball. Iodine 5 gr., linseed meal 5 dr., palm oil to form 
a ball. 

Ball to prevent Sydrophohia. Skullcap 2 scruples, belladonna 
2 J gr., form them into a ball, to be given night and morn- 
ing ; the second week 2 balls, the third week 3 balls, and 
this continued for 6 weeks. — Youatt. 

Leicester Red Balls. Nitre 1 ft), resin 1 ft), common soda 2 
oz., Castile soap J ft), ginger 2 oz., oil of juniper 2 dr., cin- 
nabar |- oz. ; dose 1|^ oz. 

Balls for Appetite. Equal weights of assafoetida, saffron, bay- 
berries, and aloes, made into a mass with extract of gentian ; 
dose, 1 oz. — Lebas. 

Anodyne Ball. Opium ^ dr., to 1 dr., camphor 1 dr., aniseed 
f oz., soft extract of liquorice q. s. — White. 

Antispasmodic Ball. Opium 1 dr., powdered belladonna 
10 gr., linseed meal 3 dr., palm oil or treacle q. s. ; twice 
or thrice a day, in spasm of the neck of the bladder. — 

Ball for Roaring. The Cough Ball, No. 12, may be tried ; 
and the compound iodine ointment rubbed on the throttle for 
some weeks or months. 

Stimulating Diaphoretic Ball. Emetic tartar 1|- dr., ginger 
2 dr., camphor J dr., opium 2 scruples, oil of caraway 15 


drops, honey to form a ball ; for hide-bound and unhealthy 
coat, without any other disease. — White. 

Bartlett's Perspirative Ball. Dover's powder 3 dr., cam- 
phor 1 dr., treacle q. s. 

Hind's Sweating Ball. Emetic tartar 1 dr., assafoetida 1 dr., 
liquorice powder and syrup to form a ball ; repeat in 12 
hours if required. 

Gfrease Ball. Liver of antimony 16 oz., salt of tartar 16 oz., 
gum guaiacum, fenugreek, parsley seed, of each 4 oz., trea- 
cle to form a mass ; dose, 1^ oz. 

Sedative Ball. In slight colic. Assafoetida 4 dr., opium 4 
dr., syrup and liquorice powder to form 4 balls. — Hinds. 

Cordial and Anodyne Ball. Castile soap 3 dr., camphor 2 
dr., ginger IJ dr., and Venice turpentine 6 dr., into 1 

Stimulating Diuretic Balls. Cantharides 1 dr., aloes 2 dr., 
strained turpentine 1 oz., honey q. s. ; make 4 balls, and 
roll in elecampane powder. — M. Gohier, in Dropsy. 

Stimulating Expectorant Ball. Assafoetida 3 dr., galbanum 
1 dr., carbonate of ammonia ^ dr., ginger IJ dr., honey 
q. s. — White. 

Sedative A2Jerient Ball. In epidemic catarrh or distemper. 
Balls for Inflammation of the Lungs (No. 4) 6 dr., physic 
ball (No. 10) 2 dr. ; one at night and another in the morn- 
ing. — Clater. 

Zinc and Valerian Ball. Oxide of zinc 1 oz., valerian 2 oz., 
oil of hartshorn 1 oz., soft extract of juniper berries, q. s. 
to make 4 balls ; one, twice a day — Eckel. 

CHEWING- BALLS, or Masticatories. The ingredients 
. . are to be tied in a piece of rag, and fixed by a string so that 
it may be kept in the mouth and chewed. 

1. Emollient Masticatory. Marshmallow root, liquorice, 
gum Arabic, of each (in powder) 1 oz., honey 1 oz., or 
q. s. — Lebas, 

2. To promote Appetite. Assafoetida, liver of antimony, 
juniper berries, bay-wood, pellitory, made into a mass with 
verjuice, tied as above. — Solleysell. 


3. Assafoetida, common salt, mastic, galangal, each 1 
oz. — Lebas. 

4. Assafcetida 2 oz., salt 1 oz, — Bourgelat. 

5. Angelica ^ oz., assafoetida 1 oz., vinegar 2 dr. — 


6. Flour of mustard ^ oz., sal ammoniac 2 dr., powdered 
pellitory 1 oz. — Moiroud. 


Electuaries are compound medicines in the state of a soft 
paste. When the paste is hard enough to be formed into 
halls, the compound resembles ball masses or balls, under 
which we have placed them. French Pharmaciens often 
use the term opiates as nearly synonymous with electuaries ; 
but we only apply the name (opiates) to compounds contain- 
ing opium. 

Opiate Confection. {Veterinary.) Opium 1| oz., mace- 
rate in a little hot water till soft, and rub it to a paste ; 
then add ginger 3 oz., caraway 6 oz., treacle 1^ lb ; dose, 
IJ to 2 oz. — White. 


1. Marshmallow root and liquorice (in powder) of each 
2 oz., honey 10 oz., mix ; to be given at twice, with a 
spatula. — Moiroud. 

2. Melt |- oz. spermaceti with 2 oz. of olive oil, add 6 oz. 
of honey, and mix in 1|- oz. p. marshmallow root ; to be 
given daily. — Moiroud. 

3. [With Opium.) Powdered gum 2 oz., marshmallow 1 
oz., extract of opium 2 dr., honey 3 oz. ; for 2 doses. 

4. Cough Electuary with Manna. Manna 2 oz., honey 
6 oz. ; in the morning ; said to have cured acute bronchitis, 

5. Powdered liquorice 8 oz., elecampane 4 oz., sulphur 2 
oz., honey of squill 32 oz. ; mix ; for 8 doses. 


Lebas gives a form for an electuary [Theriaque) of many 
ingredients, the first of which (cordial powder) itself contains 
26 different substances. We only insert here the simple 
formulae of the French veterinarians.] 

1. Powdered angelica root 2 oz., masterwort 1 oz., muri- 
ate of ammonia \ oz., honey 8 oz. — Moiroud. 


2. Stimulant and Expectorant. Assafoetida 4 oz., ele- 
campane 8 oz., honey 32 oz., for 6 doses. — Moiroud. 

3. Powdered cassia and ginger, each 1 oz., honey 6 ounces. 
— Moiroud. 


1. Red oxide of iron 8 oz., gentian 12 oz., extract of 
juniper berries 32 oz. Moiroud prescribes 6 oz. for a 
horse, or 1 oz. for a sheep ; but these are larger doses than 
are customary in England. 

2. Peruvian bark 6 oz., nitre 1 oz., camphor \ oz., honey 
16 oz. — Lebas. 

3. Powdered bistort 1 oz., calcined magnesia 4 dr., honey 
4 oz. — Moiroud. 


Aloetic compounds are usually made stiff enough to form 
into balls. See Physic Balls. 

1. Oil of croton 20 drops, powdered senna 4 dr., honey 
q. s. — Moiroud. 

2. Sulphate of magnesia 4 oz., honey 16 oz., bran a 
quart ; infuse the bran in sufficient hot water, and add the 
salt and honey ; twice a day till the bowels are relaxed. — 


3. Sulphate of soda or magnesia 5 oz., manna 4 oz., bran 
1 quart ; as the last. — Moiroud. 


1. Acetate of potash 2 oz., oxymel of squills 4 oz.; oat- 
meal or flour, to give a soft consistence. — Moiroud. 

2. Nitre 1 oz., camphor 2 dr. (rubbed with yolks of 2 
eggs), oxymel 4 oz.; flour or liquorice powder, to give a 
suitable consistence. — Moiroud. 


1. Sulphur 1 oz., powdered angelica IJ oz., honey 5 oz. 
— Moiroud. 

2. Prepared antimony 1|^ oz., elecampane 2 oz., treacle 
4 oz. 

3. Kermes mineral 1 oz., powdered sassafras and ele- 
campane, each 2 dr., honey 6 oz. 


Mr. B. CLARK'S PULVIS UTILIS, as a vehicle for other 
powders. Turmeric ^ ft), oatmeal or sifted barley-meal 4 ft), 



1. White's Aromatic Potvder. Caraway 6 oz., pimento 
4 oz., ginger 2 oz., liquorice 2 oz. ; mix ; dose, 6 to 8 dr. 

2. Common Horse Spice. Caraway, aniseed, coriander 
seeds, of each 16 oz., turmeric 32 oz., cumin seeds, liquo- 
Hce, and ginger, of each 8 oz. ; mix. 

3. This is inserted, not as a desirable form, but as a 
, specimen of what is used in the trade : Cayenne 2 oz., 

bean flour 45 ft), mustard hulls 45 ft), cumin seed 15 ft), 
caraway 15 ft), turmeric 9 ft), bay-berries 3 ft), ivory-black 
- 1 ft). — Gray's Supplement, The cordial powder of Lebas 
contains 26 ingredients. 


1. Carbonate of soda 2 to 4 dr., ginger 1 dr., calumba 2 
to 4 dr. — White. 

2. Prepared chalk 4 dr., gentian 2 to 4 dr., aromatic 
powder (above) 1 or 2 dr. 

DERS. For swelled legs, grease, foul humors, hide-bound, 
mange, surfeit, old coughs, and to render the skin fine. 
They are usually given with moistened corn. Too free use 
of these powders may prove injurious. 

1. Sulphur 2 parts, black antimony 1, nitre 1 ; mix ; 
dose ^ oz. to 1 oz. — V. C. 

2. Sulphur 4 dr., levigated antimony 2 dr., nitre 3 dr. ; 
mix ; in hide-hound and unthrifty coat, every night. — 

3. Ethiops mineral J oz., cream of tartar 1 oz. ; mix ; 
give every night in a mash ; for grease. — Blaine. 

4. Sulphur 12 oz., antimony (black) 12 oz. ; mix, and 
divide into 24 powders ; for mange, &c. — Taplin. 

5. Nitre 16 oz., resin 16 oz., prepared antimony 4 oz., 
flowers of sulphur 24 oz. ; mix ; dose, 1 oz. every evening, 
with moistened corn, for 6 or 8 times. 

6. Equal weights of antimony, nitre, and cream of tartar; 
dose, 6 to 9 dr. — Blaine. 

7. Nitre 6 oz., vermilion J oz., resin 6 oz., tartarized 
antimony 2 dr. : for 12 doses. 

8. Sulphur ^ oz., prepared antimony 1 dr. ; once a day, 
in the food, for 10 or 14 days, — Clater. 

9. Taplin's Alterative Potvders. Levigated antimony 
8 oz., sulphur 8 oz., Ethiops mineral 4 oz., cream of tartar 
4 oz. ; in 12 doses. 


10. Cream of tartar 2 dr., nitre 2 dr., sulphur 4 dr. ; for 
one dose. — Blaine. 

11. Nitre 1 oz., resin 1 oz., rust of iron 1 oz., emetic tar- 
tar 15 gr. ; dose, 1 oz. — Lebas. 

12. In Farcy. Prepared antimony 12 oz., sulphur 12 
oz., cream of tartar 8 oz., cinnabar 6 oz. ; mix and divide 
into 20 doses ; one every night, in corn. — Taplin. 

CONDITION POWDERS. A want of condition is gener- 
ally indicated by, and connected with, the unthrifty state 
of the coat, which the above (alterative) powders are sup- 
posed to remedy. Sometimes warm and bitter tonics are 
added to those ingredients which promote the action of the 
skin and kidneys, to increase the appetite and promote nu- 
trition; but the most scientific practitioners condemn these 
additions ; and particularly when the animal is changing its 

1. Black antimony 4 oz., flowers of sulphur 2 oz., bean 
, flour or barley-meal J ft) ; a tablespoonful with corn. — B. 


2. Sulphur 2 ft), fenugreek 4 ft), cream of tartar 1 ft), 
liquorice 1 ftj, nitre 1 ft), black antimony J ft), gentian \ ft), 
aniseed J ft), common salt 1 ft) ; dose, 1 oz., daily for 2 or 
3 weeks. 

3. Gentian 4 oz., liquorice 4 oz., fenugreek 16 oz., dia- 
pente 6 oz., nitre 4 oz., salt 4 oz. ; to promote appetite. 

4. Aromatic powder 2 oz., assafoetida J oz., cream of 
tartar f oz., crocus metallorum J oz. ; for 2 doses. — 

DIAPENTE. This should be made with equal parts of 
myrrh, gentian, ivory-dust, bay-berries, and birthwort. But 
a worthless compound is commonly sold for it. The follow- 
ing is one of the least objectionable substitutes : Equal parts 
of gentian, turmeric, bay-berries, and mustard. Another 
form in use is — Bay-berries 2|^ ft), guaiacum wood 2 ft), 
gentian 14 ft), bole 2 ft), bark which has been used for the 
tincture 2 ft). 

Fever Powders. 1. Nitre 1 oz., camphor 2 dr., tartarized anti- 
mony 2 dr. — White. 

2. Nitre 6 dr., camphor 2 dr., calx of antimony 1 J dr. — 

3. Nitre 1 oz., unwashed calx of antimony 2 dr., anti- 
monial powder 3 dr., camphor 1 dr. — White. 


Pectoral Powder. Powder of gum tragacanth 6 oz., nitre 
1 oz. ; give a tablespoonful in their mashes or food, in 

Purgative Powder. Epsom salt 8 oz., aloes 10 oz., aniseed 3 
oz. ; dose, 2 oz. — Lebas. 

Powder for the Gripes. Aloes, senna, ginger, cream of tartar, 
of each 1 ft ; mix. This was formerly honored with the title 
of Pulvis Sanctus. 

Worm Powders. 1. Sulphur 12 parts, quicksilver 4 parts; 

- triturate together till the mercury is extinct ; then add male 

' fern, rhubarb, tansy, gentian, of each 4 parts, wormwood, 

savin, aloes, castor seeds, of each 1 part ; dose, 1^^ oz. to 2 

oz. — Lebas. 

2. Fern roots 4 parts, tansy 2, assafoetida and aloes, each 
1 part ; dose, as the last. — Moi-roud. 

3. Sulphur 1 oz., emetic tartar 4 dr., common salt 8 oz., 
liver of antimony 1 oz.^; mix ; for 6 doses ; one daily in 
wetted corn. — Hinds. 

Mr. White's Compound Arsenical Powder. White arsenic 
1 dr., cream of tartar 9 dr. ; mix carefully; give 10 gr. 3 
times a day. 

Hayne's Bitter Powder, for loss of appetite. Sulphate of 
potash 2 oz., gentian 1 oz., flour q. s. To be given twice a 

MEDICATED PROVENDER. Bruised oats 4 ft, bruised 
juniper berries 2 oz., common salt 1 oz. ; mix. Nourishing 
and stimulant. — Delafond. 

Ppi^ ll^Mdn^s tax '$axuL 



Drinks, properly speaking, are liquids which the horse will 
take willingly ; Drenches are those liquid medicines which 
must be administered by a horn, bottle, or funnel. But this 
distinction is not always observed. 

MILD DRINKS. Demulcent, pectoral, cooling, and diu- 

Barley Water. Barley 1 R), water 2 gallons ; boil to 6 
quarts, strain, and add 1 lb of honey. If common barley 
is used, it should be first boiled with a little water, and this 
thrown away. If pearl barley is used, this will be less 
necessary. In inflammatory and catarrhal complaints. 

Oatmeal Gruel. 1. Mix gradually 4 oz. of sweet oatmeal with 
as much cold water as will form a smooth mixture. Put 2 
quarts of water in a saucepan over a clear fire, and before it 
gets very hot add in the mixture of oatmeal and water ; stir 
the whole till it boils, and let it simmer a little while. Take 
care not to smoke it. 

2. Mix half a pint of oatmeal with the same measure of 
water ; triturate them in a marble mortar with a wooden 
pestle, for some time; then add 1 gallon of boiling water, 
and boil for a few minutes. — B. Clark. 

Blanche Water. Wet 3 or 4 handfuls of bran with scalding 
water, and work it with the hands till it becomes clammy ; 
then add as much more water as may be desired. A mix- 
ture of oatmeal and cold water is also called white water, 
and in France potato or other starch is used for the same 

Linseed Tea. 1. Infuse 4 oz. of linseed in 3 pints of boiling 
water for several hours near the fire, stirring occasionally ; 
then strain ofl", and add 4 oz. of honey ; for 2 doses ; in 
coughs, &c. 


2. Pour 1 gallon of boiling water on J ft) of linseed ; let 
the infusion stand till nearly cold, then pour off the clear 
liquid. — YouATT. 

Compound Decoction of Linseed. Linseed 4 oz., liquorice 
root 4 oz., mallows 2 handfuls ; boil in six quarts of water 
for half an hour. Let the horse drink it freely. — Blaine. 

Cooling and Refreshing Brink. Barley water, linseed tea, 
or blanche water, 8 quarts, simple oxymel 16 oz. — Moi- 


.Cooling and Diuretic Drink. Dissolve 1 oz. of nitre in a pail 
of water. 

Campliorated Diuretic Drink. Water 10 quarts, nitre 1 oz., 
camphor (rubbed with yolks of 2 or 3 eggs) ^ oz. ; mix, and 
let the animal drink when thirsty. — MoiROUD. 


Bran Mash. Bran or pollard ^ peck ; put it in a bucket, and 
pour on it enough scalding water to wet it thoroughly ; 
let it be well stirred with a stick, or worked with the 
hands, and let it stand, covered up, till new-milk warm. 
Emollient and slightly laxative. When intended to be 
nutritive, oats should be scalded with the bran. — B. Clark. 

Malt 3Iash. Upon a peck of ground malt pour a gallon and 
a half of boiling [better not quite boiling] water. Stir 
frequently, and give when new-milk Avarm. Nutritive, in 
diseases attended with great debility. — Markham. 

Linseed Mash. Hinds' Cooling Decoction. Linseed 2 quarts, 
coarse sugar 2 oz., boiling water 6 quarts ; simmer for 
three or four hours. 



L^or Diarrhoea. 1. Restringent Draught. Opium 1 dr., pre- 
pared chalk 1 oz., compound powder of tragacanth 1 oz., 
mint water 1 pint. — White. 

2. Prepared chalk 8 oz., gum Arabic J oz., catechu 2 dr., 
thin starch J pint. — Blaine. 


3. Prepared chalk 1 oz., catechu 2 dr., p. opium 1 dr., p. 
. ginger 1 dr. ; rub together with contents of one egg, and add 

J pint of thin gruel. — Clater. 

4. Eor purging from corrosive sublimate. Powdered 
opium 2 dr. ; rub down Avith the yolk and white of one egg, 
and the contents of two more eggs, and gradually stir in ^ 
pint of thin gruel. — Clater. 

Draught for Enteritis Opium IJ dr., tartar emetic 1 dr., 
spirit of nitrous ether 1 oz. ; mix, and add IJ pint of linseed 
oil. — Spooner. 

For Dysentery or 3Iolton Gfrease. 1. Castor oil 8 oz., ipe- 
cacuanha 1 dr., opium 20 gr., liquid arrowroot 8 oz. Re- 
peat once or twice at intervals of 6 hours : then substitute 
boiled starch for the castor oil. — Blaine. 

2. Opium 2 dr., nux vomica ^ dr., ipecacuanha 1 dr., 
red wine 1 quart: mix ; morning and evening. 

For Diabetes. 1. Opium 1 dr., ginger 2 dr., p. oak bark 1 
oz., decoction of oak bark 1 pint. — White. 

2. Sulphuret of potash 2 dr., uva ursi 4 dr., oak bark 1 
oz., catechu 2 dr., opium ^ dr. In strong chamomile tea. — 

3. Calomel 3 dr., cascarilla 2 dr., salt of steel 2i dr., salt 
of tartar 1|- dr., tincture of opium J oz., strong beer q. s. — 


For Spasmodic and Flatulent Colic, or Gripes. 

[N. B. As most of these drenches would be injurious 
in inflammation of the hoivels (Enteritis), care should be 
taken to distinguish between these diseases. Inflamma- 
tion is known by the quick but small pulse, redness of the 
inside of the eyelids, coldness of the ears and legs, and 
scanty and high-colored urine. In colic, the attacks and 
remissions of pain alternate ; in inflammation, the pain and 
distress continue. In colic, the pain is relieved by friction 
and motion ; in inflammation, it is increased. Colic is 
sudden in its attack ; inflammation, more gradual in its 

1. Brandy, rum, or gin, from 4 to 6 oz., hot water 12 
oz. Mr. Clark directs a wineglassful of spirits to half a 
pint of warm water. A pint of ale is sometimes substi- 
tuted. — White. 



2. Half a large bottle of Dafiy's elixir, with hot water. 

3. Tincture of pimento 4 ounces, warm water half a pint. 
— B. Clark. 

4. Anodyne carminative tincture (White's, see below) 
2 to 4 oz., hot water half a pint. — White. 

5. Antispasmodic Draught. Spirit of nitric ether 2 oz., tinc- 
ture of opium 1 oz., solution of aloes (see below) 4 oz, — V. C. 

6. Spirit of nitric ether |- oz., tincture of opium J oz., 
oil of turpentine 3 oz., gruel 1 pint. — Blaine. 

7. Rectified oil of turpentine 3 oz., tincture of opium 1 
. oz., warm ale 1 pint. If it does not relieve, repeat half 

the quantity with 1 oz. aloes dissolved in warm water. — 


8. Stronger ether 1 oz., laudanum 2 oz., oil of pepper- 
mint 1 dr., ale and gin, each a :^ of a pint. — Blaine. 

9. Camphor 2 dr., tincture of opium 1 oz., oil of pepper- 
mint 30 drops, warm water 1 pint. In a violent attack, add 
1 oz. of spirit of turpentine. — Peall. 

10. The juice of three or four onions, with half a pint of 
sound ale. 

11. Pepper J oz., oil of turpentine 3 oz., laudanum 1 oz., 
ale J pint. — Blaine. 

12. Pepper a teaspoonful, juice of 2 or 3 large onions, 
gin :^ of a pint. — Blaine. 

13. Laudanum 1 oz., sweet spirit of nitre 4 oz., oil of 
juniper 1 oz., tincture of benzoin 2 oz., spirit of sal vola- 
tile IJ oz., oil of peppermint 1 dr. ; mix ; give a fourth part 
in warm water or gruel, and repeat in 3 or 4 hours, if neces- 
sary. — Hinds. 

14. For Flatulent Colic. Tincture of opium 1 oz., of 
myrrh 1 oz., sulphuric ether 6 dr., tepid water a pint. 
Repeat in an hour, if relief is not obtained. — Spooner. 

15. Heat J lb. of common salt, and quench it in a quart 
of good ale. Give it new-milk warm. — Downing. 

16. In flatulent colic when there is an evident distension 
of the abdomen with gas : chloride of lime ^ oz. (or solution 
of chlorinated soda 1 oz.), water 1 quart ; repeat in half an 
hour if necessary. 

17. Ginger, caraway, nutmeg, pimento, of each 1 oz., 
bruise, and boil them in f of a pint of ale for a few minutes, 
and add a gill of any spirits.^ — Taplin. 

Cordial Antisjjasmodic Drink, for spasm of the Diaphragm. 
Ginger 1 dr., caraway 2 dr., laudanum 1 oz., sweet spirit 
of nitre 1 oz., warm ale J pint. — Clater. 



Antispasmodic Drench for Suppression of Urine. Nitre 1 oz., 
camphor 2 dr., linseed tea 1 pint. — White. 

Diuretic Camplior Drink. Camphor 2 to 3 dr., olive oil 1 oz., 
carbonate of soda 1 dr. ; rub together, and add tincture of 
opium 1 dr., warm water 2 pints. 

Antispasmodic Drenches for Locked Jaw. 1. Opium IJ dr., 
camphor 2 dr., ginger 3 dr., brandy-and-water 8 oz. — 

2. Ether J oz., tincture of opium 2 oz., camphor 1 dr., 
peppermint water J pint. 

used in the same cases as the cordial balls, but are preferred 
where a more quick and powerful operation is required. 
Some of them are used in indigestion and slight attacks of 

1. Cloves and black pepper (bruised) \ oz., boiling water 
a quart ; infuse and give warm. — MomouD. 

2. Any of the cordial balls may be dissolved in warm ale 
or water, or peppermint water, and given as a drench. 

3. A bottle of wine, 1 oz. of extract of juniper berries, 
and J oz. of cinnamon in powder. — M. Lebas. 

4. Peppermint 2 oz., chamomiles f oz.; infuse in 2^ pints 
of water, and give it before it is cold ; in slight colic and in- 

DRENCHES, for Coughs, Epidemic Catarrh, &c. (For 
linseed tea, compound infusion of linseed, barley water, &c., 
see Drinks, above.) 

1. Simple Emulsion. Olive oil 2 oz., honey 3 oz., soft 
water 1 pint, subcarbonate of potash 2 dr. ; mix. — White. 

2. Linseed tea 1 pint, honey 2 oz., syrup of poppies 2 oz., 
linseed oil 4 oz. 

3. B. Clare's Cough Drench. Linseed oil 2 oz., 
liquor of potash 40 drops, treacle 1 oz., soft water 10 oz. ; 

4. Powdered gum 2 oz., warm water a quart; dissolve, 
and add honey 4 oz. — Moiroud. 

5. Marshmallow root 2 oz., water 2|^ or 3 pints ; boil to a 
quart, and add 4 oz. of treacle. — MoiROUD. 

6. Liquorice and marshmallow roots, of each 2 oz., water 
a quart ; boil, strain, and add honey 4 oz. — Lebas. 


7. Marshmallow root 2 oz., poppj-heads 4, water a 
quart; boil for 10 minutes, strain and add to the liquor 
before quite cold 4 oz. of olive oil, 6 oz. of honey, and 
the yolks of 4 eggs, previously well beaten together. — 


8. Compound decoction of linseed (page 80) 1 quart, oxy- 
mel 3 oz. 

9. Spermaceti J oz., olive oil 3 oz. ; melt together, and 
add of honey 4 oz,, water (by a little at a time) to make up 
a quart ; repeat it twice a day. — Lebas. 

10. Camphorated Emulsion. Powder, with a few drops 
of spirit, 1 or 2 dr., of camphor, and 12 drops of oil of 
aniseed, and 12 oz. of simple emulsion. — White. 

11. Oxymel of squills 2 oz., opium ^ dr. to 1 dr., linseed 
oil 2 oz. ; mix the opium Avith 8 oz. of water, and add the 
others ; for one dose. — White. 

12. For chronic coughs : Tar-water J pint, lime-water J 
pint, powdered squill 1 dr. ; every morning, — Blaine. 

13. In inflammation of the lungs, or catarrhal fever: 
Tartarized antimony 2 dr., digitalis, IJ dr., nitre 3 dr., 
simple oxymel 4 oz., compound decoction of linseed 8 oz. — 

14. The same, omitting the digitalis, and substituting 
6 oz. of warm water for the dec. linseed. In influenza, 
when soreness of throat prevents swallowing balls. — 

15. In inflammation of the lungs : Ipecacuanha, 2 dr., 
laudanum 4 dr., powdered camphor 2 dr,, Mindererus' spirit 
4 oz., linseed tea ^ pint, — Blaine. 

16. In pleurisy. Boil pearl barley, split figs, and raisins, 
each 6 oz., and liquorice root 2 oz., in 4 quarts of water 
down to 3 ; strain and add honey 1 ft), vinegar 1 pint ; 
give 1 oz. nitre in a pint of this decoction every 8 hours. — 

17. In epidemic (epizootic) catarrh : Spirit of nitrous 
ether 1 oz., Mindererus' spirit 6 oz., with linseed tea. — 

18. Gibson's Drhik for Catarrlial Epidemic. Coltsfoot, 
hyssop, chamomile, of each a handful, linseed and garlic, 
each 1 oz., liquorice root sliced 1 oz., saff'ron f oz. ; infuse 
in 2 quarts of boiling water ; give half in the morning 
and the rest in the afternoon. 

19. In influenza (after bleeding). Oil of croton 5 drops, 
nitre 4 to 6 dr., tartarized antimony 1 dr., spirit of nitric 


ether J oz. to 1 oz., solution of acetate of ammonia (L. P.) 
2 to 4 oz., warm water, q. s. Once or twice daily. Some- 
times |- oz. of cream of tartar is added, — Spooner. 

20. For malignant epidemic. Oxymel 4 oz., spirit of 
Mindererus 4 oz., beer yeast 4 oz., sweet spirit of nitre 
1 oz. 

DIURETIC DRENCHES, for Dropsical Complaints, &c. 
The use of stimulating diuretics in retention of urine from 
inflammation of the neck of the bladder is dangerous. 

1. Markham's Droipsy Drench. Decoction of wormwood 
in ale 2 quarts, soap 1 oz., grains of paradise 6 dr., long 
pepper 6 dr., treacle 3 oz. ; for one dose, fasting. 

2. For dropsy of the belly : Castile soap 2 oz., strong 
beer 1 pint ; dissolve and add cascarilla 2 dr., ginger 3 dr., 
oil of juniper 2 dr. (or balsam of copaivi 1 oz.); mix; for 
one dose.— r White. 

3. White soap 1 oz., spirit of turpentine 1 oz., honey 
4 oz., decoction of linseed 2 quarts ; for two doses. — 


4. Strained turpentine 2 oz., yolks of 6 eggs ; triturate 
together till incorporated, and add gradually 2 quarts of 
linseed tea ; for 2 doses. — Moiroud. 

5. White wine and water 4 quarts, nitre 3 oz., honey 4 
oz. ; for 3 doses. — Lebas. 

6. Acetate of potash 2 or 3 oz., honey 6 oz., decoction of 
hemp or linseed 2 quarts ; for 1 dose. — Moiroud. 

7. Acetate of potash 2 oz., camphor (rubbed with yolks 
of 2 eggs) 2 dr., decoction of linseed 2 quarts ; for 2 doses, 
at an interval of some hours ; an irritation of the urinary 
passages, especially arising from cantharides or resinous 
irritants. — Moiroud. 

8. Squill Drench. Decoction of pellitory of the wall 1 
quart, oxymel of squills 4 oz. — Moiroud. 

9. Colchicum Drench. Colchicum wine 2 oz., simple 
oxymel 4 oz., barley water 1 quart. 

10. Sweet spirit of nitre 4 oz., white wine 1 quart, 
water 2 quarts ; for 3 doses ; in dysuria not arising from 
mechanical obstruction or inflammation of the neck of the 
bladder. — Lebas. 

11. Saline Diuretic Drinh. Glauber's salt 2 oz., nitre 
6 dr., warm water 1 pint, sweet spirit of nitre 1 dr. — 



1. Expressed juice of cleavers 6 oz., strong decoction 
of hempseed 6 oz., essence of spruce 6 oz. ; mix ; give every 
evening ; and a mercurial or arsenical ball in the morning. — 
Blaine. See Farcy Balls. 

2. For Crlanders. Sulphate of copper 3 to 6 dr., gum 
Arabic 2 or 3 oz., dissolved in 2 or 3 pints of water. — 

- Sewell. 


1. Nitre 2 dr., tartar-emetic J dr., warm water or thin 
' gruel 12 oz. ; once or twice a day. — B. Clark. 

2. Sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., spirit of Mindererus 6 oz., 
water 4 oz. 

3. Draught for Influenza. Spirit of nitrous ether 2 oz., 
tartarized antimony 1 dr., nitre 4 dr., warm water J pint. — 


1. Castor oil 6 oz., linseed oil 8 oz., gruel q. s. — 

2. Glauber's or Epsom salts 6 or 8 oz., whey or gruel 1 
quart, castor oil 6 or 8 oz. — White. 

3. Barbadoes aloes 2 dr., tartarized antimony 1 dr., warm 
water 4 oz. ; mix, and add castor oil 4 oz. — White. 

4. Laxative Fehi^ifuge in Influenza. Linseed oil 12 oz., 
nitre 3 dr., camphor powdered 1 dr., sweet spirit of nitre 1 
oz., warm water J pint — Clater. 

5. Laxative Anodyne Drink. In inflammation of the 
bowels : Linseed oil 1 pint, opium 2 scruples, sweet spirit of 
nitre 6 dr., warm water 4 oz. — Clater. 

6. Aloes 2 or 3 dr., salt of tartar 1 dr., water or mint- 
water I" pint ; mix, and add castor oil 4 to 6 oz. — White. 

7. A Cooling Purging Drink. Infuse 2 oz. senna with 
3 dr. salt of tartar in a quart of boiling water for 2 hours ; 
strain, and add 4 oz. Glauber's salts, and 2 or 3 dr. of cream 
of tartar. — Bartlett. 

8. Draught for Hepatitis. Carbonate of potash, and 
aloes, each 2 dr. ; dissolve in hot water, shake with 12 oz, 
of linseed oil, and calomel 1 dr. Repeat twice a day with- 
out the aloes, until relief. When pain, add 1 oz. of tincture 
of opium. — Spooner. 


1. B. aloes 2 oz. ; gum Arabic 1 oz. ; powder and mix 


them, and pour on them a pint of boiling water. Take 10 
gr. of farina of croton, and add to it gradually 4 oz. of the 
above solution. Repeat this dose every 6 hours till it oper- 
ates ; in inflammation of the brain. — Clater. 

2. Aloes 1 oz., soap 2 dr., salt of tartar 1 dr., water 
1 pint ; in apoplexy or staggers. — White. 

3. Infuse 1 oz. of senna in a quart of boiling water, strain, 
and add 1 oz. of aloes in powder. — Bourgelat. 

4. Aloes 1 oz., sulphate of magnesia 2 oz., aniseed powder 
|- oz., water a quart. — Lebas. 

5. Aloes 1 oz., syrup of buckthorn 4 oz., warm water a 
quart. — Lebas. 

from Indigestion. 

1. After a ball of aloes and calomel, and clyster of salt 
water : Spirit of sal volatile |- oz., cascarilla powder 2 dr., 
warm water ^ pint ; twice a day ; and the same without the 
cascarilla every hour. — White. 

2. Aloes 3 dr., pimento 2 dr., ginger 1 dr. ; infuse in a 
quart of hot water, and when cold add 2 oz. spirit of tur- 
pentine, and 1 oz. of spirit of hartshorn. Repeat in an 
hour if required. — Blaine. 

3. Laxative Tonic Drinks. Linseed oil 1 pint, powdered 
gentian 2 dr. ; every 6 hours till the bowels are properly 
opened. — Clater. 

4. Common salt 4 oz., ginger 2 dr., magnesia 1 oz., warm 
water 1 quart. — White. 

5. Valerian 1 oz., serpentary ^ oz., saffron 2 dr. ; infuse 
in a pint of boiling water, and, when nearly cold, strain 
off, and add 1 oz. tincture of assafoetida and 2 dr. of 
laudanum. — Taplin. 

6. After a Purgative. Volatile tincture of valerian 1 oz., 
powdered valerian 1^ oz., peppermint water 8 oz. ; mix, for 
a dose. — White. 

TONIC DRENCHES. Tonics are more generally adminis- 
tered in the form of balls. 

1. Mild Tonic in latter stage of Epidemic Catarrh or Dis- 
temper. Gentian 1 dr., powdered ginger |- dr., cascarilla 
1 dr., warm water ^ pint, sweet spirit of nitre ^ oz. to 1 oz. ; 
to be repeated night and morning unless they quicken the 
pulse. — Clater. 

2. Gentian root 2 oz., smaller centaury 1 oz., wormwood 
^ oz. ; boil in 3 pints of water to a quart. — Vatel. 


3. Clark's Bitter Drench. Quassia chips 2 oz., AYater 
3 pints ; boil to 2 pints ; for 3 doses. 

4. Quassia 1 oz., ginger 2 dr., water 2 pints ; boil for 10 
minutes; for 2 doses. 

5. Metallic Tonic. Sulphate of zinc ^ dr., ginger or 
pimento 1 dr., treacle 1 oz. ; mix and add gradually 12 oz. 
of warm water. — B. Clark. 

6. JEgyi^tian Tonic Dririk. In farcy and nasal gleet, 
^gyptiacum \ oz., pirnento or ginger \ dr., warm water 
12 oz. — Clark. 

7. Oantharides Tonic Drench (for the same). Sulphate 
of zinc 15 gr., cantharides 7 gr., pimento 15 gr., treacle 

1 oz., warm water to form a drench. 


1. Guaiacum wood 2 oz., sassafras 1 oz., linseed ^ oz., 
water q. s. to yield a quart of decoction ; boil, strain, and 
add of corrosive sublimate 10 gr., sal ammoniac 2 dr. — 

2. Iodide of potassium 40 gr., iodine 10 gr., water a 
quart. — Moiroud. 

3. Muriate of lime 2 oz., water a quart. — Moiroud. 


1. Common salt 2 oz., infusion of wormwood a quart. 
Repeat it for some days. — Moiroud. 

2. A quart of linseed oil. — Clater. 

3. Oil of turpentine 4 oz., linseed or castor oil 8 oz., 
gruel a pint ; preceded by a mild dose of aloes, and bran 

4. Fern root 2 oz., valerian 1 oz., Dippbl's animal oil 
(empyreumatic oil of hartshorn) 1 oz., yolks of 2 eggs, 
honey 2 oz. ; boil the roots in 2 pints of water to half, in- 
corporate the oil with the egg, and then the honey, and mix 
the whole with the decoction. — Vatel. 

5. Animal oil 1 oz., yolks of 2 eggs, honey 1 oz., water 
or some, bitter infusion a quart. Chabert recommends 
infusion of savorj'- as a vehicle for the oil. — Lebas. 

6. Soot (wood soot?) in fine powder 2 oz., spirit of wine 

2 oz. ; mix, and add a quart of infusion of rue, or of tansy. 
Some practitioners prefer milk as a vehicle for worm medi- 
cines. — Moiroud. For other worm remedies see Worm Balls. 

TEMPER— Pestilential or Putrid Fever. 


1. Gentian 1 dr., calumba 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., laudanum 
^ oz., spirit of nitrous ether J oz., peppermint water 3 oz. — 

2. Gentian 2 oz., willow bark 6 oz., water 3 pints ; boil 
to a quart, and add solution of acetate of ammonia (L. P.) 
6 oz. — MOIROUD. 

3. Dissolve J dr. of chloride of lime in 8 oz. Avater, and 
add spirit of nitric ether J oz., laudanum J oz,, tincture of 
calumba 1 oz. ; twice a day. — Clater. 

4. Bruised bark 3 oz., acetate of ammonia (L. P.) 4 oz., 
camphor 1 dr. ; boil the bark in two quarts of water in a 
covered vessel for a quarter of an hour ; strain, and when 
cool, add the camphor (rubbed with yolk of egg or honey), 
and the acetate of ammonia. — Lebas. 

5. Spirit of nitric ether 1 oz., Mindererus' spirit 4 oz.. 
infusion of chamomile 6 oz., beer yeast 6 oz., tincture of 
opium 3 dr. — Blaine. See also Antiseptic Drenches 

ANTISEPTIC DRENCHES, to check Mortification. 

1. Peruvian bark 1 oz., ginger 2 dr., opium 1 dr., fresh 
beer q. s. — White. 

2. Opium 1 dr., carbonate of ammonia 1 dr., aromatic 
powder 2 dr., camphor 1^ dr., good ale or porter a pint. 

3. Chloride of lime or soda 2 to 3 dr., serpentary in 
powder 1 oz., fresh beer or sweet wort 1 quart. — White. 

tive drink (No. 1) 4 oz., vinegar 4 oz,, thick gruel 4 oz. ; 
repeat it every 6 hours, 7vithout the croto7i, till purging is . 
produced. — Clater. 


leaves 8 oz,, rue 8 oz, ; cut them very fine and boil in 3 
pints of milk, in a close vessel, for an hour, and strain ; 
boil the ingredients another hour in 3 pints of water, and 
strain; mix the decoctions; give a third part every morning 
fasting. — Blaine. 


1. Ergot of rye in fine powder 2 or 3 dr., pennyroyal 
water, or infusion of rue, 1 quart. 

2. Saffron 6 dr., chamomile 2 oz,, boiling water a quart ; 
make an infusion, to be given warm, 1 oz. of dried savin, 
with 1 oz. of cassia, may be substituted for the saffron. — 




1. Opium 1 dr. dissolved in warm water, f pint ; add 1 
quart of starch gruel. 

2. Oil of peppermint 50 drops, dissolved in a pint of 
warm Avater, with 2 oz. of gum Arabic; add tincture of 
opium ^ oz. 

3. Mix tincture of opium J oz., with sweet spirits of 
nitre 1^ oz., essence of peppermint 1 dr., and water 1 pint. 

IODINE DRENCH. Iodide of potassium 2 scruples, iodine 
12 gr. ; titurate together, and add gradually a quart of 
>• water. — Moiroud. 



Solution of Aloes. Aloes 1 part, water 7 parts, proof spirit 
1 part; dissolve the aloes in water by means of a water 
bath, and when removed add the spirit. — Morton. 

Anodyne Carminative Tincture. Opium 1 oz., cloves 1 oz., 
ginger 1 oz., old brandy (or rum or gin) 1 quart ; digest in 
a corked bottle, shaking daily. — White. 

Ethereal Tincture of Opium. Turkey opium 1 lb, spirit of 
nitric ether 8 lb ; macerate for a month. Dose, ^ oz. to 1 
oz., in spasmodic colic. — Dickins. 

Gripe Tincture. Tincture of Pimento. Ground pimento 1 ft), 
rectified spirit, and soft water, of each 3 pints; digest for 
some days and strain; give 4 fluid oz. at once, and repeat 
every hour till relieved. — B. Clark. 

Ticture of Foxglove. Digest 3 oz. of dried foxglove in a quart 
of any spirit. — YoiJATT. 

Infusion of Foxglove. Infuse 1 oz. of powdered foxglove in a 
quart of boiling water till cold. — YoUATT. 

Tincture of Myrrh. Myrrh 2 oz., sand 2 oz., rectified spirit 
and soft water, of each |- pint. — B. Clark. 

Tincture of Aloes and Myrrh. Aloes 12 oz., myrrh 6 oz., 
rectified spirit 1 gallon, water ^ gallon ; digest 14 days, fre- 
quently shaking, and filter. For outward use, rectified 
wood naphtha may be substituted for the spirit. — V. C. 


Tincture for Colic. Opium 1 dr., horseradish 2 oz., capsicum 
1 oz., spirit of nitric ether 1 ft) ; macerate 14 days ; dose, 
1 oz., with 2 oz. of spirit of nitric ether, every 2 hours as 
long as necessary. — Gregory. 

Tincture of Qroton. Bruised croton seeds 1 oz. ; rectified 
spirit 16 oz. Digest for 7 days and filter. Dose J oz. to 
1 oz. in water. 

Tincture of Iodine. Iodine 1 part, rectified spirit 8 parts ; 
dose 1 to 2 dr. — V. C. But the following is preferable : 

Compound Tincture of Iodine. Iodine 1 oz., iodide of potas- 
sium 2 oz., spirit of wine 12 oz. 

Solution of Chloride of Lime. 1. Chloride of lime 1 dr., 
water 8 oz. ; mix in a mortar, and filter. — Clater. 

2. Chloride of lime 1 part, water 10 parts. — Cheval- 


3. Chloride of lime 1 part, water 48 parts. — Labar- 
RAQUE. See Lotions, page 99. 

Solution of Nitre. Nitre 1 part, water 7 parts. — V. C. 

Solution of Ammonio- Sulphate of Copper. Dissolve 1 part 
of sulphate of copper in 4 parts of water, and add ammonia 
until it begins to precipitate. 4 ounces every 8 hours as a 
tonic. — Jeckyll. 

Solution of Henbane. Extract of henbane 4 dr., spirit of 
nitric ether 4 oz. Antispasmodic ; dose, 2 oz., with or 
without solution of aloes. — Wright. 

For Solutions and 11iegt\j^^s for outward use, see External 
Applications, further on. 


Laxative. 1. Aloes 1 oz., water 2 or 3 quarts. — Youatt. 

2. Water gruel 1 gallon, olive oil 1 pint. — White. 

3. Epsom salts 6 oz. (or common salt 6 oz., or soap 2 oz.), 
thin gruel or broth 5 quarts. — Blaine. 

4. Soft soap 2 oz., warm water f of a pailful. — -B. 

5. Infuse 3 oz. senna in 2 quarts of water, and add 
Epsom salts 4 oz., honey 6 oz. — Moiroud. 

6. Chamomiles, fennel seed, coriander seed, of each 1 oz., 
caraways J oz. ; boil in 2 quarts of water to 3 pints ; strain, 


add 2 oz. Epsom salts, and when nearly cool, ^ pint of olive 
oil and -J pint of tincture of senna. — Taplin. 

Purgative. 1. Aloes 8 to 12 dr., salt 8 oz., water 1 gallon : 
in stago-ei-s. — White. 

2. Senna 2 oz., tobacco 2 oz. ; boil for a quarter of an 
hour in 2 quarts of Avater, strain and add common salt 
4 oz., emetic tartar 1 dr. ; for 2 doses. Very irritating. — 

Emollient. Dried mallow leaves, or marshmallow root, 1^ oz., 
-linseed |- oz., water 2 quarts ; boil and strain : to be used 
' warm. — MoiROUU. 

JEmollient and Anodyne. 1. Mix 6 dr. of starch in powder 
with a little cold water, and add it to a decoction of 6 
poppy-heads in 2 quarts of water; boil for an instant and 
strain : in intestinal irritation. — MoiROUD. 

2. Gruel 2 pints, liquid starch or arrowroot 1 pint, 
powdered opium 1 dr. to IJ dr. — White. 

3. Boil 6 poppy-heads in 4 quarts of water till reduced to 
2 quarts : add prepared chalk 2 oz., boiled starch 2 quarts ; 
once or twice a day in diarrhoea, — Blaine. 

4. A double handful of coarse bran, 6 poppy-heads, 2 
quarts of water ; boil and strain. — MoiROUD. 

5. Tripe liquor (or suet boiled in milk) 3 pints, thin 
starch a quart, laudanum ^ oz. : in diarrhoea. 

Cooling. Butter-milk or whey, barley-water, of each a quart. 


Carminative and Stimulayit. 1. Chamomiles 3 oz., aniseed 
or fennel-seed 1| oz., 4 poppy-heads ; boil the poppies in 
sufficient water, and infuse the flowers and seeds in the hot 
decoction. — Vatel. 

2. To expel wind. Boil 1 ft) of figs in 3 quarts of water 
for half an hour, then add 2 handfuls of chopped rue ; 
boil a few minutes, strain and add 8 oz. of olive oil. — 


For G-ripes. Mash 2 onions, pour over them 2 oz. of oil of 
turpentine and 4 quarts of thin gruel. — Blaine. 

Astringent. 1. Alum whey 1 quart, thin starch a quart. 

2. Suet milk 3 pints, starch gruel 2 pints, laudanum 
I oz.' 

Vermifuge. 1. For Thread Worms. Powdered aloes ^ oz., 
powdered gum Arabic |^ oz. ; mix with half pint of boiling 


water : then mix the white of an egg with a quart of 
linseed oil, and gradually add the solution of aloes. — 


2. Infuse 4 oz. of tansy in 2 quarts of water ; strain and 
add 2 oz. of animal oil (empyreumatic oil of hartshorn) ; also 
the worm drenches (Nos. 4 and 6) may be used in this 
method. — Moiroud. 

Uterine Stimulants. 1. Infuse a handful of rue in 2 quarts of 
water, and add 2 oz. of common salt. 

2. Savine 2 oz., sal ammoniac 4 dr. : as the last. 

Diuretic. 1. Nitric 1 oz., decoction of linseed 3 pints. 

2. Compliorated. Incorporate 4 dr. of camphor with the 
yolks of 2 eggs, and add it to the last. — Moiroud. 

For Irritable Bladder. 1. Belladonna leaves 3 oz., water 3 
pints ; boil and administer warm. — MoiROUD. 

2. Extract of belladonna J oz., boiling water IJ pint. 

Nourishing. 1. Thick gruel 3 quarts, ale 1 quart. — Blaine. 

2. Milk 2 quarts, yolks of 4 eggs ; mix, and give warm. — 


3. Strong broth 2 quarts, thickened milk 2 quarts. — 

4. Tripe liquor or broth 3 quarts, flour 4 oz. ; mix the 
flour in the hot broth : repeat frequently. — Moiroud. 



1. Powdered Spanish flies 1 oz., spirit of wine 6 oz., 
water of ammonia 2 oz. ; let it stand for a week, shaking it 
frequently, and strain. (See No. 11.) — White. 

2. Flies 1 oz., euphorbium J oz., oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; 
digest for 2 or 3 days, and pour ofi" the liquid ; digest the 
flies, &c., in 4 oz. of spirit of wine and 2 oz. of water of 
ammonia for 3 or 4 days, shaking frequently ; strain ofi" this 
liquid, and mix it with the former. This is more active than 
the last. — White. 

3. Blaine's Liquid Blister. Spanish flies, coarsely pow- 


dered, 8 oz., oil of turpentine 2 quarts; steep for 3 weeks, 
strain, and add a quart of olive oil. 

4. Blaine's Milder or Siveating Liquid. Mix 4 oz. of 
the last with 6 oz. of oil. 

5. Clater's Strong Liquid Blister. Spirits of turpen- 
tine colored with alkanet, 1 gallon, powdered flies 1 ft) ; 
macerate for a month, shaking daily, then pour off the clear 

- fluid for use. 

6. Common or Siveating Liquid. Mix the last with equal 
parts of spermaceti oil. 

. " 7. Powdered flies 2 oz., spirit of turpentine a pint; digest 
for a few days. — Youatt. 

8. Blistering Liniment for immediate use. Spanish flies in 
fine powder 1 oz., oil of turpentine 6 oz. To be rubbed on 
the belly in inflammation of the bowels. — White. Cantha- 
rides 3 dr., in hartshorn 4 oz. ; in a fortnight strain, and 
add olive oil 4 oz. — Spooner. 

9. Croton Liniment. A tincture of croton nuts with oil 
of turpentine is used as a blister, but is not so efficacious as 
cantharides. — Youatt. 

10. White's Mustard Blister. Best flour of mustard 8 
oz., water enough to form a paste, oil of turpentine 2 oz., 
water of ammonia 1 oz. 

11. Blistering Tincture. Flies 1 oz., proof spirit 8 oz. ; 
macerate 2 or 3 weeks ; mix, and filter. To be rubbed in, 
and repeated next day if necessary. — White. 

12. Saturated tincture of cantharides 1 oz., bichloride of 
mercury 6 gr. — Kent. 

13. Powdered cantharides 1 dr., olive oil 2 oz. To be 
applied every 48 hours for a week in old spavin. — 

14. Oil of Cantharides (by infusion). Digest 1 part of 
powdered cantharides in 8 oz. of olive oil in a water-bath, for 
two hours and strain. 

15. Caniharidal Solution (for setons). Digest 1 part 
of p. flies with 8 of oil of turpentine, with a gentle heat, 
for 14 days ; strain and add to the clear liquid an equal 
weight of Canada balsam. Soak the cotton cord in the 
solution, draw it between the finger and thumb, and dry 
it. — Morton". 


1. Soft soap 4 oz., camphor 1 oz., proof spirit 2 pints, 
water of ammonia J pint. — V. C. 


2. Sweet oil 2 oz., spirit of hartshorn 1 oz., oil of tur- 
pentine I oz. — White. 

3. Common oil 6 oz., liquid blister 2 or 3 oz. : in chronic 
sprains, — Blaine. 

4. Soap Liniment. Soft soap 4 oz., water 8 oz. ; dissolve, 
and add 1 pint of rectified spirit, in which is dissolved 2 oz. 
camphor, 1 oz. oil of rosemary, and 2 to 4 oz. strong water 
of ammonia. — White. 

5. For splints : Oil of origanum 1 oz., spirit of turpentine 
1 oz., spirit of wine J oz. To be applied night and morn- 
ing for a few days, discontinuing it as often as any moisture 
appears. — Lancet. 

6. For the same purpose : Oil of origanum ^ oz., oil 
of turpentine J oz., camphorated spirit of wine 2 oz. — 

T. For sprains, old swellings, rheumatism, &c. : Spirit of 
hartshorn 2 oz., camphorated spirit 2 oz., oil of turpentine 1 
oz., laudanum ^ oz., oil of origa,num 1 dr. 

8. Camphorated oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of 
origanum 1 dr. 

9. For callous swellings after bruises : Soap liniment 4 . 
oz., camphor 2 dr., water of ammonia 1 oz. 

10. For indolent tumors : Mercurial ointment 2 oz., olive 
oil 2 dr., camphor 2 dr. 

11. Olive oil 4 oz., water of ammonia 2 oz., oil of turpen- 
tine 2 oz. 

12. For strains : Barbadoes tar 2 oz,, spirit of turpentine 
2 oz., opodeldoc 4 oz. — Taplin. 

13. Oil of turpentine 2 parts, muriatic acid 1 part. — . 

14. Camphorated oil 4 parts, oil of turpentine and tinc- 
ture of cantharides, of each 2 parts, acetic acid 1 oz. — 

15. Turpentine Liniment. Equal parts of oil of turpen- 
tine and oil. Digestive and rubefacient. — V. C. 

16. Compound Turpentine Linhnent. Soft soap 4 oz., 
camphor 1 oz., oil of turpentine 16 oz. ; mix. — V. C. 

LINIMENT FOR BOG SPAVIN. Mercurial ointment 2 oz., 
oil of cantharides 4 dr. — Morton. 

LINIMENT FOR SORE BACKS. Extract of lead i oz., 
vinegar 1 oz., olive oil 2 oz. — White. 



1. Equal parts of oil of tar, oil of turpentine, and seal 
oil. Apply every second day for 2 or 3 times, then wash. 

—V. c. 

2. Sulphur 4 oz., turpentine 4 oz., oil of tar and train oil 
6 or 8 oz. The parts to be first washed with soft soap, and 

3. For lice : Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic acid 3 dr., tobacco 
, water 2 pints, oil of turpentine 4 oz. — White. 

Liniment for Mange: Goulard's extract of lead 2 oz., 
olive or rape oil, 2 oz., sulphur 1 oz. 

THRUSHES. See also Caustics and Lotions. 

1. Barbadoes tar 1 oz., oil of turpentine 1|- oz. ; mix 
carefully, and add oil of vitrol 1 dr. — White. 

2. Butter of antimony alone. 

3» Crystallized verdigris in fine powder 1 oz., honey 2 
oz., bole and alum of each ^ oz., vinegar to form a liniment ; 
to be mixed over a gentle fire. Greasy applications are to 
be avoided. — White. 

See also Detergent Liniments. 


1. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of vitriol 2 dr. by measure ; 
mix in a large gallipot, and when cool, add 2 oz., of linseed 
oil.— ;-White. 

2. j^gyptiacum. Bruised sulphate of copper 12 oz., vine- 
gar 4 ft), treacle 3 ft) ; place over a clear fire, and let it boil 
up. — B. Clark. 

3. Wash for Grease. Sulphate of copper 2 dr., and alum 
2 dr. in water 1 pint. 


See also Embrocations. 

Oreasote Liniment. Creasote 2 oz.. oil of turpentine 4 oz. 
olive oil 4 oz. ; mix : in fistulous sores, unhealthy wounds, 
&c.— V. C. 

Oil of Cantharides. Powdered flies 1 oz., olive oil 8 oz. ; 
digest in a water-bath for 2 or 3 hours and filter. — V. C. 

Groulard Liniment. Extract of lead 1 oz., olive oil 4 oz. — 
Morton. For excoriated surfaces, &c. 

Saturnine Balsam. Acetate of lead 1 oz., oil of turpentine 2 
oz. ; digest with a gentle heat. — MoiROUD. 


Drying Liniment. Linseed oil and spirit of wine, of each 
equal parts. — Solleysell. 

MarshmaUow Liniment. Olive oil and marshmallow ointment, 
of each 4 oz. ; melt the ointment and add the oil. — 


Emollient and Anodyne Liniment. Neatsfoot oil 4 oz., pop- 
lar ointment, marshmallow ointment, of each 2 oz. — 


Lime-water Liniment. Lime-water 8 oz., olive or linseed oil 
2 oz. 

Narcotic Liniment. Olive oil 4 oz., laudanum 2 oz. — I 


Liniment for Confirmed Grease. Verdigris, sugar of lead, of 
each J oz., honey 1 oz. ; mix. — Clater. 

Compound Lodine Liniment. Iodine 1 oz., soap liniment 8 
oz.— V. C. 

Turpentine Liniment. Equal parts of turpentine and olive 
oil.— V. C. 

Resolvent Liniment. Olive oil 2 oz., strong mercurial oint- 
ment, 2 dr., water of ammonia 2 dr. 

Black Oils. Olive (or rape) oil 1 pint, oil of turpentine 2 oz., 
mix and add gradually 6 dr. of sulphuric acid; leave the 
bottle open till cold. — Percivall. 

Oils for Mange. Oil of turpentine 1 pint ; add to it very 
gradually and cautiously 2 oz. oil of vitriol, stirring the 
mixture constantly, then add a quart of linseed oil ; from 
4 to 8 oz. to be rubbed in with a brush every second day, 
for three or four times. — Clater. 

Ward's White Oils. Spirit of wine, oil of turpentine, rape 
oil, beef brine, camphor, of each equal parts. 

White Oils or Egg Oils. 1. Yolks of 2 eggs, 3 oz. solu- 
tion of ammonia, 1 oz. oil of origanum, 4 oz. oil of tur- 
pentine, a pint of vinegar ; mix, s. a. — Pharmaceutical 

2. Distilled vinegar 1-| pint, oil of turpentine 1^ dr., 
spirit of wine 1-| oz,, Goulard's extract of lead J oz., 
whites and yolks of 2 eggs: mix the turpentine and Goulard 
with the eggs, gradually add the vinegar, and lastly the 
spirit. — Redwood's Gray's Supplement. 



Liniment of Ammonia. This is sometimes termed White 
Oils. Olive or rape oil 4 oz., water of ammonia 1 oz. 
Sometimes 1 oz. of oil of turpentine is added to increase its 

Darby's Oils. Equal parts of oil of amber, Barbadoes tar, and 
balsam of sulphur. 

Marshall's Oils. Linseed oil 1 ft), olive or rape oil 1 ft), 
green oil J ft), oil of turpentine ^ ft), oil of vitriol 1|- dr. 

N.ewmarlcet Oils. Linseed oil, oil of turpentine, green oil, of 
>■ each 3 ft), oil of vitriol 1 oz. 

% Nine Oils. Train oil 23 fij, oil of turpentine 6 fb., oil of bricks 
1 lb, oil of amber 1 ft), spirit of camphor 2 lb, Barbadoes 
tar 7 lb, oil of vitriol 2 oz. — Gray's Supplement. 

Radley's Oils. Barbadoes tar 8 oz., linseed 4 oz., oil of 
turpentine 4 oz. 

Lord Stamford's 3Iixed Oils. Oil of origanum 6 oz., oil of 
turpentine 24 oz., spirit of wine 16 oz., green oil 6 ft), cam- 
phor 3 oz. 


(See also Liximexts and Lotions.) 

Embrocation for Strains. 1. Soft soap 1 oz., spirit of wine 
4 oz., oil of rosemary 2 dr., camphor 2 dr. 

2. For strains in the shoulder : oil of turpentine 1 oz., 
camphorated spirit 2 oz. — Blacker. 

3. Equal quantities of soft soap, oil of turpentine, spirit 
of wine, and elder ointment. — White. 

4. Soft soap 2 oz., oil of bays 1 oz., water of ammonia 
1|- oz., oil of origanum J oz. 

5. Barbadoes tar 2 oz., spirit of turpentine 2 oz., opo- 
deldoc 4 oz. After fomenting with hot vinegar and 
Goulard. — Taplin. 

Mustard JEmbroeations. 1. Mustard flour 4 oz., water ot 
ammonia \^ oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., water enough to 
bring it to the consistence of cream. 

2. Camphor 1 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz., water of am- 
monia 2 oz., flour of mustard 8 oz., water to form a thin 
paste. — White. 


Embrocations for Poll-evil. Spirit of wine J pint, camphor 2 
dr., Goulard's extract of lead 1 dr. ; mix. — Hinds. See 
DiscuTiENT Lotions. 

Embrocations for Saddle-galls or Warbles. 1. Goulard's ex- 
tract of lead 2 dr., distilled vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wine, 4 
oz. — White. 

2. Soap liniment and Mindererus' spirit, equal parts. 

3. Sal ammoniac J oz., muriatic acid 2 dr., water 8 to 
12 oz. 

4. White vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wine 3 oz., sugar of lead 
2 dr., water 6 oz. ; mix. — Hinds. 

Claek's Embrocatio Frigorifera. Vinegar 4 oz., camphor 
(dissolved in spirit) |- oz., water to fill up a wine-bottle. 

Clark's Embrocatio Excitans. Olive oil 3 oz., camphor J 
dr., spirit of turpentine |^ oz., water of ammonia 3 dr. 

TAFLm's Embrocation for Windgalls. Oil of origanum, spirit 
of turpentine, of each J oz., camphorated spirit 1 oz. 
Applied with tow, and covered with a piece of lead bound 


COOLING LOTIONS, for external inflammation. . 

1. Sal ammoniac 1 oz., nitre 2 oz., water 16 oz. To be 
used as soon as made. — Morton. 

2. Goulard's extract of lead 1 oz., vinegar 2 oz., cam- 
phorated spirit 3 oz., water 16 oz. ; for recent spavin. — r' 

3. V. C. Groulard Water. Goulard's extract 2 dr., spirit 
2 dr., soft water 1 pint. 

4. White's Saturnine Lotion. Sugar of lead 1 oz., vine- 
gar and water 1 pint. 

5. B. Clark's Lotio Refrigerans. Liquor of diacetate of 
lead 1 dr., spirit of nitric ether 1 dr., water 2 pints. In 
slight rubs and bruises. 

DISCUTIENT LOTIONS for dispersing indolent tumors, and 
saddle-galls, and for chronic strains, &c. 

1. Mindererus' spirit 4 oz., camphorated spirit 4 oz., 
water 16 oz. — Percivall. 

2. Sal ammoniac 1 oz., vinegar 8 oz., camphorated spirit 
1 oz. — Morton. 


3. For saddle-galls and warbles : Goulard's extract 2 dr., 
distilled vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wine 4 oz. — White. 

4. Muriate of ammonia ^ oz., muriatic acid 2 dr., water 
8 to 12 oz. ; for saddle-galls and windgalls. — White. 

5. Blaine's Saline Embrocation. Sal ammoniac 8 oz., 
vinegar 3 pints. 

6. Mindererus' spirit 2 oz., soap liniment 2 oz. — White. 

7. For warbles : white vinegar 3 oz., spirit of wine 3 oz,, 
sugar of lead 2 dr., water 6 oz. — Hinds. 

8. Strong solution of salt 1 oz., tincture of myrrh ^ oz., 
. for saddle-galls. — Youatt. 

9. Common salt 4 oz., vinegar J pint, cold water 1 quart, 
spirit of wine and laudanum, each 1 oz. : in incipient poll- 
evil. — Clater. 

10. White vinegar, 1 pint, extract of lead 2 oz., cam- 
phorated spirit 4 oz., soft water 1 pint. — Taplin. 

li. For strains : Bay salt ^ lb., sal ammoniac 2 oz., 
sugar of lead ^ oz., vinegar 1 J pint, water 1 pint. 

ASTRINGENT LOTIONS, for drying up sores and diminish- 
ing their discharge (especially in grease and scratched heels), 
after the inflammation has been subdued by linseed or carrot 

1. Alum 4 oz., boiling water 1 pint, for grease and cracked 
heel. — Taplin. 

2. Alum 2 dr., sulphate of zinc 1 scruple, water 1 pint. — 

3. Mild, for cracks : Sugar of lead 2 dr., sulphate of zinc 
1 dr., infusion of oak bark 1 pint. — Blaine. 

4. For confirmed grease : Nitric acid 1 oz., water 8 oz. — 

5. Strong : Blue vitriol ^ oz., alum 3 dr., water 1 pint. — 

6. Sugar of lead 1 oz., blue vitriol 1 oz., water 1 quart. — 

7. Lime-water 16 oz., spirit of camphor J oz., sugar of 
lead 1 dr. — Bourgelat. 

8. Sulphate of iron 2 oz., alum 2 oz., vinegar 8 oz., water 
3|. pints. — Moiroud. 

9. Tincture of myrrh 1 oz., camphorated spirit 1 oz., dis- 
tilled vinegar and water, each 2 oz. — Taplin. 

10. For anburies : Alum 2 oz., water 1 pint, sulphuric 
acid 1 dr. 


11. Sulphate of iron 1 oz., water 1 quart; dissolve and 
add ^ oz. (by weight) of oil of vitriol. To wash farcy buds 
after they have been opened. — Clatee. 

DETERGENT LOTIONS, for foul ulcers. 

1. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., nitric acid J oz., water 6 
• oz. — White. 

2. Sulphate of copper 1 oz,, sulphuric acid 12 drops, 
water 4 oz. 

3. Sulphate of copper 2 dr., water 1 pint : for stimulating 
old ulcers. — Youatt. 

4. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., water 1 oz. ; to remove 
fungous granulations. 

5. Nitrous acid 1 oz., quicksilver J oz., dissolve, and add 
water 8 oz. 


1. White hellebore 2 oz., tobacco 2 oz., water 3 pints ; 
boil, strain, and add, when cold, a pint of fresh lime-water. — 

2. Boil 4 oz. of white hellebore in 3 pints of water to 2 . 
pints, and add corrosive sublimate 2 dr., previously dissolved 
in 3 dr. of muriatic acid. — White. 

3. Boil 2 oz. of tobacco in a quart of water, strain, and 
add common salt 3 oz., soap 2 oz. — Lebas. 

4. Liver of sulphur 2 oz., water 1 quart. — Moiroud. 

5. Liver of sulphur 4 oz., soft soap 16 oz., water 2 gallons. 
— Lebas. 

6. Acid nitrate of mercury 2 dr., distilled water 16 oz. — 

7. Mercurial Wash. Sublimate 2 dr., spirit of wine 2 
oz., water 2 pints. — Clark. 

8. Chloride of lime 1 lb, water a gallon. Mix. — Lucas. 


Qonglutinum. Sulphate of zinc 4 oz., water a pint. — Bracy 

Blaeh WasJi. For sluggish ulcers : Calomel 2 dr., lime-water 
1 pint. 

Yellow Wash. Sublimate 8 gr., lime-water 2 oz. 

Nitric Acid Lotion. Nitric acid 2 or 3 dr., water 1 pint ; for 
exciting sluggish ulcers. — Morton. 


Lotion of Nitrate of Silver. For the same : Nitrate of silver 
10 gr.j distilled water 1 oz. — Youatt. 

Lotion for Farcy. Dissolve 1 oz. of sulphate of iron in a 
quart of water, and add J oz. of oil of vitriol. — Clater. 

Styptic Lotion, for Stopping Bleeding. Alum 2 oz., sulphate 
of zinc 2 dr., water 1 quart. 

Catechu Lotion for Ulcers of the Mouth. Infuse two oz. of 

catechu in a quart of boiling water for an hour ; strain 

• and add 1 oz. of spirit of wine. (For saddle-galls add 4 

oz. of tincture of catechu and 8 oz. common salt.) — Clater. 

Lotion of Chloride of Lime. To chloride of lime 1 lb add 
gradually 1 gallon of water ; mix, and filter or decant : 
for mange, and as a stimulant to unhealthy wounds and 
fistulous sores. Diluted with 10 or 15 parts of water, it is 
used as a lotion for grease, exfoliated bones, &c., and is a 
disinfectant for foul stables. For ulcers of the tongue, mix 
1 dr. of chloride of lime with a pint of water : for mange, 4 
dr. to a pint. 

Wash for destroying Lice about the Legs. Corrosive sublimate 
1 dr., muriatic acid 3 dr., tobacco-water 1 quart, oil of tur- 
pentine 4 oz. — White. 

Alum 3Louth Wash. Alum 2 dr., sage tea a quart. — Eckel. 

For Bruised Gums. Alum 2 dr., tincture of myrrh 1 oz., 
honey 1 oz., water 2 oz. — Spooner. 

Acid Collutorimn. Infusion of sage a quart, muriatic acid 1 
oz., flour 3 oz., honey 8 oz. To be applied to the mouth 
frequently. — Eckel. 


1. Tobacco 4 oz., boiling water a quart ; infuse for 24 
hours. — Clark. 

2. Mercurial. Sublimate 2 dr., spirit of wine 2 oz., 
water 1 quart. 

LIQUID CAUSTIC, for canker and thrush, for foul, un- 
healthy wounds, to remove proud flesh, &c. See also Lini- 
ments (Detergent). 


1. Tincture of muriate of iron. 


2. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., water from 4 oz. (V. C.) to 
a pint. — Clater. 

3. Saturated solution of sulphate of zinc: in quitters. — 

4. Alum ^ oz., borax J oz., boiling water 4 oz., styptic 
tincture 1 oz. — Taplin. 

5. Muriatic acid, alone or diluted. 

6. ^gyptiacum 2 oz., nitrous acid 20 drops. 

7. Any of the stronger caustics (except butter of anti- 
mony) diluted with water. 

8. Goulard's extract 4 oz., sulphate of zinc 2 oz., sul- 
phate of copper 2 oz. ; white vinegar 32 oz. — Yillate. 

9. Aloes 5 oz., weak spirit 10 oz.; dissolve, and add 6 oz. 
sulphuric acid. — Duville. 


1. Butter of antimony. This is the safest and most use- 
ful caustic in canker. 

2. Dissolve 1 oz. quicksilver, by heat, in 2 oz. of nitric 
acid, and evaporate till the liquid weighs 2J oz. 

3. Verdigris 1 oz., nitrous (red nitric) acid 1 oz. ; dissolve. 
— White. 

4. Red precipitate 1 oz., nitrous acid 2 oz. — White. 

5. Nitrous acid alone, or with a little water. 

6. Sulphuric acid, alone or with a little water. 

7. Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic acid 2 dr., water q. s. — 

8. For canker : Dissolve corrosive sublimate ^ oz. in 
muriatic acid 1 oz., then add spirits of wine 4 oz., and water 
4 oz. 

9. Chloride of zinc with enough water to dissolve it ; or 
Sir William Burnett's Patent Solution. 


1. Lunar caustic 1 dr., distilled water J oz. — Blaine. 

2. Corrosive sublimate 2 dr., water 3 oz. 

Scalding Mixture for Poll-evil. 1. Sublimate 2 dr., verdigris 
2 dr., blue vitriol 2 dr., sulphate of iron 4 dr., honey 2 oz., 
oil of turpentine 8 oz., spirit of wine 4 oz. ; to be applied 
hot, and confined by stitches. — Gibson. 

3. Sublimate 1 dr., finely powdered and mixed with 4 oz. 
of basilicon, and melted to scalding hea^t. — Blaine. 

4. Caustic potash 1 dr., rubbed down with 4 oz. oil of 
turpentine. — Blaine. 


CAUSTIC FOR FARCY BUDS. Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic 
acid 3 dr., spirit of nyine 1 oz., water J oz. — White. 

SOLID CAUSTICS. Lunar Caustic, Caustic Potash, and 
Chloride of Zinc. See Argenti Nitras, Potassae Hydras, 
and Zinci Chloridum, Pocket Formulary. 

Oanquoins Caustic is made by mixing chloride of zinc with 
- twice its weight of flour and a little water into a stiff paste, 
which is to be rolled out to the required thickness, and 
cut to the size of the part to be destroyed, the skin being 
. previously removed by a blister. Another caustic is made 
with 2 pavts of chloride of zinc, 1 of butter of antimony, 
and 5 of flour. 

Sulphuric Caustic is made by triturating hay saffron with oil 
of vitriol, so as to form a ductile mass. Bouchardat recom- 
mends solidifying the acid by ivory or lamp-black. 

Solidified Nitric Acid is merely lint soaked with strong nitric 
acid, squeezed and formed to the required shape. 

Filho's Caustic is made by melting together in an iron ladle 
2 parts of caustic potash and 1 of lime over a quick fire, 
and pouring it into leaden tubes of the desired size. The 
air must be excluded when not in use, by beeswax, or other 


These should be applied moderately warm (about 120°) 
by means of flannel dipped in the liquid, and frequently 
renewed from time to time, keeping the parts covered. 

Emollient. 1. Coarse bran 2 double handfuls, water 6 quarts, 
boil and strain. 

2. Mallow-leaves 8 oz., water 4 quarts ; boil and strain ; 
6 poppy-heads may be added. 

Anodyne. 1. Boil 24 poppy-heads and 2 handfuls of hem- 
lock in 6 quarts of water for two hours, and strain. — 

2. Belladonna 2 handfuls, 6 poppy-heads, water 3 quarts; 
boil and strain. — MoiROUD. 

3. Dried wormwood and chamomile, of each 4 oz,, bay- 
leaves 2 oz., rue 3 oz. ; boil in a gallon of water. 

4. Take wormwood, chamomile, mallow (or either of 
them), cut them to pieces, and put 2 handfuls into a bucket. 


pour scalding water on them, and cover with a cloth. — 
B. Clark. 

Discutient and Astringent. Vinegar or verjuice 1 quart ; make 
it hot, and add 2 oz. of Goulard's extract of lead ; apply 
warm, in strains of the sinews of the legs. — Taplin. 


1. Acetate of lead, and sulphate of zinc, each |- dr. to 
1 dr. ; dissolve them separately in J pint of water ; mix, 
and filter. 

2. Sugar of lead 10 to 20 grains, water 8 oz. — Morton. 

3. Extract of lead 1 dr., spirit 2 dr., water 8 oz. — 

4. Acetate of ammonia (L. P.) 3 oz., rose-water 6 oz. — 

5. Sugar of lead 2 dr., vinegar J oz., soft water 16 oz., 
rose-water 4 oz. — Blaine. 

6. Infuse 1 oz. of foxglove in 2 pints of boiling water, and 
strain. — YoUATT. 

7. Tincture of opium 2 dr., water 8 oz., extract of lead 1 
dr. — White. 

8. Brandy 1 oz., vinegar 1 oz., tincture of opium 2 dr., 
rose-water 8 oz. — Blaine. 

9. Extract of henbane 1 dr., water 8 oz. — White. 

10. Decoction of poppies 8 oz., saffron J dr. ; infuse the 
saffron in the hot decoction. — Lebas. 

11. Lapis divinus 3 dr., soft water J pint. — Clater. 

12. Common salt | dr., water 6 oz. — Youatt. 

13. For Watery Bloodshot Eyes. Burnt alum 1 oz., 
calcined white vitriol 1 oz., boiling water 3 pints. — 

14. Emollient. Infusion of marshmallow leaves or flowers 
1 quart, starch (rubbed smooth with a little water) |^ oz. ; 
mix and boil. To be used warm. — Moiroud. 

15. Astringent. Alum 2 dr., whites of 2 eggs, water \ 
pint ; mix in a mortar. — Bourgelat. 

16. Tincture of digitalis J oz., soft water 8 oz. — Clater. 

17. To remove Opacity of the Cornea. Nitrate of silver 
10 gr., distilled water 1 oz. 1 or 2 drops to be dropped in 
the eye. — Youatt. 

18. For Cloudiness of the Eye. Sublimate 4 gr., spirit 
of wine 20 drops ; rub together, and add soft water 4 oz. 


A few drops to be introduced into the eye 3 or 4 times a 
day. — Clater. 

19. Tincture of aloes 1 oz., rose-water 8 oz. — Lebas. 

20. Stimulating. Infusion of elder flowers 16 oz., brandy 
2 oz. MOIROUD. 

21. Lapis mirabilis ^ oz., water 4 to 8 oz. The Lapis 
mirahilis is thus made : White vitriol 2 Ife, rock alum 3 K), 

-fine bole ^ ifo, litharge 2 oz., water 3 quarts; boil together 
to dryness. — Solleysell. 

22. Alum Collyrium. Decoction of marshmallow 16 oz., 
alum 2 dr., camphorated spirit 1 dr. ; mix. To be used 
towards the decline of inflammation. — Strauss. 

23. Tannin Collyrium. Dissolve 1 dr. of tannin in 13 oz. 
of water, and add 3 oz. of cherry-laurel water. 

24. Sulphate of zinc 8 gr., water 4 oz. In chronic in- 
flammation. — Clater. 

25. In Specific Ophthalmia. Tincture of opium 2 dr., 
extract of belladonna 1 dr.^ with distilled water 1 pint. 


Styptic Stone. Sulphate of iron 8 oz., sal ammoniac, sul- 
phate of zinc, and oxide of copper, each 1 oz. ; mix, and 
melt together with a gentle heat. About the size of a nut 
of this compound to be dissolved in a quart of warm water 
and applied with compresses renewed every 3 or 4 hours : 
for saddle-galls, kicks, sprains, bruises, ulcers, and as a col- 
lyrium. — Knaup. 

Lapis Livinus. Sulphate of copper, alum, nitre, of each 3 
oz. ; melt together, and stir in 1 dr. of camphor : used in 
eye-waters and lotions. 

Wound Stone. Alum, sulphate of zinc, of each 3 oz., verdi- 
gris and sal ammoniac, of each 1 dr. ; melt together, and 
add ^ dr. of powdered saffron : detergent and drying. 

Clark's Conglutinum. Sulphate of zinc 4 oz., water a pint. 

Solution of Alum. Alum 1 oz., water 16 oz. Dissolve. — 

V..C. ■ 

Solution of Sulphate of Zinc. Sulphate of zinc 1 oz., water 3 
oz. — V. C. In quitters it is usually diluted. 

Solution of Sulphate of Copper. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., 
water 4 oz. — V. C. 


Comjjound Solution of the same. Sulphate of copper 3 oz., 
alum 3 oz., water 2 Bb, sulphuric acid IJ oz. 

Solution of Bichloride of Mercury. Sublimate, hydrochloric 
acid, each 1 part, spirit of water 7 parts. — V. C. 

G-oulard Water. Extract of lead 1 oz., camphorated spirit 2 
oz., rain-water a quart. — Taplin. V. C. use extract of lead 
and rectified spirit, each 2 dr., soft water 1 pint. 

Tincture of Catechu, See P. F. Used externally for 

Tincture of Euphorhium. Euphorbium 1 oz., rectified spirit 
6 oz. 

Alkaline Tincture of Euphorhium. Euphorbium 8 oz., solu- 
tion of subcarbonate of potash 3 pints : used as a caustic and 
stimulant, particularly in curbs after the inflammation has 
been subdued. 

Compound Tincture of Cantharides. Powdered flies 4, euphor- 
bium 1, proof spirit 24 parts. — Lebas. 

Styptic Tincture. Tincture of myrrh, spirit of camphor, and 
Fryars' balsam, equal parts. — Taplii^. 

^gyptiacum. (Veterinary.) Sulphate of copper in powder 12 
oz., vinegar 4 oz., treacle 48 oz. ; boil together to a proper 
consistence. — B. Clark. 

^gyptiacum tvith Turpentine. Honey 28 oz., pyroligneous 
acid 14 oz., powdered verdigris 10 oz. ; boil together in a 
copper vessel till the mixture has a reddish-purple color and 
the consistence of thin honey ; add Venice turpentine 28 oz., 
and keep it on a slow fire, stirring constantly for a quarter 
of an hour. — Leloup. 

Liniment of Verdigris. V. C. Verdigris in fine powder 9 oz., 
alum 6 oz., treacle IJ Bb. Boil until the compound assumes 
a brown color. 

Liniment of Sulphate of Copper. Powdered sulphate of copper 
1 part, treacle 4 parts. Simmer in a pipkin over a slow fire 
until the whole assumes a reddish-brown color. In canker, 
severe thrush, ^c. — Morton. 


These are useful in reducing inflammation and relieving pain. 
They should not be used too hot, nor applied too tightly, 
especially to the feet. 



1. Bran moistened with hot water, and as much linseed 
meal added as will give it tenacity. — V. C. 

2. Boil a quart of bran for ten minutes with enough water 
to make a thin mash, then add to it 4 oz. of linseed meal : 
apply it in a flannel bag. — Blaine. 

3. Fine bran 3 parts, linseed meal 1 part, hot water q. s. 


1. Oatmeal ^ pint, linseed meal ^ pint, charcoal 4 oz., 
beer grounds q. s. 

2. Carrots scraped, or carrots boiled, with charcoal powder 
q. s. A?itiseptic. — Blaine. 


1. Linseed meal, oatmeal, boiling water, q. s. ; mix, and 
ferment with a tablespoonful of yeast ; in old grease with an 
offensive smell. — Blaine. 

2. In gangrene : add 2 oz. of turpentine to the last. — 


1. Boil poppy-heads in water, strain, and add linseed meal 
to stiffen it. — Youatt. 

2. Sprinkle the surface of a simple poultice with lauda- 

CLEANSING POULTICES. Mashed turnips, not pressed, 
with enough linseed meal, or oatmeal, to give them consist- 
ence ; or, the charcoal poultice above. 


1. Boil 2 ft) of chopped onions in water, and add to it 
the crumb of a 4-ft) loaf. — Hinds. 

2. Sorrel boiled and squeezed 4 parts, onions baked in 
ashes 1 part, basilicon ointment 1 part; mix, and apply 
warm. — Vatel. 


1. Rye meal 8 oz., prepared chalk 2 oz., vinegar 10 oz. ; 
mix, warm, and stir, till no more gas is disengaged ; apply 
warm. — Solleysell. 

2. Linseed meal 12 oz., powdered hemlock 4 oz., muriate 
of ammonia 4 oz., vinegar q. s. : to indolent glandular 
tumors. — Lebas. 



1. To a linseed meal poultice add 1 or 2 dr. of Goulard's 
extract of lead. — Youatt. 

2. Bread and barley-meal equal parts, Goulard water q. 
s.j lard 4 or 6 oz. — Taplin. 

CHLORINE POULTICE. Chloride of lime J oz., water 
1 pint, linseed meal q. s. : to grease, when offensive. — 



1. The herb cleavers (or goose grass) beaten to a paste. 

2. Mash bread and boiled turnips with stale beer, and stir 
in 1 oz. flour of mustard, turpentine 2 oz., linseed meal 2 
oz., lard 6 oz. ; night and morning. — Taplin. 


1. Mustard flour and linseed meal, equal parts ; mix with 
sufiicient hot vinegar to give a proper consistence. 

2. Flour of black mustard 3 Bb, hot vinegar, or water, q. 
s. — MOIROUD. 


1. Fresh horseradish root, grated, and immediately ap- 
plied. — MOIROUD. 

2. Stronger. Old yeast 2 ft), flour of black mustard, 1 ft), 
euphorbium powder 4 oz., vinegar q. s. ; mix and apply 



1. Simple Cerate. Olive oil 1 pint, beeswax 4 oz. 

2. Spermaceti Ointment. Lard 12 oz., white wax 2 oz., 
spermaceti 1 oz. 

BLISTERING OINTMENTS. The Spanish flies should be 
finely powdered, and the heat moderate. 

1. Lard 4 oz., common turpentine 1 oz., p. flies 1 oz. ; 
melt the lard and turpentine, and stir in the powdered 
flies. — V. C. Mr. Youatt substitutes resin for the tur- 

2. Venice turpentine and resin, of each 1 ft), palm oil or 
lard 2 ft) ; melt together, and gradually stir in one ft) of pow- 
dered flies. — Blaine. 


3. Palm oil 4 ft), resin 1 ft) ; melt together, and stir in 1 ft) 
of powdered flies.— Clater. 

4. Mild. Lard 4 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., p. flies 6 
dr. — White. 

5. Stronger. Mercurial ointment 2 oz., oil of bays 2 oz., 
Barbadoes tar 1 oz., oil of rosemary 2 dr., p. flies 1 oz.-^ 

6. Strong. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of vitriol 2 fluid 
dr. ; mix in a basin, and add melted lard 6 oz., oil of ori- 
ganum 1 oz., poAvdered flies 1 to 2 oz. — WhIte. 

Strongest. Strong mercurial ointment 4 oz., oil of ori- 
ganum J oz., finely powdered euphorbium 3 dr., p. flies |- oz. 
— White. 

8. Blaine's 3Iercurial. Common blister (No. 2, above) 
4 oz., sublimate in fine powder ^ dr. ; for splints, spavins, 

- &c. 

9. For common purposes. Lard 6 oz., Venice turpentine 
4 oz., beeswax 2 oz., yellow resin |- -oz., oil of origanum J 
oz., powdered cantharides 3 oz. It may be softened in winter 
by rubbing it with a little turpentine. — White. 

10. Powdered flies 5 dr., lard 4 oz., oil of turpentine, 1 
oz. — Hinds. 

11. Mustard Blister. Best flour of mustard 8 oz., water 
to form a paste. — Youatt. Others add 2 oz. oil of turpen- 
tine, and 1 oz. pure water of ammonia. 

Note. — The hair should be clipped closely, or shaved ofi", the 
part fomented with Avarm water, and the blistering ointment 
well rubbed in. In inflammation of the lungs, &c., blister- 
ing is more successful after bleeding. In 24 hours a little 
olive or neatsfoot oil should be applied, and repeated night 
and morning. The head should be tied up for the first 2 
days, and the litter removed from the stable. If strangury 
is produced give plenty of linseed tea. The simplest blisters 
are perhaps the best for common purposes. Sublimate blem- 
ishes. Sweating down is effected by milder stimulants ; for 
this purpose, the liquid blister (see p. 93) is lowered by some 
mild oil, &c. 

DETERGENT OINTMENTS, for cleansing foul and indolent 

1. Suet 4 oz., Venice turpentine 6 oz., red precipitate, . 
finely powdered 2 oz. — White. 

2. Citrine ointment, alone or with \ its weight of Venice 


8. Sulphate of zinc 1 dr., sulptiate of copper 1 dr., oil of 
. turpentine 2 dr. ; grind smooth, and mix it with 4 oz. of 
melted tallow. See also Digestive Ointments, No. 4. 

4. Yellow basilicon 2 oz., black basilicon 1 oz. ; melt 
together, remove from the fire, add 1 oz. of turpentine, and 
|- oz. finely powdered red precipitate. — Taplin. 

5. Verdigris Ointment. — Verdigris in fine powder 1 part, 
common turpentine 1 part, lard 12 parts : mix. — Morton, 

DIGESTIVE OINTMENTS, to promote a discharge from 
unhealthy and indolent ulcers. 

1. Resin 16 oz., linseed oil 12 oz. ; melt together with a 
gentle heat. — Clark. 

2. Strained turpentine, honey, of each 2 oz. ; yolks of 
4 eggs, myrrh ^ oz., aloes 1 oz. ; mix. — Solleysell. 

3. Equal parts of common turpentine and lard melted 
together. — White. 

4. To 1 ib of the last add 1 oz. of finely powdered ver- 
digris. — White. 

5. Yellow wax 3 oz., common turpentine 3 oz., black 
pitch 1 oz., resin 6 oz., linseed oil 16 oz. ; melt together 
with a gentle heat, then add oil of turpentine 4 oz., and stir 
till cold. 

6. Olive oil 1 pint, yellow wax and black resin, of each 
4 oz.. Burgundy pitch and turpentine, of each 2 oz. ; melt 
the other ingredients, and add the turpentine when it is 
removed from the fire. — Taplin. 

7. Common turpentine 1 part, lard 3 parts ; melt together. 
— V. C. 

8. (Basilicon.) Resin 5 oz., yellow wax 2 oz., lard 8 oz.; 
melt together. 

9. (Black Basilicon.) Pitch, Avax, resin, of each 11 oz., 
olive (or rape or linseed) oil a pint. 

EYE OINTMENTS. The powder should be very fine, and 
the whole rubbed smooth. 

1. Nitrate of silver 5 to 10 gr., lard 1 oz. ; rub till per- 
fectly smooth. The size of a pea to be introduced between 
the lids, in chronic ophthalmia. — Morton. 

2. Calamine |- oz., tutty J oz., sulphate of copper J dr., 
sulphate of zinc ^ oz., alum ^ oz., camphor 2 dr., fresh 
butter 3 oz. ; mix, and apply warm, with a feather, to watery 
inflamed eyes. — Bracken. 

3. Ointment of nitrated quicksilver 1 dr., zinc ointment 
1 oz., camphor 1 dr. 


4. Inflammation of the eyelids : Verdigris 1 part, Venice 
turpentine 1, lard 1,2. — Morton. 

5. For wounds of the eye : Tutty ointment 1 oz., honey 
of roses 2 dr., calcined white vitriol 20 gr. ; apply with a 
feather night and morning, and sponge daily with warm milk 
and water. — Bracken. 

6. For removing opacity of the cornea : Iodine 2 gr., 
iodide of potassium 20 gr., lard or butter | oz. 

EUPHORBIUM OINTMENT. Euphorbium 1, lard 8 parts; 
"mix. — Delafosse. 

AND CONFIRMED GREASE. The inflammation should 
be first subdued by poultices. The milder preparations 
(which are here placed first) should be employed in the first 
instance, and afterwards those for confirmed grease. 

1. For scurvy heels: Goulard's extract ^ dr., lard 1 oz., 
mix. The heel should first be gently rubbed with soap and 
water. — Clater. 

2. For scurvy or cracked heels : Sugar of lead ^ oz., 
oxide of zinc ^ oz., lard or palm oil 4 oz. 

3. Melt together 3 oz. Avhite diachylon, 4 oz. olive oil: 
mix, and when nearly cold, add 3 dr. of sugar of lead in fine 
powder. First wash the heel, then apply the Astringent 
Lotion No. 9, and afterwards this ointment; or, elder oint- 
ment 4 oz., camphor 6 dr., laudanum 2 dr., extract of lead 
2 dr. ; mix. — Taplin. 

4. Melt yellow wax 2 oz., with sweet oil 8 oz,, and add 
sugar of lead J oz. 

5. Healing ointment for cracked heels: Lard 4 ft, resin 
1 Bb ; melt together, and stir in 1 ft true calamine. — Clater. 
See also Softening and Cooling Ointments (below). 

6. For cracked heels and grease: Alum 1 oz., turpentine 

1 oz. ; lard 3 oz. ; melt the turpentine and lard, and stir in 
the powdered alum. — V. C. 

7. For grease : Venice turpentine 4 oz., wax 1 oz., lard 
4 oz.; melt together, and add sugar of lead 1 oz. (or alum 

2 dz.) in fine powder. — White. 

8. Lard, honey, common turpentine, each 8 oz. ; melt 
together, and add powdered alum 6 oz., white vitriol 2 oz. 

9. Common turpentine 1 ft ; melt and add powdered alum 


1| ft), bole 2 ft) ; stir till cold ; spread on brown paper, and 
.tie over witli list. 

10. Lard J ft), honey ^ ft), common turpentine -| ft) ; 
melt and add p. alum 1 ft), white vitriol 2 oz. ; stir till 

11. For confirmed grease : common verdigris ^ oz., alum, 
sulphate of zinc, sugar of lead, of each J oz. ; tar 6 oz. — 

12. Citrine ointment 3 oz., lard 2 oz., turpentine 2 dr., 
saturated solution of nitrate of copper 2 dr. — Blaine. 

13. JEgyptiacum 8 oz., lard 4 oz., sulphate of zinc in 
powder 1 oz. ; rub together till perfectly mixed. — Las- 


14. Prepared verdigris 1 oz., lard 4 oz., honey a sufficient 
quantity. — Delafosse. 

15. Chloride of lime 1 to 2 parts ; lard 3 parts ; mix. To 
remove the fetor in grease. — Morton. 

HAIR, and remove the blemish from broken knees. 

1. Camphor ^ dr., oil of rosemary 1 dr., weak mercurial 
ointment 1 oz., ivory-black and bole to color. — White. 

2. Poplar-bud ointment and honey, applied twice a day for 
15 to 20 days. — Pye. 

3. Calamine 2 dr., prepared charcoal 1 dr., oil of turpen- 
tine 1 dr., lard 4 drs. ; rub well together with 1 dr. of blister 
ointment. — Clatee. 

4. Liquid bhster (No. 3, 6, or 7) 1 dr., ivory-black 1 dr., 
camphor 1 dr., palm oil 1 oz. 

5. Citrine ointment 1 oz., camphor 1 dr., color as above. 

HELLEBORE OINTMENT. Powdered white hellebore 1 
part, lard 8 parts ; an irritating dressing for rowels and 
setons. — V. C. 

HOOF OINTMENT. Tar and tallow equal parts, melted 
together. — White. 

IODINE OINTMENT (simple). Iodine 1 part, lard 8 parts ; 
mix.— V. C. 

FARCY OINTMENT. Iodide 1 dr., lard 1 oz. mercurial 
ointment 1 oz., mix. Useful when the complaint is confined 
to one leg ; from 5 to 10 grains of iodide of potassium being 
given daily, with a mineral tonic. 


IODINE OINTMENT (Compound). Iodine 1 dr., iodide of 
potassium 2 dr., lard 2 oz. — V. C. 

cury 1 part, lard or palm oil 7 parts ; mix ; the size of a nut 
to be rubbed on daily ; in thoroughpin. 

For jStra7igles. Iodide of mercury 1 dr., lard 1 oz. — 



1. Sulphur 4 oz., soft soap 4 oz., oil of bays 4 oz., train 
oil q. s. 

2. Sulphur 1 oz., train oil 1 oz., Venice turpentine 2 oz. — 


3. Train oil 3 oz., sulphur 1 oz., oil of turpentine 6 oz. — 

4. Sulphur 8 oz., common turpentine 2 oz., strong mer- 
curial ointment 2 oz., linseed oil 1 pint : rub the flowers 
of sulphur with a fourth part of the oil, then rub in the 
turpentine and ointment and gradually add the rest of 
the oil ; half to be rubbed in daily for three days ; on the 
sixth day, wash off with soft soap and warm water. — 

5. Oil of turpentine 3 oz., oil of vitriol 1 oz. ; mix cau- 
tiously, avoiding the fumes, and add melted lard 8 oz., train 
oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz., flowers of sulphur or sul- 
phur vivum 4 oz. ; stir till cold ; apply daily for 3 or 4 times, 
and give an alterative powder twice a day. — White. 

6. Oil of bays 16 oz., strong mercurial ointment 6 oz., oil 
of turpentine 2 oz., soft soap 4 oz. ; mix and apply in the 
sun ; but it is not quite safe. — Bracken. 

7. Oil of turpentine 4 oz., oil of tar 4 oz., train oil 8 oz., 
sulphur 4 oz. 

8. Sulphur vivum 8 oz., powdered stavesacre 1 oz., mer- 
curial ointment 2 oz., turpentine 2 oz., lard or train oil 8 
oz. — Blaine. 

9. Sulphur 4 oz., white hellebore J oz., oil of tar 3 oz., 
train or linseed oil 12 oz. — Spooner. 

10. Soft soap and tar, equal parts. 

11. Weak mercurial ointment ^ lb, sulphur vivum 4 oz., 
white hellebore 3 oz., black pepper 3 oz., oil of tar 1 oz., 
olive oil enough to make it soft : use daily for 7, 10 or 14 
days. — Taplin. 



. (Scurvy eruptions). 

1. Citrine ointment 2 oz., tar ointment 1 oz. ; mix. 

2. Lard 2 oz., finely powdered red precipitate 2 dr. — 

3. Sugar of lead 1 part, tar 2, lard 6 ; mix, give a diuretic 
ball occasionally. — Youatt. 

4. Lard 4 oz. ; melt, and stir in Goulard's extract 1 oz. — 

5. Quicksilver 1 oz., common turpentine 3 oz. ; mix. — 

6. Sublimate 10 gr., mercurial ointment 1 oz. ; mix. 

7. Iodide of potassium 1 dr., lard 2 oz., Goulard's extract 
4 dr. ; mix. 

8. Camphor 1 dr., sugar of lead J dr., mercurial ointment 
1 oz. ; mix, and apply after washing with soap and water. — 

9. Napthaline 1 dr., cod-liver oil 1 oz., zinc ointment 
1 oz. 

MARSHMALLOW OINTMENT. The following is often 
substituted for the Pharmacopoeia preparation : Rape oil 1 
Sb, yellow wax 6 oz., palm oil ^ lb, common turpentine 1 oz. 

MERCURIAL OINTMENT. This is prepared in the usual 
way ; but Venice turpentine is often used to kill the quick- 
silver more speedily, as it does not interfere with its veteri- 
nary uses. 

Strong Mercurial Ointment. 1. Quicksilver 16 oz., Venice tur- 
pentine 2 oz. ; rub together till the metal is killed, then add 
16 oz. of lard. 

2. Quicksilver 16 oz., liquid styrax 5 dr., lard 3 oz. ; tri- 
turate until the metal disappears, and add 12 oz. more lard. — 

Weaker Mercurial Ointment. 1. Strong mercurial ointment 
1 part, lard 2 parts. 

2. Quicksilver 2 oz., balsam of sulphur J oz. ; rub together 
till the globules disappear, and add 6 oz. of lard. — Taplin. 

Compound Mercurial Ointment. Mercurial Ointment 1 part, 
soft soap 2 parts. — V. C. 

RESOLVENT OINTMENTS, for indolent tumors of the 
withers, spavins, windgalls, farcy buttons, splints, &c. 


1. Strong mercurial ointment 4 oz., cantharides in powder 
I" oz., oil of rosemary 2 dr. — White. 

2. Biniodide of mercury 1 part, lard or palm oil 7 parts ; 
rub together in a mortar ; the quantity of a nut to be rubbed 
on daily till a scurf is produced ; for spavin and thorough- 
pin. — Spooner. 

3. Blister ointment 2 oz., strong mercurial ointment 1 oz,, 
' soft soap ^ oz., oil of bays 3 dr., yellow wax 3 dr. ; melt the 

wax by a gentle heat, add the other ingredients, mix by stir- 
ring;, remove and stir till cold. — Lebas. 

4. Common turpentine 12 parts, corrosive sublimate 1 
part : mix. — Girard. 

5 to 10 gr., lard 1 oz. — Morton. 

CREASOTE OINTMENT. Creasote 2 parts, lard 2 parts. 

—V. C. 

MILD CITRINE OINTMENT. Ointment of nitrate of 
quicksilver 1 part, lard and oil 2 parts. Iii tarsal oph- 

and ulcers on the heel, &c. 

1. Spermaceti ointment 4 oz., olive oil 1 oz., sugar of lead 
2 dr., oxide of zinc 1 oz. — White. 

2. Extract of lead i dr., lard 1 oz. ; mix. — Clater. 

3. Marshmallow ointment 4 oz., extract of lead 3 dr., 
elder ointment J oz.. calamine 1 oz. 

OINTMENT FOR SIT-FASTS, and all hard tumors. 
Strained ammoniacum 4 oz., mercurial ointment 8 oz., oil 
of turpentine 10 oz. — Hinds. 

GALLS. See Lotions. 

1. Camphor 2 dr., oil of rosemary 1 dr., elder ointment 
or lard 3 oz. 

2. Marshmallow ointment 4 oz., extract of lead 1 oz. — 


1. Sulphuric acid 1 dr., lard 1 oz. : mix. 

2. Sulphuric acid 1 fluid oz., lard 8 oz., oil of turpentine 
1 oz. 


Resolvent Ointments, above.) 

TAR OINTMENT. Equal parts of tallow and tar melted 


1. Common verdigris J oz., calamine J oz., sulphate of 
zinc 1 dr., tar 3 oz. — Blaine. 

2. Blue vitriol 2 oz., white vitriol 1 oz., rubbed down and 
mixed with lard 2 ft), tar 1 ft) ; a pledget of tow covered with, 
it to be introduced into the cleft of the frog every night, and 
renewed in the morning, — Youatt. 

3. Thrush Paste. Alum, blue vitriol, white vitriol, of 
each 1 oz. ; rub them into a fine powder ; melt 2 ft) of tar 
with 1 ft) of lard, and when getting cool, stir in the powder. 
— Clater. 

4. Verdigris IJ oz. (or burnt alum 8 oz.) red lead 8 oz., 
treacle 4 ft) ; boil to a proper consistence, and add 1 oz. of 
nitrous acid. — Feron. 

5. Barbadoes tar 4 oz., sulphuric acid ^ oz. — Spooner. 

6. In Oanker. Tar 4 parts, nitric acid 1 part ; mix. — 

OINTMENT FOR FARCY BUDS. 1. Sublimate 1 oz., 
white arsenic |- oz., yellow arsenic ^ oz., euphorbium J oz., 
oil of bays 4 oz. ; mix. — Lamotte. 

1. {Topique Terrat.) Corrosive sublimate 1 oz., white 
and yellow arsenic each J oz., oil of bays 4 oz. ; mix with 
a gentle heat. 

TURPENTINE OINTMENT. Common turpentine 1 part, 
lard 3 parts ; melt together. — V. C. 

VERDIGRIS OINTMENT. Verdigris in powder 1 part, 
common turpentine 1 part, lard 12 parts : for foul ulcers and 
tarsal ophthalmia. — Morton. 

ammonia 2 dr., powdered savin 1 oz., lard IJ oz. ; to be ap- 
plied daily. — Blaine. 


1. Emetic tartar 2 dr., olive oil 1 dr. ; rub together till 
smooth, and add lard 1 oz. 


2. Iodide of potassium 1 dr., palm oil 1 oz. ; rub together 
till quite smooth. — :Clater. 

ASTRINGENT PASTE, for broken knees, and for wounds 
after the inflammation has subsided. 

1. Powdered alum and pipe-clay, mixed with water to the 
consistence of cream. For broken knees it may be colored 
with bole and lamp-lack. — White. 

2. Paste for Open- Knee-Joint. — Flour and stale beer, 
boiled to the consistence of paste, and colored as above. To 

. be spread thick all round the joint, and covered with a pled- 
get of tow, and ^ sheet of brown paper ; and the leg of a 
cotton stocking drawn over the whole. The stocking to be 
covered with the paste, and enveloped with 2 calico bandages 
regularly applied. — Turner. 


1. Cow-dung beaten with a fourth part of clay. — Youatt. 

2. Soft soap 4 oz., Barbadoes tar 16 oz., linseed meal IJ 
K). — White. 

3. Tallow and tar, equal parts, melted together. 

4. Common tar 2 parts, soft soap 1 part, linseed meal 
q. s. To be spread over the sole of the foot \ of an inch 
thick, covered with a layer of tow, and a leather sole over 
all.— V. C. 


1. Equal parts of wax, olive oil, lard, veal suet, turpentine, 
and honey ; melt the wax and lard with the oil by a gentle 
heat, remove from the fire, and add the honey and turpen- 
tine, stirring till cold ; when intended to embellish the hoof 
as well as to soften it, it may be colored with lamp-black or 
ivory-black. — Bourgelat. 

2. Tallow 4 ft), beeswax 4 oz., tar |- ft) ; melt slowly, 
remove from the fire, and when they begin to cool, stir 
together. A portion of pitch may be added when intended 
to fill fissures, &c. — Bracy Clark. 

yellow resin 2 oz., common turpentine 1 oz., tallow J oz. ; 
melt together; fill the cracks with the composition, and turn 
the horse out to grass. 


tar 1 pint, fish oil 2 pints. — Clater. 



The usual means of applying charges is to soften the compound 
by heat, and apply it with a large spatula to the part, as 
warm as the animal can comfortably bear it, and while warm 
to cover it with cut tow. They are used for old sprains of 
the loins, strains of the back sinews, wind-galls, &c. Cold 
charges are spread on cloth or leather, and renewed as they 
become dry. 

1. Simple charges. Pitch 4 oz., turpentine 1 oz. — Gas- 


2. For Strains of the Loins. Pitch 4 ft), turpentine 6 
oz., olive oil 4 oz. ; melt together. — B. Clark. 

3. Burgundy pitch 4 oz., wax 4 oz., yellow resin 4 oz., 
common turpentine 1 oz. ; melt together, and when it begins 
to thicken, stir in 1 oz. of bole. — White. 

4. Burgundy or common pitch 5 oz., tar 6 oz., wax 1 oz. ; 
melt together, and when they are becoming cool, stir in ^ 
dr. of powdered cantharides. — YouATT. 

5. Pitch 3 ft), tar 1 ft), beeswax ^ ft) ; melt together. — 

6. Besin 2 oz., Burgundy pitch 4 oz., Barbadoes tar 2 
oz., wax 3 oz., red lead 4 oz. — White. 

7. Pitch 8 oz., suet 4 oz., oil of turpentine 3 oz., tincture 
of cantharides 3 oz. — Delafosse and Lassaigne. 

8. Oold Charge. Bole J ft), white of egg and vinegar, to 
form soft paste, to be applied on double cloth or leather, 
and removed as it dries : for sprains in the back sinews. — 

9. Bruised leaves of elder, or cabbage, or mallow. — B. 

10. Mercurial Charge. B. pitch IJ ft), wax IJ ft) ; melt, 
and add, Avhile cooling, 9 oz. of mercurial ointment previously 
mixed with 6 dr. of iodine. — Mr. S. Fisher. 

11. Soot Charge. ■ Common turpentine 4J oz., soot 3 oz. ; 
mix. — Delafond. 


ASTRINGENT POWDERS; chiefly used for sprinkling 
greasy or ulcerated heels, after the inflammation has been 
subdued by poultices, — and in joint wounds. 


1. Calamine (true) 4 parts, alum 1 part ; mix. — Mor- 

2. Burnt alum, dried sulphate of iron, and myrrh, equal 
parts. — V. C. (Comp. powder of alum). 

3. Alum 1 dr., charcoal ^ oz., chalk 2 oz. — Blaine. 

4. Sulphate of zinc, chalk lightly calcined, white pepper, 
in equal parts. — B. Clark. 

5. Alum 4 oz., bole 1 oz. — White. 

6. Oak bark 1 oz., verdigris 2 dr. — Blaine. 

7. White vitriol 2 oz., oxide of zinc 1 oz. — White. 

8. Prepared chalk 4 oz., sulphate of zinc 1 oz., charcoal 
>' 1 oz., Armenian bole 2 oz. — Spooner. 


cleansing foul ulcers and repressing fungous or proud 
flesh. They should all be very finely powdered and well 

1. Equal parts of white calcined vitriol and alum. — 

2. Bole 2 dr., blue vitriol or verdigris 1 oz. — White. 

3. Red precipitate ^ oz., acetate of copper J oz., calamine 
I oz. — Blaine. 

4. Red precipitate |- oz., burnt alum 2 dr. 

5. Blue vitriol 1 oz., alum 1 oz., white lead 1 oz, 

6. Equal parts of verdigris and sugar of lead. — Clater. 

7. Alum, dried sulphate of iron, and myrrh, equal parts : 
in joint wounds. 

8. Alum, sulphate of iron, of zinc, and of copper, of each 
1 oz. ; muriate of ammonia ^ oz., camphor and saffron, of 
each 1| dr. — Bouchardat. 

STYPTIC POWDER. Alum, with an equal or double weight 
of flour. — White. 

STYPTIC STONE. See Solutions, page 106. 

SNEEZING POWDERS. The ingredients to be very finely 
powdered and mixed. 

1. Asarabacca 4 dr., white hellebore 1 dr., mix, and keep 
in a bottle for use. — Bracken. 

2. Snufi" 1 oz., hellebore 1 dr., euphorbium 10 to 20 gr. — 

3. Jn Incipient Cataract. Turpeth mineral 2 dr., asara- 
bacca 4 dr. ; mix, and apply as much as will lie upon a six- 
pence daily. — Bracken. 



Note. — The peculiar structure of the digestive organs in cattle 
renders it proper to give their medicines in a liquid form. 
For the same reason drenches should be given very slowly, 
so as to enter at once the third or fourth stomach. It is 
only in cases of hoven or bloti^, that it is desirable to intro- 
duce medicine into the first stomach or rumen. 

For Treatment of the Oattle Plague of 1865, see p. 131. 

given when fever exists, or is threatened ; to prevent down- 
falls of the udder ; after calving, to prevent milk-fever ; to 
remove undue accumulations in costiveness ; in the first 
stage of red water, and jaundice ; and in all inflammatory 

1. Epsom salts 8 oz,, sulphur 4 oz., ginger 2 dr., warm 
water a pint, linseed oil 12 oz. — Spooner. 

2. Epsom salts 6 or 8 oz., castor oil 8 oz., gruel IJ pint, 
ginger ^ oz. 

3. Glauber's or Epsom salts 16 oz. (or in bad cases 
with fever 24 oz.), caraways 1 oz., warm gruel a quart. — 

4. Castor oil from 16 to 24 oz., with gruel ; but it is not 
to be depended on. 

5. To No. 3, add 2 or 3 dr. of gamboge, or 4 dr. of 

6. Sulphur 8 oz., ginger ^ oz., warm gruel a quajt : in 
rheumatism, or joint-felon. — Clater. 

7. Common salt 6 oz,, flour of mustard a tablespoonful, 
grated ginger or ground pepper, of either a teaspoonful, gin 
^ pint, water 2 pints. 

8. Common salt 1 lb, warm water, or gruel, q. s. The 
last three are only proper where there is not much fever. 

9. In Red-water. Sulphate of magnesia 8 to 16 oz., sulphur 


2 to 6 oz., carbonate of ammonia J oz,, ginger J oz,, warm 
water q. s. ; a fourth of this every 6 hours till the bowels are 
sufficiently acted on. — Spooner. 

10. When the last does not operate. Calomel 20 gr., 
yeast | pint. — Harris. 

11. Aloes 4 to 6 dr., common salt 4 to 6 oz., ginger 1 to 

3 dr., water a quart, anodyne tincture 2 oz.: in red-water. 
— White. 

12. Cordial Purgatives. Aloes 4 dr., Epsom salts 4 oz., 
ginger 1 dr., carminative tincture 2 oz., water 1 quart. — 

- White. 

13. In the commencement of puerperal or milk fever: 
Epsom salts 6 or 8 oz., powdered croton seeds 20 to 30 gr., 
ginger 4 dr. ; in 3 or 4 pints of gruel : repeat in 6 hours, if 
required, without the croton seeds. — Blaine. 

14. In locked-jaw : Barbadoes aloes IJ oz., powdered 
croton kernel 10 gr., boiling water q. s. ; given when cool. 
— Clater. 

15. 3Iild laxative and tonic. Epsom salts ^ ft), sulphur 

4 to 6 oz., ginger ^ oz., gentian ^ oz., warm water q. s. — 


16. In flatulent colic with costiveness : Aloes 1|- oz., 
carbonate of potash 3 dr., ginger |- oz., warm water 1 pint, 
linseed oil 8 oz. — White. 

17. Palm oil 16 oz., Glauber's salt 12 oz., boiling water 
q. s. — Peck. 

18. Laxative drinlc for coivs that are kept on hay. Aloes 
4 dr., ginger 1^ dr., water a quart, Epsom salts 6 oz., car- 
bonate of soda 1^ oz. ; for one dose. — Youatt. 

FEVER DRENCHES, for fevers, colds, influenza, &c. 

1. Tartar emetic 1 dr., digitalis ^ dr., nitre 3 dr. ; mix, 
and give in a quart of gruel : in simple colds or catarrh, — 

2. Antimonial powder 2 dr., opium a scruple ; rub together, 
and mix with thick gruel: after bleeding, in inflammation of 
the bladder. — White. 

3. In influenza, or epidemic (epizootic) colds ; Nitre ^ oz., 
salt of tartar 1 oz., camphor 2 dr., valerian, liquorice, tur- 
meric, of each 1 oz., mustard 2 oz., juniper berries 1 oz., 
gruel a quart. — Skerret. 

4. For the same : After bleeding and a laxative, give 
antimonial powder 2 dr., camphor 1^ dr., ginger 3 dr., 
laudanum | oz., in gruel. — White. 


5. In bad colds attended with fever ; Nitre 1 oz , camphor 
|- dr., tartar emetic ^ dr., in gruel. — Peck. 


1. Antimonial powder J dr., camphor 1 dr., Peruvian bark 
1 oz., gruel, or decoction of arrowroot or starch, q. s. for 2' 
doses. — Peck. 

2. In the decline of fevers and influenza : Emetic tartar 
^ dr., nitre 2 dr., gentian 3 dr., chamomile 1 dr., ginger J 
dr. ; pour on them a pint of boiling ale, and give when cool. 
— Clater. 

3. Emetic tartar ^ dr., gentian 2 dr., digitalis J dr., nitre 
^ oz., spirit of nitric ether 4 dr., gruel q. s. 


1. Cascarilla 3 dr., ginger 3 dr., carbonate of soda 2 dr., 
in gruel. — White. 

• 2. Grentian | oz., ginger 1 dr., Epsom salts 2 oz., warm 
gruel a pint. — Clater. 

3. Tartarized iron 1 dr., gentian 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., gruel 
1 pint: after laxatives, in indigestion. 


After bleeding give — 

1. Calomel 1^ dr., opium J dr., ginger 2 dr., thick gruel 
q. s. Six hours afterwards, give Epsom salts 1 Bb, sulphur 
6 oz., linseed oil ^ pint, gruel q. s. — Spooner. 

2. Epsom salts 1 Bb, caraway ^ oz., Barbadoes aloes ^ oz. ; 
in a quart of warm gruel. — Clater. After the yellowness 
appears, give — 

3. Half of No. 2, with 20 gr. of calomel morning and 
night. — Clater. 


1. Opium 10 gr., calomel 10 gr., thick gruel q. s., at 
night, and the tonic drink (No. 2) in the morning. — 

2. Mr. Spooner says salts in |- lb doses, with a little 
ginger, are generally sufficient. 

3. Muriate of soda ^ oz., carbonate of soda ^ oz., tur- 
meric 2 oz., Glauber's salts 6 oz., powdered gentian and 
chamomile 2 dr., gruel q. s. 

4. Castile soap J oz., Venice turpentine ^ oz., ginger 3 
dr., gentian 1 oz. ; rub the soap and turpentine in a mortar, 
and gradually add a pint of water, and afterwards the ginger 
and gentian. — White. 


5. Castile soap 1 oz,, salt 1 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., 
yolks of two eggs ; mix together, and gradually add a strong 
decoction of barberry bark. 

6. Powdered cumin seed, aniseed, and turmeric, each 2 
oz., grains of Paradise and salt of tartar, each 1 oz. ; mix. 
Slice 1 oz. of castile soap, to mix with 2 oz. of treacle. Pour 
a quart of boiling ale upon all the ingredients, and administer 

- when lukewarm. To be repeated two or three times a 

CLEANSING DRINKS, for cows after calving. Those are 

' often applied for, but arc condemned as useless or hurtful 

by veterinarians of the iicav school. The following are some 

of the forms in use ; probably a gentle laxative would be in 

most cases preferable : 

1. Spermaceti, Irish slate, and birthwort, in powder, of 
each 1 oz., powdered aniseed 2 oz., liquorice powder 2 oz. ; 
in linseed tea. 

2. Aniseed, myrrh, birthwort, allspice, cumin seed, of each 
1 oz., in a quart of gruel. — McEwen. 

3. Juniper berries 3 oz., birthwort 2 oz., fenugreek 1 oz., 
spermaceti 2 oz., antimony 1 oz., saffron | oz., in a quart of 
warm ale.- — Downing. 

4. Resin, soap, of each | oz., spermaceti |- oz., aniseed, 
caraway seed, of each 1 oz., ginger J oz., treacle 4 oz., 
warm gruel a quart. 

5. 1 oz. spermaceti, 1 oz. birthwort, 2 oz. powdered bay- 
berries, 1 oz. myrrh ; in juniper-berry tea. 

oz., aniseed 1 oz., olive oil 6 oz., gruel a pint or q. s. 

DRENCH FOR STRANGURY. After laxatives and a 
clyster, give camphor 2 dr., spirit of nitrous ether | oz., 
tincture of opium ^ oz., nitre 1 oz., gruel a pint. — White. 

DRENCHES FOR HOVEN OR BLOWN (flatulent disten- 
sion of the paunch). It appears doubtful whether any liquid 
enters the paunch in these cases. More dependence is now 
placed on the introduction of a tube constructed for the 

1. Ginger | oz., spirit of nitric ether 2 oz., oil of pepper- 
mint 30 drops, warm water a pint. — White. 

2. Liquid ammonia, or spirit of hartshorn, ^ oz. to 1 oz. 
(1| oz. — White), cold water 3 pints. — Moiroud. 


3. Chloride of potash 4 dr., warm water 4 oz., ether 3 dr. 
The solution of chlorinated soda may be substituted for 
chloride of potash (Eau de Javelle). — Chaelot. 

4. Aloes 3 dr., pimento 2 dr., oil of turpentine 2 oz., 
spirit of hartshorn 1 oz., in gruel or warm water. — Blaine. 

5. Chloride of lime 2 dr., water a quart. Administer it 
by means of a stomach pump, and repeat in an hour if 
required. — Youatt. 


1. Sulphur 8 oz., ginger ^ oz.; in gruel, every third day 
if necessary. — Clater. 

2. Antimonial powder 2 dr., Dover's powder J dr., aniseed 
1 oz., thick gruel a pint ; night and morning, the bowels 
having been opened by No. 1. — Clater. 

3. Rhododendron leaves 4 dr., water a quart ; boil to a 
pint, strain, and add powdered gum guaiacum 2 dr., caraway- 
seeds and aniseed, each 2 dr., warm ale ^ pint. 


Camphor 1 dr., (rubbed with spirit), powdered opium 1 dr., 
thick gruel xj pint. 

indigestion, and colic without inflammation. 

1. In indigestion : Salt 3 or 4 oz., carbonate of soda 2 dr., 
ginger I dr., anodyne tincture (below) 2 oz., water 10 or 
12 oz. — White. 

2. The same : Aloes 4 dr.. common salt 4 oz., ginger 2 dr., 
anodyne tincture 2 oz., q. s. 

3. In colic : Salt 4 oz., aloes 3 dr., ginger 1 dr., opium 
§ oz., water 1 pint, peppermint water 1 pint. 

4. Carminative. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., tincture of 
opium 6 dr., spirit of nitric either 2 oz., water 1 pint. — 

5. Warm Cordial. A bottle of red wine, extract of juniper 
1 oz., powdered cinnamon | oz. — Lebas. 

6. Mild. Peppermint 2 oz., chamomiles | oz., hot water 
5 pints ; infuse, and give while warm. 

7. Chamomile 2 oz., aniseed 1|- oz. ; infuse in hot water, 
and strain ; when cold, add ether 2 oz. — Vatel. 


Bloody Urine (Hsematuria) and Red-water are often con- 
founded, but are different diseases, and require a different 
treatment. Heematuria is distinguished by the presence of 


actual blood in the urine, in a state of coagulation, antl by 
great tenderness across the loins. It generally occurs in 
oxen of good condition. It is to be treated by bleeding, 
purgatives, stimulating applications to the loins, emollient 
drinks and opiates. — (Spooner.) After bleeding, give one 
of the following drenches : 

1. Epsom salts 6 to 8 oz., water a quart, castor oil 4 to 
6 oz. — White. Or, 

2. Linseed oil 1 pint, gruel 1 pint, caraways 2 dr., Ep- 
som salts 8 oz. (in warm water J pint), tincture of opium 

>• 2 dr. Or either of the laxative drenches for red-water, 

3. After the above, Avhen the pain and difficulty have 
abated, but the water continues bloody, give — Catechu 2 dr., 
opium J dr., alum 3 dr., gum arable | oz., water | pint; 
simmer for a few minutes, and add J pint of ale. Repeat if 

■4. In obstinate cases : Oil of juniper ^ oz., oil of tur- 
pentine 1 oz., laudanum 1 oz., in a pint of linseed tea ; at 
first twice, and afterwards once a day. — Rush. 

5. Three quarters of a pint of black beer, and 2 oz. Irish 
slate. — Knowlson. 


This commonly attacks milch cows, and appears generally to 
arise from the nature of the pasture. Moderate bleeding 
is recommended, but is less necessary than in hsematuria. 
Laxatives should then be given. 

1. Epsom salts 8 to 12 oz., sulphur 2 to 4 oz., carbonate 
of ammonia ^ oz., ginger J oz., warm water 4 pints ; give a 
fourth part every six hours till the bowels are acted on. — 
Spooner. Or, 

2. Glauber's salts 12 oz., carbonate of soda J oz., nitre 
^ oz., sugar 1 oz., powdered caraways ^ oz., in a quart of 
gruel. Or the Purging Drenches, No. 1, 2, or 3. After 
the bowels are well opened, give astringents or mild stimu- 

3. The laxative drench. No. 11, page 122. — White. This 
is White's drench for red-water, No. 1. To be followed by 
drenches of whey. 

4. Astringent. Powdered oak-bark | oz., catechu 2 dr., 
opium 10 gr., gruel 1 pint. — Clater. 

5. Catechu 2 dr., mucilage 4 oz., lime-water 6 oz. — 


6. Laudanum J oz., sugar of lead ^ dr., catechu 4 dr., gruel 
1 quart. — White. 

7. After laxatives : Ginger, gentian, each 1 dr., spirit of 
nitrous ether 1 oz., gruel q. s. ; twice a day. — Spooner. 

8. Powdered oak-bark 1 oz., charcoal 1 oz., bole 2 oz., in 
a quart of new milk. — Pye. 

9. Catechu 1|- oz., alum IJ oz., diapente 2 oz., Locatelli 
balsam 2 oz., warm gruel 3 pints. — McEwEN. 

10. Dragon's blood 2 oz., rust of iron 1 oz., nitre 3 oz., 
oil of turpentine 2 oz. ; mix : for 2 doses, in gruel. — 

11. Sulphuric acid 1 dr., tincture of opium ^ oz., treacle 
4 oz., warm gruel 4 quarts ; daily, for a week. — Blaine. 

DRINK FOE, ACUTE DIARRHCEA. Sulphate of soda, 
sulphate of magnesia, of each 2 oz., ipecacuanha ^ dr., sul- 
phate of iron 6 gr. — Blaine. 

FOR CHRONIC DIARRHCEA. Calomel i dr., aloes 1 dr., 
gentian 2 dr., opium 5 gr., decoction of chamomiles 1 pint. 
— Blaine. 

ASTRINGENT DRENCHES, for dysentery (scouring rot) 
or lax. 

1. After purging drenches : Prepared chalk 2 oz., oak- 
bark 1 oz., catechu ^ oz., opium 2 scruples, ginger 2 dr., 
warm gruel 1 quart. — Clater. 

2. Two quarts of alum whey. 

3. First give blue pill 2 or 3 dr., rhubarb 3 dr., castor oil 
4 oz., gruel 1 pint, well stirred before giving it ; repeat this 
3 or 4 mornings ; then give — thick starch (made with 4 oz. 
of starch) 3 or 4 pints, tincture of opium 2 dr., ginger 3 dr., 
catechu -J oz. — White. 

4. Mutton suet 1 lb, new milk 2 quarts ; boil, and add 
opium J dr., ginger 1 dr. — Clater. 

5. Cordial Astringent Drench. (After the laxative drench 
No. 2.) Catechu J oz., allspice |- oz., caraways J oz., ale ^ 
pint, water J pint. — White. 

6. Decoction of aloes, with prepared chalk. — Tusser. 

7. Decoction of wormwood a quart, gum Arabic 2 oz., 
aromatic confection 1 oz., catechu 2 dr. ; with linseed tea, 
repeated every 6 days for 3 times. — Rawlings. 

8. Sheep's heart, liver, and lights, all chopped up together. 
— Sumner. 


OR CATARRH. (For Hoose, in Calves, see page 134). 

1. Bruised liquorice 2 oz. ; boil in a quart of water to a 
pint, strain, and add powdered squill 2 dr., gum guaiacum 1 
dr., tincture of tolu 4 dr., honey 2 oz. — Clater. 

2. Balsam of sulphur 2 oz., Barbadoes tar 1 oz., yolks of 
2 eggs, honey 4 oz., salt of tartar J oz., oil of aniseed 1 dr., 

- elecampane 1 oz., gruel 1 quart : in chronic coughs. 

3. Fresh squill 2 oz., garlic 2 oz., vinegar 24 oz. ; digest 
for a day with a gentle heat, strain and press, and boil 

. "the liquor Avith 24 oz. of treacle: for 6 doses^ in chronic 

4. For recent coughs : Digitalis 20 gr., emetic tartar |- 
dr., nitre 3 dr., squill 1 dr., opium 20 gr., gruel 1 pint. 

5. Boil 4 oz. Iceland moss and 1 oz. liquorice root in 4 
quarts of water for a quarter of an hour, and strain ; add 
to the liquor 1 oz. nitre, cream of tartar 2 oz. In hoose 
from cold, if inflammation of the lungs and fever be 
present, bleed before giving the drink. See also Fever 

If the disease be connected with worms in the air-passages, 
give the following : 

Worm Drench. — For cough from worms : Oil of turpentine 2 
oz., sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., laudanum ^ oz. ; mix and 
give in a pint of gruel. — Clater. 

DRENCHES FOR THE EPIDEMIC, affecting the feet and 

mouth, and attended with a low fever. 
For treatment of the Cattle Plague of 1865, see p. 131. 

1. Glauber's salts 1 ft), treacle 4 oz., sulphur 4 oz,, 
aniseed J oz., cream of tartar 2 oz., warm water 3 pints, 
give it new-milk warm. The above is for a full-grown 
beast. The mouth to be washed with a strong solution 
of blue vitriol, burnt alum, and vinegar. If the feet 
crack, apply a mixture of equal parts of muriatic acid and 

2. Some cattle-masters give common salt in gruel, with 
great success. — Blaine. 

3. After a mild dose of salts : sweet spirits of nitre 1 oz., 
ale yeast 6 or 8 oz. — Blaine.- 

4. Epsom salts 8 oz., sulphur 2 oz., nitre J oz., ginger ^ 
oz. ; half of this to be given in warm water, with 1 oz. of 
sweet spirits of nitre. Repeat daily. When the bowels are 


properly relaxed, and the fever reduced, but mucli weakness 
remains, give the following : 

5. Tonic Drench. Gentian 4 dr., ginger 2 dr., sulphate 
of iron 2 dr., sweet spirits of nitre 1 oz., Avarm water q. s. ; 
wash the mouth with the lotion, page 134 ; dress the feet, 
after paring and poulticing, with equal parts of tincture of 
myrrh and butter of antimony, and afterwards apply the 
astringent powder, page 140. — Spooner. 

6. Linseed oil a pint, oil of turpentine 8 oz., aloes J oz., 
ginger \ oz., laudanum 1 oz. ; mix. For 2 doses, to be given 
with gruel. 


the fatal form of this disease which prevailed some years 
ago, the following treatment is said to have proved effectual ; 
Bleed freely : then administer ^ pint of brandy every 2 hours. 
Mr. Jeckyll gives in pleuro-pneumonia, when a tonic is indi- 
cated, I oz. of the following solution every 8 hours : Sulphate 
of copper 1 part, water 4 parts ; dissolve, and add ammonia 
until it begins to precipitate. 


1. Sweet spirit of nitre J oz., laudanum ^ dr., solution of 
chloride of lime 2 dr., prepared chalk 1 oz., mix, and give 
in a pint of warm gruel. — Clater. 

2. Cascarilla powder 2 oz., spirit of nitrous ether J oz , 
liquid acetate of ammonia 4 oz., beer yeast 8 oz. ; every 4 
hours. — Blaine. 

3. Opiate confection 1 oz., liquid acetate of ammonia 2 
oz., water 1 quart ; for one dose. — Yatel. 

4. Tonic. Calumba 2 dr., canella 2 dr., ginger 1 dr., 
sweet spirit of nitre | oz., thick gruel 1 pint. — Spooner. 

5. Ceylon Remedy. A small piece of lard the size of a 
walnut. Said to be used with perfect success. 

6. To Prevent Murrain. Myrrh 1 oz., Epsom salts 2 oz., 
sulphur 1 oz., liver of antimony ^ oz., diapente 1 oz. : in rue 
tea after bleeding. — Downing. 


Warm tar water is much riecommended by some. It 
should be given in doses of 3 quarts 3 or 4 times a day, 
gradually diminishing the quantity. 


1. Common turpentine ^ oz., ginger 2 dr. ; mix with a 



little treacle, and add gradually spirits of nitrous ether 1 oz., 
gruel a pint. — Clater. 

2. Tonic Diuretic. Common turpentine 4 dr., ginger 2 
dr., gentian 2 dr., tartrate of iron 1 dr. ; rub together with a 
little treacle, and add gradually 1 oz. of sweet spirit of 

.BULLING DRENCHES. These are strongly condemned by 
modern veterinary writers ; those drenches, at least, which 
contain cantharides. 
- 1. Aniseed, grains of paradise, bay -berries, of each 1 oz. ; 
cantharides in fine powder 20 to 30 gr. ; to be given in a 
quart of milk. 

2. Black hellebore 1^ oz., capsicum 2 dr., birthwort J oz., 
bay-berries 1 oz., cantharides 20 gr. ; in a quart of warm 
ale. — Downing. 

3. A quart of milk from a cow in season. — Clater. 

4. Powdered cantharides 20 gr., aniseed 2 oz., black helle- 
bore I oz. : in ale, gruel, or milk. — Peck. 

DRYING DRENCHES, for drying a cow's milk. Bleed 
the night before, and give the drink, warm, in the morn- 

1. Boil 6 dr. of alum in milk, and strain. — White. 

2. Alum 6 ft), bole 2 Ife, cream of tartar or red tartar 
1 lb ; mix. Give from 6 to 9 oz., in stale beer ; or in gruel 
with |- pint of vinegar. 

3. Roche or common alum 4 oz., dragon's blood ^ oz., 
turmeric 1 oz., in a pint of rennet-water, and a pint of vine- 
gar. — Downing. [These large doses of alum, though often 
given, are not regarded as necessary or proper by modern 
veterinary writers.] 

pints, spirits of hartshorn 1 oz. ; mix. 

ALUM WHEY. Boil i oz. of alum in 2 quarts of milk for 
ten minutes and strain. 

Pimento. See Medicines for Horses. 


1. Sulphur 4 oz., black antimony 1 oz., ^thiops mineral 
^ oz., nitre 2 oz. ; mix, for 4 doses : to be given daily in 


2. Alterative Tonic. Add to the last 2 oz. gentian and 
1 oz. ginger ; and make 6 doses. 


1. Antimonial powder a scruple, camphor ^ dr., nitre 1 
oz. ; mix ; give twice a day in gruel. — Peck. 

2. Peruvian bark 16 oz., nitre 24 oz. ; for 16 doses. 


1. Black mustard ^ oz., flowers of sulphur 1 oz,, aromatic 
powder (see Horse Powders) 1 oz., fenugreek 4 oz., com- 
mon salt 16 oz., a large pinch on a slice of bread. — Mat- 


2. Oow Spice. As Horse Spice, No. 2, page 76. Or, 

3. Powdered turmeric, liquoiice, aniseed, and diapente, 
each 1 oz. 


1. Salt 1 lb, warm water a gallon. 

2. Linseed oil 8 oz., Epsom salts 8 oz., gruel 3 quarts. 


1. Bruised garlic 4 cloves, salt a tablespoonful, ground 
pepper 1 oz., honey 4 oz. Boil for a short time in a glass 
of vinegar, immerse in it a piece of linen, and roll it up. 
Keep it in the animal's mouth for an hour, night and morn- 
ing. Antiputrescent ; in epizootic maladies, and in ulcers of 
the mouth. — J. Robinet. 

2. Bruised mustard and pepper, each J oz., rolled up in 
linen, and sprinkled with vinegar : to be kept in the mouth 
not more than half an hour, morning and evening, in epi- 
zootic diseases. 


1. Vaccination. This has been recommended, on the 
theory that the Cattle Plague is analogous to or identical 
with small-pox. Vaccination with the lymph of Cow-pock 
may then be resorted to as a prophylactic. It may be prac- 
tised on the udder or vulva of a cow. It has already been 
resorted to very extensively, but with doubtful success. 
(January, 1866.) 

(Whether the plague be Small-pox or a form of enteric 
fever, or a disease sui generis, the precautions of separa- 
ting infected animals from the remainder of the herd are 


equally necessary. The diseased carcase must be buried or 
destroyed at a distance. The most scrupulous cleanliness 
must be observed in the sheds and yards, and provisions 
made for ventilation and abundant supply of water, with the 
counteraction of all noxious smells and emanations. When 
the cattle have sickened with the disorder, it cannot be 
checked, but like other contagious diseases, must run its 
course. The treatment can only be palliative. Among in- 
numerable recipes we select the following as the most hkely 
to be useful. Their application must be guided by the cir- 
- cumstances of the case.) 

2. The Laxative Treatment. Linseed oil 6 to 12 oz., 
with turpentine 1 to 2 oz. ; the dose to be repeated once or 
twice. This dose, as the others, may be given in Avarm gruel. 

3. The Astringent Treatment. Applicable in later stages, 
when there is often much diarrhoea. Chalk and opium (Dr. 
Letheby), or laudanum 2 oz., comp. infusion of catechu 1 
pint, in a warm mash, with 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of charcoal. 
— Malton Agricultural Association. 

4. The Saline Treatment. Useful in moderating the fever, 
and generally in mild cases. Table salt J Bb, Epsom salts 
J ft), brimstone \ ft), ground ginger 2 oz., nitre 2 oz., old ale 

1 quart (Dr. Allnatt) ; or chlorate of potash 2 dr. to J oz., 
thrice daily. — Mr. F. Buckland. 

5. The Mixed Saline Treatment. Adopted in imitation 
of Dr. Stevens' treatment of cholera. Chloride of sodium 3 
oz., nitre 2 oz., carbonate of potash 3 oz., chlorate of potash 

2 oz., sulphate of magnesia 4 oz., old ale 2 quarts. (Dr. 
Allnatt.) It would be as well to divide the dose into 3 or 
4. Bicarbonate of soda 1 oz., common salt 1 oz., chlorate 
of potash \ oz., Rochelle salt 1 oz. ; in a gallon of water : 
1 pint every second hour or oftener. — Dr. Tucker. 

6. The Bia'phoretic Treatment. Useful as the last, in 
mild cases. Sweating to be promoted by rubbing, wrapping 
in blankets, or vapor baths. Sweet spirit of nitre 1 to 2 oz., 
and spirit of Mindererus 1 to 2 oz., in 2 or 3 quarts of lin- 
seed-meal gruel. Will also act as a diuretic. — Malton 

7. The Stimulant Treatment. 16 oz. of linseed oil and 
a "mutchkin" of whiskey. (Professor Dick.) Large 
draughts of old ale recommended by some. 6 dr. of car- 
bonate of ammonia 3 times a day. (Professor Dick.) 12 to 
15 gr. of camphor, with 20 gr. of carbonate of ammonia in 
gruel, thrice daily. — -Dr. Copland. 


8. The Tonic Treatment. A dr. each of the tincture of 
perchloride of iron and dilute hydrochloric acid in a quart 
of linseed tea or gruel, thrice daily. (Dr. Copland.) J oz. 
of sulphate of iron, twice daily. (Dr. Tucker.) 1| oz. of 
powdered cinchona. (Dr. Smart.) Strong muriatic acid 
2^ oz., strong nitric acid 1^ oz., sulphate or chloride of iron 
1|^ oz., water to make 1 quart ; one ounce of this in a gallon 
of water for a dose. — Malton Association. 

9. Arsenical Treatment. Adopted by the homoeopathists 
with their usual want of success, y'o*^ ^^ i*^ ^^ ^ grain of 
arsenic for a dose, every 2 hours, to alternate with g^Qth gr. 
of phosphorus. Vapor baths also recommended, and im- 
mense quantities of old ale given. — Dr. Kidd. 



1. Epsom salts 1 oz. to 2 oz., according to the age and 
size of the calf; dissolve in J pint of gruel, and add 20 gr. 
of ginger, and 3 drops of essence of peppermint. — Clater. 

2. Salts IJ oz., castor oil 2 oz., ginger 10 gr., caraway 2 
dr., gruel J pint. 

8. In costiveness, and accumulation in the paunch and 
stomach : dissolve 2 oz. of Epsom salts in 2 or 8 quarts of 
water, or 4 oz. in a gallon, according to the age of the calf, 
and throw it in gently by means of a stomach-pump. 

4. Laxative. Epsom salts 2 or 8 oz., carbonate of soda 
2 dr., water 6 or 8 oz., ginger 1 dr. ; mix. After it has 
operated, give the cordial, No. 3, below. — White. 


1. Youatt's Qordial. Prepared chalk 2 oz., catechu 1 
oz., ginger J oz., opium 1 dr., peppermint water 1 pint ; dose 
for a calf, from 2 to 4 tablespoonfuls. 

2. Prepared chalk 2 dr., opium 10 gr., catechu | dr., 
ginger J dr., essence of peppermint 5 drops ; mix, and give 
twice a day in ^ pint of gruel. — Clater. 

3. Caraway J oz., ginger ^ dr., subcarbonate of soda 1 
dr., brandy or gin 1 oz., water 8 oz. — [White's Qordial.~\ 

4. Half a bottle of Dalby's Carminative. 

5. Suet boiled in milk | pint, opium 5 gr., alum 5 gr., 
prepared chalk |^ oz. ; mix. 

6. If No. 2 fails : Dover's powder 2 scruples, aromatic 


powder 1 dr., kino |- dr. ; give it night and morning, with 1 
oz. of arrowroot boiled in a pint of water. — Clater. 

INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS. Bleed ; give 2 to 6 oz. 
Epsom salts. [Give to a calf of six months old ^ the dose 
for cattle; at a year and a half, ^ the dose. — Spooner.] 


Oil of vitriol 15 drops,- tincture of opium ^ oz. — Peck. 

nate of potash 2 oz., fresh lime-water 8 oz. To correct 
acidity in the stomach, give 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls in gruel ; 
the first dose to be given with an ounce or two of Epsom 
salts in 1^ a pint of thin gruel. If the disorder is attended 
with griping pains, add a tablespoonful of anodyne carmina- 
tive tincture. — White. 

ALUM WHEY. See page 130. 


Aniseed ^ lb, fenugreek ^ ft), linseed meal 1 ft) ; make 

it into a paste with milk, and cram them with it. 
Fattening Poivder. Common salt with a little carbonate of 

soda ; a small quantity added to the food promotes fattening, 

and prevents scouring, &c. 


1. \ pint lime-water every morning, and a tablespoonful 
of salt every afternoon, to each calf. — Mayer. 

2. Linseed oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., oil of cara- 
ways 20 drops ; repeated once or twice at intervals of 10 
days. This dose for calves of 6 to 10 months old. — Dickens. 

3. A tablespoonful of oil of turpentine, a little sweet oil, 
and 6 or 8 oz. of warm water. — White. 

%i\%i\\i^ gplitatiflus for "^mi Cattle 

LOTIONS OR WASHES. (See also Embrocations.) 


1. Alum 1 oz., water 8 oz., tincture of myrrh 1 oz., honey 
of roses 1 oz. 


2. Equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water. — Clater. 

3. Alum J oz., water 1 pint, tincture of myrrh 1 oz. 

LOTION FOR COW-POCK. Sal ammoniac i oz., white 
vinegar ^ pint, camphorated spirit 2 oz., Goulard's extract 
1 oz. ; mix. — Clater. 


1. Extract of lead J oz., vinegar 4 oz., soft water 1 pint. 
— White. 

2. Acetate of ammonia 4 oz., water J pint, spirit of cam- 
phor I oz. 

DISCUTIENT LOTION, for dispersing tumors. Bay salt 
4 oz., vinegar 1 pint, water 1 quart, oil of origanum 1 
dr. ; ruh the oil with the salt, and gradually add the 


1. Bay salt 4 oz., oil of origanum 1 dr. ; rub together, 
■ and: add vinegar J pint, spirit of wine 2 oz., water 1 quart. 

2. Common salt 1 oz., sal ammoniac 1 oz., water 1 pint. 

and removing loose horn, apply — 

1. Butter of antimony, or 

2. Strong solution of alum. 

3. Solution of sulphate of copper. 

4. (When the above are not sufficient.) Dissolve 2 dr. of 
corrosive sublimate in 12 oz. of water. — White. 


1. Tincture of myrrh and aloes. 

2. For proud flesh ; strong solution of sulphate of copper. 

3. For offensive wounds : chloride of lime 1 oz., water 1 
pint; mix well, and strain. 

LOTION FOR BULL-BURNT. Goulard's extract 1 oz., 
spirit of wine 2 oz., water |- pint. 

the bladder, apply a saturated solution of salt in water. — 


LOTION FOR THE MOUTH, in ulceration during the epi- 
demic. Alum 1 oz., sulphate of zinc ^ oz., warm water 1 
pint, treacle J ft). — Spooner. 


1. Stavesacre seeds 4 oz., water 4 pints ; boil to 2 pints, 
- and apply it daily. — Peck. 

2. Sublimate 2 dr., spirit of wine 2 oz., water 1 pint. — 

3. Stavesacre 4 oz., Avhite hellebore root 2 oz., water 1 
gallon; boil to half; apply with a sponge. 

LOTION FOR MANGE. Corrosive sublimate 2 dr., mu- 
riatic acid ^ oz., water 12 to 16 oz. : mix. In obstinate 
cases only. — White. (See Liniments.) 


1. White vitriol a scruple, spirit of wine 1 dr., water a 
pint. — Clater. 

2. Sugar of lead 10 to 20 gr., soft water, 8 oz. — V. C. 

3. Sedative Eye Drops. Powdered digitalis 1^ oz. ; in- 
fuse in a pint of Cape wine for a fortnight, and filter : a few 
drops to be introduced into the eye twice or thrice a day. — 

4. Extract of lead 2 dr., wine of digitalis (No. 3) 2 dr., 
tincture of opium 2 dr., water a pint. 


STRONG EMBROCATION, for deep-seated strains, &c. 

1. Oil of origanum J oz., ^il of turpentine |- pint, sweet 
oil 1|- pint, powdered cantharides 1 oz. — Clater. 

2. Olive oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine, 1 oz., water of am- 
monia 1 oz. (For strains and bruises, after the inflamma- 
mation has subsided.) — White. 

CROTON LINIMENT. Bruised croton seeds 1 part, oil of 
turpentine 8 parts. Macerate for 14 days, and strain. It 
irritates the skin powerfully ; for general purposes it requires 
to be diluted with olive oil. — Morton. 

MUSTARD EMBROCATION. Flour of mustard 4 oz., oil 
of turpentine 2 oz., water of ammonia 2 oz. — White. 



1. Olive oil 2 oz., strong water of ammonia 1 oz., marsh- 
mallow ointment 1 oz. 

2. Neatsfoot oil 4 oz., camphorated oil 1 oz., oil of 
turpentine 1 oz., laudanum 1 oz., oil of origanum 1 dr. — 

3. Sweet oil 4 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz. ; mix. — • 

EMBROCATIONS FOR GARGET, or Downfall of the 

1. Oil of elder 4 oz., water of arnmonia J oz., Mindererus' 
spirit 1 oz., camphorated oil 2 oz. 

2. Olive oil 3 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., camphor 2 
dr. — White. 

3. Soft soap 8 oz., oil of bays 8 oz., oil of turpentine 
8 oz., spirit of camphor 4 oz. (See also Ointments, be- 

DRIFFIELD OILS. Barbadoes tar 1 oz., linseed oil 1 ft), 
oil of turpentine 3 oz., oil of vitriol 1 oz., or 1 oz. (by 

LINIMENT FOR MANGE. Sulphur vivum or flowers of 
sulphur 4 oz., train oil 12 oz., oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; 

1 oz., sweet oil 1 oz., water of ammonia 2 oz. — White. 

BLISTERING LINIMENT. Cantharides bruised 1 oz., oil 
of turpentine 8 oz, ; digest 14 days, and strain. To be ap- 
plied by friction on the skin. — Youatt. 

LIQUID CAUSTIC. Butter of antimony alone, or mixed 
with an equal quantity of tincture of myrrh. 

LIQLTID SNUFF. Alum, sulphate of zinc, capsicum, of 
each 1 oz. ; camphor 2 dr. ; pulverize and macerate in 32 oz. 
of strong vinegar and 1 oz. of turpentine; shake up when 
used, and introduce a teaspoonful into the nostrils, to pro- 
mote a discharge for the relief of inflammation of the 
chest. — Matthieu. 




1. Resin cerate 1 oz., cantharides finely powdered 3 dr.. 
oil of turpentine 2 dr. ; for setons. — Clater. 

2. Lard 12 oz., resin 4 oz. ; melt together, and when 
, sufficiently cool, add oil of turpentine 4 oz., powdered 

cantharides 5 oz. ; stir till cold : to be rubbed in after re- 
moving the hair. — Clater. 

.OINTMENT FOR MANGE, LICE, &c. (See also Lotions, 

1. Sulphur 1 ft), common turpentine 4 oz., mercurial oint- 
ment 2 oz., linseed oil a pint. Melt the turpentine with the 
oil, and when nearly cold, stir in the sulphur, and afterwards 
the mercurial ointment. — Youatt. Note. — Cattle are easily 
salivated, and greatly weakened by it. Mercurials should 
therefore be used with great caution. 

2. Sulphur 1 ft), strong mercurial ointment 2 oz., common 
turpentine ^ ft), lard IJ fti. — Clater. 

3. French Liniment. Olive oil a pint, sulphur 4 oz., heat 
till the oil becomes colored by the sulphur ; remove from the 
fire, and when nearly cold, add 4 oz, of oil of turpentine, 
apply with a feather. 

4. Lard 2 ft) ; melt and add oil of turpentine 8 oz., sul- 
phuric acid 2 oz., sulphur vivum 8 oz. ; stir till cold. 

5. Mange Liniment. Sulphur vivum finely powdered 
4 oz., train oil 12 oz., oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; mix. — 

IODINE OINTMENT, for Empyema. Rub together IJ dr. 
of iodine, and 1 dr. iodide of potassium, with a few drops of 
water, then add 3 oz. of strong mercurial ointment and |- oz. 
of powdered camphor. To be rubbed over the chest every 
night till it causes an exudation, then occasionally to keep 
it up. 

GARGET OINTMENT, for Downfall of the Udder. 

.1. Soft soap 1 ft), mercurial ointment 2 oz,, camphor 
(powdered with spirit) 1 oz. ; mix : give first as a laxative, 
then a fever or diuretic drink.- 

2. Green elder ointment 2 oz., water of ammonia J oz. 

3. Beat fox-glove leaves with twice their weight of whey 
butter ; to every pound add 1 oz. of sal ammoniac, 1 oz. 


of turpentine, and ^ oz. of bole ; mix, and apply two or three 
times a day. — Downing. 

4, Spirit of camphor 1 oz., mercurial ointment 1 oz., elder 
ointment 8 oz. — Youatt. 

5. In obstinate cases. Iodide of potassium 1 part, lard 
7 parts. To be rubbed in once daily. — Spooner. 

FOOT OINTMENT (for all domestic animals). Equal parts 
of tar, lard, and resin, melted together. 

Equal parts of basilicon and citrine ointments, — Clater. 

yellow resin |- R) ; melt together, and when it begins to cool, 
add calamine in powder ^ ft). 

APPLICATION TO WOUNDS. Mix the whites of eggs 
with flour to a proper consistence. Applied over the part, 
it soon dries, and shields it from the air. 

DIGESTIVE OINTMENT. 1. Lard, common turpentine, 
of each 4 oz. ; melt, and add 1 oz. powdered verdigris. — 

2. Boil leaves of black hellebore with an equal weight of 
lard, until the leaves are crisp ; strain, and add an equal 
weight of common turpentine. [A similar ointment made 
with ivy leaves is likewise very stimulating.] 


1. Melt 4 oz. of lard with 4 oz. of common turpentine, 
and add 1 oz. of finely powdered sulphate of copper, stir- 
ring until cold. — White. 

2. Melt together equal weights of soft soap and common 
turpentine. — Skerret. 

of potash ^ oz., hot water ^ oz. ; dissolve, and mix with 2 
oz. of lard. 

CHARGE FOR OLD STRAINS. Burgundy pitch 4 oz., 
common pitch 4 oz., wax 2 oz., tar 6 oz. ; apply hot, and 
cover with cut tow. 



1. Common. A piece of cord or coarse tape ; or horse- 
hair and tow platted together. 

2. Irritating. Root of common dock ; or of black helle- 

3. Cotton cord soaked in Morton's cantharidal solution 
(page 94). 

of white, green, and blue vitriol, flour, and bole ; beaten up 
. "with fresh nettles and a little vinegar. 

phate of copper I oz., prepared chalk 2 oz., poAvdered alum 
|- oz., bole 1 oz. ; rub together. — Spooner. 



These are best given in a liquid form, and should be care- 
fully and slowly administered. Sheep generally require 
one-sixth (or from one-eighth to one-sixth) of the doses given 
to cattle. 


1. Epsom salts 2 oz., powdered caraway ^ oz., warm, 
thin gruel sufficient to dissolve the salts. The editor of 
Clater says that this is the best purging drink that can be 
used. For Lambs give a fourth of this, and repeat in 6 
hours if necessary. 

2. Epsom salts l^^ oz. or 2 oz., ginger 1 dr., treacle 1 
oz., hot water 4 oz. 

3. Castor oil 2 oz., ginger and salt of tartar, of each 2 
scruples, moist sugar a spoonful, gruel q. s. — McEwen. 

4. Epsom or Glauber's salts from 1 to 2 oz., common 
salt a teaspoonful, boiling water sufficient to dissolve the 
salts, and a little gruel. A teaspoonful of tincture of 
ginger or of pimento, or of anodyne carminative tincture 
(see p. 90), may be added. 

5. Sulphur ^ oz., Epsom salts 1 oz., common salt a tea- 
spoonful, thin gruel ^ pint. 

6. Linseed oil 2 or 3 oz., croton oil 2 or 3 drops, warm 
gruel q. s. 

7. For Lambs. Epsom salts 2 to 4 dr., ginger ^ dr., in 
gruel. — Spooner. 

8. For Sheep on the first attack of Small-pox. Epsom 
salts 2 oz., ginger J dr., in chamomile tea or infusion of 
gentian (or with 1 dr. of powdered gentian or chamomile). — 

FEVER DRENCH. Powdered digitalis 20 gr., emetic tar- 
tar 10 gr., nitre 2 dr. Twice a day, mixed with gruel. — 



1. G-eneral Tonic. Gentian 2 dr., calumba 1 dr., ginger 
1^ dr., all in powder ; tincture of orange-peel 1 dr., gruel 
4 oz. ; for one dose. — Clater. 

2. In the last stage of Fever. Gentian 1 dr., ginger 20 
gr., spirit of nitrous ether 1 dr., tincture of cardamom 20 
drops, in gruel. 

3. For Debility and Indigestiooi, after a jnirgative. Gen- 
tian, caraAvay, each 1 oz., calumba and ginger, of each 1 oz. 
(all sliced or bruised), boiling water a quart ; infuse till cool, 

. ' and strain. Give a tablespoonful daily, with the same quan- 
tity of gruel. — Clater. 

DRENCHES FOR RED-WATER. The pasture should 
be changed for shorter, the animal bled, and the bowels 
kept open with the above purging drinks. If these means 
do not remove the disease, give one of the following : 

1. Epsom salts 6 oz., nitre 2 oz., bole ^ oz., hot water 
3 pints, oil of turpentine 4 oz. ; mix, and give 3 or 4 
tablespoonfuls (from a horn that will measure that quan- 
tity), shaking the bottle well before each dose is poured 

2. Powdered catechu 30 gr., alum 20 gr., ginger 20 gr., 
decoction of oak-bark 4 oz., for a dose. 

3. Olive oil 1 oz., oil of turpentine 1 oz., thick gruel 
J pint. 

FOR EXTERNAL RED-WATER. (Vesicles on the skin, 
containing a reddish fluid.) 

1. Sulphur 2 to 3 dr., in gruel, once or twice a day. If 
it continues, give — 

2. Epsom salts 1 oz., gruel sufficient to dissolve it. — Sir 
James Mackenzie. 


(The Purging Drink, No. 6, or a fourth of No. 1, should 
be given before the Astringent Drinks.) 

• 1. Prepared chalk 2 oz., catechu 1 oz., ginger ^ oz., 
opium 1 dr., peppermint-water a pint. Dose, for lambs, a 
tablespoonful night and morning. — YouATT. 

2. Prepared chalk ^ oz., ginger ^ dr., catechu ^ dr., 
opium 2 gr., in gruel; one or twice daily. 

3, A tablespoonful of Calves' cordial, p. 133. 


4. Compound powder of chalk with opium 2 dr., gentian 
.1 dr., essence of peppermint 3 drops; in a little thin starch, 
morning and night. — Clater. 

5. Ginger 2 dr., caraway 4 dr., prepared chalk 4 dr. ; mix ; 
give a teaspoonful in gruel. — White. 

6. In white skit ; a teaspoonful of White's alkaline solu- 
tion (p. 134) in a little gruel ; and afterwards No. 7. 

7. Epsom salts 3 dr., common salt a scruple, powdered 
ginger a scruple, thin gruel 4 oz. Repeat if necessary. 

DRENCH FOR THE LAST" EPIDEMIC. Epsom salts 1 oz., 
sulphur 2 dr., nitre J dr., ginger 15 gr., in warm water. 
Repeat half this, with a teaspoonful of sweet spirit of nitre, 
daily. — Spooner. 

DRENCH FOR COW-POX. Mix three parts of flowers of 
sulphur, 1 of common salt, and 1 of honey, into an electu- 
ary ; give ^ of this daily, in gruel. Keep the mouth and 
nose clean with vinegar and Avater. See also Purging Drench, 
No. 7, above. 

DRENCH FOR INFLUENZA. Epsom salts i oz., chamo- 
mile tea 4 oz. Afterwards give half doses of the Fever 
Drench, above. — Darby. 


1. Grlauber's salts 1 oz., hot water 1 oz., peppermint-water 
4 oz., tincture of ginger 1 dr., tincture of gentian 1 dr., 
every six hours till the boAvels are opened, and half the quan- 
tity the next four mornings. — Clater. 

2. Common salt 1 oz., solution of potash (White's) 1|- 
dr., castor or olive oil 2 tablespoonfuls, water 3 oz. (After 
letting out the air by a tube or probang.) — White. 

NESS. Pearlash IJ dr., hot water 8 oz. To be given from 
a flat bottle the second and fourth morning after putting 
them to keep. — Holditch. 

bleeding, 2 oz. of Epsom or Glauber's salts, in warm water 
or thin gruel. 


1. Epsom salts 1 oz., hot water on thin gruel to dissolve 


it ; add castor oil 2 oz., laudanum 30 drops. When it has 
operated, give No. 2. — Blaine. 

2. Ipecacuanha 15 gr., prepared chalk 1 dr., opium 2 
gr. ; boiled starch or arrow-root 4 oz. Night and morn- 

3. Linseed oil 2 oz., powdered opium 2 gr., linseed tea q. 
s. Afterwards give No. 4. — Saybr. 

4. Opium 2 gr., ginger ^ dr., gentian | dr., linseed tea or 
' gruel q. s. 

5. Epsom salts 1^ oz., hot water 4 oz. ; dissolve and 
add castor or olive oil 1^ oz. — White. Afterwards give 

, "No. 6. 

6. Catechu ^ dr., allspice ^ dr., caraway 1 dr., water or 
beer 4 oz. ; simmer together. 


1. After bleeding : Epsom salts IJ oz., warm water 1 
pint. — Stevenson. 

2. After bleeding: common salt 1 oz., water ^ pint, laud- 
anum a teaspoonful. — White. 


Olive oil 4 oz., spirit of hartshorn ^ oz., gruel or arrow-root 

1 pint. — White. 


1. A decoction of horsemint, or any other kind of mint. 

2. Bruised ergot of rye 1 dr., boiling water a pint ; in- 
fuse for a ^ of an hour, and give a third part. Repeat if 


1. Juniper berries 6 oz. ; gentian 1 oz. ; boil in 3 gal- 
lons of water for a quarter of an hour, strain, and add 
common salt 4 Bb, powdered ginger 4 oz., tartarized iron 

2 oz. ; stir, and let it stand till cool. Put it into wine- 
bottles filled two-thirds full, and add to each 1|- oz., oil of 
turpentine and ^ oz. sweet spirit of nitre. Give a table- 
spoonful night and morning, shaking the bottle before pour- 
ing it out. 

2. Common salt 8 oz., gentian powder 8 oz., ginger 1 oz., 
tincture of calumba 4 oz., water to make up a quart. — 
Clater. See the next. 


3. To a quart of No. 2, add spirit of turpentine 3 oz. ; 
shake well together, and give 2 tablespoonfuls at night, 
before the night's food is given, and a tablespoonful of 
No. 2 every morning. 

Powders for the same. — A French recipe. 1. Dry bran. 10 ft), 
salt J ft), aromatic herbs (as thyme, sage, juniper, rosemary, 
&c.) cut small, 6 oz., green anise and coriander, of each 
5 oz. ; mix and give morning and night every third day. 
The above quantity is for thirty sheep. 

2. Juniper-berries 4 oz., bay-berries 1 oz., grains of para- 
dise \ oz., bay salt 1|^ ft), loaf sugar ^ ft) ; powder all to- 
gether, and keep the powder in a bottle for use. Give the 
sheep dry and sweet hay, sprinkled with the powder. — 

CATARRH, HOOSE, AND COUGH. After bleeding 
from the neck, give Epsom salts 2 oz., gruel or linseed 
tea q. s. 

DRENCH FOR INFLUENZA. Epsom salts | oz., chamo- 
mile tea 4 oz. Afterwards small doses of digitalis, opium, 
tartarized antimony, and vegetable tonics. — Darby. 


1. Strong. For cloudiness of the eye; corrosive sub- 
limate 4 gr., spirit of wine ^ oz. ; dissolve, and add water 
1 pint. — Clater. 

2. Tincture or wine of opium 1 teaspoonful, water ^ 

scab ointments will also destroy them, and are less hazard- 
ous, and less injurious to the wool.) 

1. Arsenical Wash. White arsenic |- ft), salt of tartar 
J ft), water 12 gallons ; boil for half an hour. — Youatt. 

2. Arsenic 2 ft, soft soap 4 ft, water 30 gallons ; dissolve. 
The sheep to be immersed in this liquid (the head only being 
kept but), and while in it the fleece to be well rubbed. When 
taken out the fluid should be well pressed out of the fleece, 



and the sheep kept from cold and wet for a few days. — 
Clater. Mr. Spooler says 2 ft) of arsenic should make 48 
gallons of the liquid. 

3. Arsenic 1 ft), yellow soap 6 ft), pearlash 12 oz., water 
30 gallons. — Matthews. 

4. Mercurial. Corrosive sublimate 1 oz., spirit of wine 
2 oz. ; rub together till dissolved, then add cream of 

' tartar 1 oz., bay salt 4 oz., dissolve the whole in 2 quarts 
of water, and apply it with a sponge wherever lice appear. 
— Clater. 

5. Tobacco 4 oz., water 1 gallon; boil, and add soft soap 
1 ft, sulphur vivum 1 ft ; when cold add a pint of oil of 

6. Equal parts of decoction of tobacco and lime-water. — 


WASH TO KILL MAGGOTS. Shake up in a bottle to- 
gether 1 quart of water, spirits of turpentine 1 oz., and 
corrosive sublimate 10 grains. Stop with a cork in which 
a quill is inserted. When the maggots are observed, a 
small quantity of the mixture is to be shaken on the 
spot through the quill, and they will shortly creep out and 


1. One gallon of common tar, and 12 ft of any sweet 
grease, melted together. 

2. Oil of tar is used as a preventive of the fly ; but fish 
oil is equally so, according to Mr. Hogg ; and is less injurious 
to the wool. Oil of tar has sometimes destroyed sheep. 


1. White lead 2 ft, red lead ^ ft, sulphur IJ ft, oil of 
wormwood, animal oil (empyreumatic), or creasote J oz. ; 

2. White lead 2 ft, red lead 1 ft ; mix, and apply by 
sprinkling from a dredger, following a stick drawn through 
the wool. — Clater. 

. 3. Powdered colocynth 3 dr., black brimstone 1 ft, tinc- 
ture of assafoetida J oz. ; mix. 

4. White lead 4 parts, arsenic 1 part, sulphur 6, ver- 
milion 2. — Spooner. 

POWDER FOR THE EYES. Equal parts of sal ammo- 


Iliac, white sugar, and oxide of zinc, triturated together. 
It may be mixed either with rose-water or honey. — Spooner. 

demic affecting them. The same as for cattle. See above, 
page 139. 


1. Quicksilver 1 ib, Venice turpentine J Jfe ; rub them 
together until the globules are no longer visible ; then add J 
pint of oil of turpentine, and 4 ib of lard. The mode of 
applying this ointment is as follows: Begin at the head of 
the sheep, and proceeding from between the ears along the 
back to the end of the tail, divide the wool in a furrow till 
the skin can be touched ; and let a finger slightly dipped in 
the ointment be drawn along the bottom of this furrow. From 
this furrow similar ones must be drawn along the shoulders 
and thighs to the legs, as far as the wool extends. And if 
much infected, 2 or more should also be drawn along each 
side, parallel Avith that on the back ; and one down each side 
before the hind and fore legs. It kills the sheep-fag, and 
probably the tick and other vermin. It should not be used 
in very cold or wet weather. — Sir Joseph Banks. 

2. Strong mercurial ointment 1 part, lard 5 parts ; mix. — 


3. Quicksilver 1 lb, Venice turpentine ^ ft, spirit of tur- 
pentine 2 oz., lard 4|- ft ; to be made and used as No. 1. In 
summer 1 ft of resin may be substituted for a like quantity 
of lard. — Clater. 

4. Strong mercurial ointment 1 ft, lard 4 ft, oil of tur- 
pentine 8 oz., sulphur 12 oz. — White. 

5. Mild. Flowers of sulphur 1 ft, Venice turpentine 4 
oz., rancid lard 2 ft, strong mercurial ointment 4 oz. ; mix 
well. — Clater. 

6. Lard or other fat, with an equal quantity of oil of tur- 
pentine. — Daubenton. 

7. Without Mercury. Lard 1 ft, oil of turpentine 4 oz., 
flowers of sulphur 6 oz. — White. 

8. Strong mercurial ointment 1 ft, lard 4 ft, Venice tur- 
pentine 8 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz. If mixed by heat, care 
must be taken to use no more heat than is necessary, and 
add the oil of turpentine when the other ingredients begin 
to cool, and to stir till cold. — McEwen. 


9. Corrosive sublimate 2 oz., white hellebore 3 oz., fish 
oil 6 quarts, resin J ib, tallow f ft). The sublimate and 
then' the hellebore to be rubbed with a portion of the oil 
till perfectly smooth, and then mix with the other ingredients 
melted together. — Stevenson. 

10. The following once had considerable local celebrity, 
but it obviously requires to be used with caution. Dissolve 

- 2^ oz. of corrosive sublimate in the same quantity of 
muriatic acid, and beat up the solution with 6 ft) of strong 
mercurial ointment ; put it in a large pan, and pour on it 
, ' 19J ft) of lard, and IJ ft) of common turpentine, melted 
together and still hot, and stir the whole continually until 
it becomes solid. 

FLIES. The fly powder No. 2, mixed with tar. — Clater. 

OINTMENT FOR SORE HEADS. Black pitch 2 ft), tar 1 
ft), flowers of sulphur 1 ft) ; melt together, taking care that 
it does not boil. To be spread thickly on leather while 
warm, and fitted to the head. 


1. Blue vitriol 1 oz., white vitriol 1 oz., burnt alum 2 oz., 
bole J oz., honey to form a stiff paste. — McEwen. 

2. Sulphate of copper 2 oz., water 12 oz., dilute sulphuric 
acid 2 dr. — White. 

3. Butter of antimony, alone, or mixed with tincture of 

4. Verdigris, bole, and sugar of lead, in equal parts, 
rubbed together into a fine powder. Sprinkle on the sore, 
cover with tow, and bind down with tape for 24 hours, using 
afterwards No 3, or No. 2. — Clater. 

5. Strong. Verdigris 1 oz,, nitrous acid 2 oz., water 4 
oz. — White. 

6. Strongest. Red precipitate 1 oz., nitrous acid 2 oz, ; 
dissolve, and add water 2 oz., spirits of wine 1 oz. — 

. T. Aloes 16 oz., weak spirit 32 oz., sulphuric acid 17 oz. ; 
mix, — DuviLLE. 

8. Dissolve sulphate of copper 2J oz. in 1^ pint of water, 
and add a solution of 3|- dr. of sulphate of iron previously 
calcined. Diffuse f oz. slaked lime in water, and add the 
mixed solution ; then add 7 oz. common salt, 1 oz, wood 


vinegar, and water to make up a quart. (Nearly the com- 
position of a celebrated French nostrum.) 

9. Leloup's Terebinthinated Oxjmel of Copper. Honey 
14 oz., pyroligneous acid 7 oz., powdered verdigris 5 oz. ; 
boil it in a large copper pan until it assumes a reddish-purple 
color ; then add, keeping the mixture on a slow fire, 14 oz. 
Venice turpentine ; stir with a wooden spatula for ^ of an 
hour, and pour it into jars. To be applied twice at 12 hours' 
interval, by means of a small piece of wood, after cleaning 
the part with an iron blade. 

10. White vinegar 78 parts, powdered sulphate of copper 
10 parts ; dissolve, and add 12 parts of sulphuric acid. Ap- 
ply it with a feather. (A French remedy.) 

11. Detersive Ointment. Burnt alum 4 parts, verdigris 
1 part, camphor 1 part, green ointment of elder or poplar 
16 parts.— Lebas. 

12. Honey 4 oz., burnt alum 2 oz., Armenian bole ^ Bb ; 
mix with as much train oil as will convert these ingredients 
into a salve. The honey must first be completely dissolved 
in the oil made hot, then the bole stirred in, and lastly the 

Blacklock condemns all caustic applications, using only 
mild poultices and emollient ointments. 


ALTERATIVE MEDICINES, in mange and other skin dis- 
eases, and in obstinate costiveness. 

1. Sulphur ^ oz., ^thiops mineral 3 gr., nitre J dr., 
cream of tartar J dr. ; dailj, in thick gruel or wash. — 

■ 2. Black antimony | oz., sulphur 2 oz., nitre J oz. ; mix; 
for 8 doses. 

FEVER MEDICINE. Digitalis 3 gr., antimonial powder 6 
gr., nitre ^ dr. ; after bleeding, in a little warm swill, milk, 
or mash, morning, noon, and night. — Clater. 


1. Epsom salts 1, 2, or 3 oz., in broth or swill. 

2. Sulphur 2 dr., daily ; full dose ^ oz., with milk or 
other food. This may be repeated for 2 or 3 days, in sur- 
feit from overfeeding. 

3. Jalap 1 dr. ; if insufficient, add 10 or 12 gr. of scam- 
mony, or 10 gr. of calomel. — White. 

4. Jalap J dr., sulphur 2 dr., antimony |- dr. 

5. Jalap J dr., Epsom salts 1 oz. 

6. Castor oil 1 oz. to 2 oz., with gruel. 

7. Castor oil 1 oz., gruel q. s., Epsom salts 2 oz., salt 
^ oz. ; mix. 

8. Calomel 5 gr, ; but this must not be repeated more 
than twice. 

CARMINATIVE DRENCH, for flatulent distension, from 
sour whey, &c. After using the probang, or where it can- 
not be had, give- — 

1. White's solution of potash (see page 134) 2 oz., ano- 
dyne carminative tincture 1 tablespoonful, water 8 oz. 

2. A tablespoonful of common salt in warm water, a 
teaspoonful of mustard or powdered ginger, and a glass of 

THRIVING POWDER, to promote fattening. Powdered 
fenugreek, alone, or mixed with a fourth of liquorice powder; 
an ounce daily with the food. Cleanliness greatly conduces 
to the same end. 


REMEDIES FOR MEASLES. After bleeding by tail, ear, 
palate, or vein inside the forearm, an inch above the knee, 
give one of the purging drinks, and turn it into the open air. 

REMEDIES FOR THE DISTEMPER, affecting the Mouth 
and Feet. The same drink, and astringent powder as for 


Castor oil 2 oz., with gruel; afterwards 2 gr. white helle- 
bore powder twice or thrice a day. — Cupiss. 


1. Lard 1 lb, resin 4 ftt ; melt together, and stir in |^ Bb 
lapis calaminaris. — Clater. 

2. Zinc ointment 1 oz., yellow basilicon 3 oz. 

3. Tar ointment mixed with a little soap. 


Sulphur 4 oz., Venice turpentine 1 oz., old lard 8 oz., mer- 
curial ointment 1 oz. ; the animal to be previously scrubbed 
all over with a good soap lather. (The above alterative pow- 
ders should be given at the same time.3 

OINTMENT FOR SORE TEATS. Soft soap 4 oz., cam- 
phor (powdered. with spirit) ^ oz., mercurial ointment J oz. 
It must be carefully washed off. 


N. B. — The doses required vary considerably, according to the 
strength and size of the dog, which should always be duly 


1. Barbadoes aloes 8 oz., antimonial powder 1 oz., ginger 
1 oz., palm oil 5 oz. ; beat together into a mass. Dose from 
J dr. to 2 dr., every 4 or 6 hours, till the bowels are relieved. 


2. The same, with the addition of 1 oz. of colomel. He 
directs from 45 grains to 2 dr. for a dose. — Clater. 

3. Aloes J dr. to 2 dr. made into a ball with syrup of 

4. Aloes ^ dr., to If dr., calomel 2 to 5 gr., syrup to 
form a ball ; in inflammation of the bowels, and in worms. 
— Blaine. 

5. Cape aloes f dr. to 1 dr., calomel 2 to 3 gr., oil of 
caraway 6 drops, syrup to form a ball. — McEwen. 

6. Calomel 12 gr., aloes 3 dr., opium 1 gr., syrup q. s. to 
form a mass for 4, 6, or 8 balls ; one every 4 or 5 hours till 
the bowels are relieved. — Blaine. 

7. Croton oil 1 drop, Castile soap 20 gr., conserve to form 
a ball. 

8. Castor oil 3 parts, syrup of buckthorn 2 parts, syrup 
of poppies 1 part ; dose from 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls. — Mr. 
Youatt's purge. [Mr. Clarke says syrup of buckthorn 
for dogs should be made with treacle, and the spices 

9. Epsom salts, from 1 to 4 dr,, wrapped in tissue-paper, 
dividing the doses into convenient sized packets. 

10. In costiveness with inflammation : f oz. to 2 oz. castor 
oil. — Mr. Spooner. 

11. Jalap, powdered, 30 gr., calomel 8 gr. ; make into a 
pill with gum-water, and administer every morning. In 


1. Sulphur 2|- Jb, nitre ^ ft), ^thiops mineral 4 oz., lin- 
seed meal J ft), palm oil 1 ft), or as much as may be required ; 


beat together, and keep in a jar for use : dose, from 2 scruples 
to 1| or 2 dr. — Clater. 

2. ^thiops mineral 20 to 40 gr., cream of tartar 20 to 
40 gr., nitre 5 to 10 gr. ; night and morning, made into a 
ball with butter. — Spooner. 

3. Tonic Alterative. Mercurial pill 1 dr., aloes 2 dr., 
myrrh, benzoin, balsam of Peru, of each 1^ dr.; to be divided 
into 10, 15, or 20 pills ; one every evening for the yellows, 
after aloes and calomel. — Blaine. 

4. Alterative Poivder. ^thiops mineral 2 to 5 gr., cream 
of tartar 4 to 10 gr., tartarized iron 1 to 3 gr. ; once a day. 
— Clater. 

5. To give a fine skin. Give a tablespoonful of tar, made 
up with oatmeal. — Mayer. 


1. Catechu 1^ dr., sulphate of quinine 20 gr., opium 5 
gr., ginger 1 dr., conserve of roses q. s, to form a mass, to 
be divided into 8, 6, or 4 balls. — Blaine. 

2. Prepared chalk 2 oz., powdered gum arabic ^ oz., 
powdered catechu ^ oz., powdered oak bark ^ oz., powdered 
ginger ^ oz., opium 15 gr., palm oil 1 oz.; beat well 
together : dose, |- dr. to 2 dr., morning, noon, and night, 
in the advanced stage of distemper. — Clater. 

3. Opium 5 gr., catechu 2 clr., gum arabic 2 dr., ginger 
J dr., syrup of poppies q. s. ; divide into 12, 9, or 6 balls. 
In diarrhoea. — Blaine. 

4. Myrrh 1 dr., ipecacuanha 1 scruple, opium 3 gr., chalk 
2 dr., carbonate of iron 1 dr. : as No. 3. — Blaine. 

5. In obstinate cases : Alum 1 dr., chalk 2 dr., opium 6 
gr., resin 3 dr. : into 4, 6, or 8 balls, 

6. In diarrhoea, after 1 to 4 dr. of Epsom salts ; Prepared 
chalk 1 to 3 scruples, catechu 5 to 10 gr., opium J to 2 gr. ; 
twice a day. — Spooner. 

7. Astringent Drink. Boil 1 oz. of logwood in a quart 
of milk to J a pint. A teaspoonful every morning, in pro- 


1. After a fetv emetics. Calomel 3 gr., foxglove 3 gr., 
cream of tartar 1 dr., antimonial powder 12 gr., honey to 
form 6 boluses. One twice a day. — Blaine. 

2. Digitalis 20 gr., antimonial powder 40 gr., nitre 2 dr., 
sulphur 3 dr., palm oil 3 dr., or q. s. Divide into 10, 15, 


or 20 balls, according to the size of the dog, morning and 
night, interposing an emetic every third or fourth day. — 

3. In old cases. P. squill ^ gr. to 1 gr., gum ammoniac 
5 gr., balsam of Peru 8 gr., benzoic acid 1 gr., balsam of 
sulphur to form a ball. 

4. Extract of hemlock J dr., extract of henbane 10 gr., 
p. digitalis 20 gr., conserve of roses to form a mass. 
Divide into 10, 8, or 6 balls. One night and morning. — 


1. Turpeth mineral 1 to 3 gr., assafoetida \ dr., aloes 20 
gr., soap 10 gr., syrup of poppies to form a ball. To be 
preceded by an emetic, and given every third day. 

2. After bleeding (if required) and an emetic, give a 
physic ball ; and afterwards the following, 2 or 3 times a 
day ; Antimonial powder, 2, 3, or 4 gr., nitre 5, 10, or 15 
gr., ipecacuanha 2, 3, or 4 gr. ; form a ball. If the disease 
proceed to the debilitating stage, give the Tonic Ball, No. 
2; in the putrid or malignant stage, give the Astringent 
Ball, No. 1. — Blaine. 

3. After the emetic powder No. 1 (which should be re- 
peated every third or fourth day) give the Cough Ball, No. 
2, from ^ dr. to 2 dr. in weight. And if the dog lose 
flesh, give equal parts of the Cough Ball and the Tonic 
Ball (No. 1). In the more advanced stages give the tonic 
alone; or, the Astringent Ball, if diarrhoea comes on. — 

4. Give a third of a paper of James's powder, mixed with 
butter, and afterwards warm broth or milk. In 2 hours 
another third ; and if this neither vomit nor purge, give the 
other third at the end of 4 hours. — Daniel. 

5. Blaine's Bister^iper Potvders, which are sold in packets, 
with directions for use. 

6. Camphor 3 to 5 gr., charcoal 10 gr., opium 1 gr., aro- 
matic confection q. s. to form a ball. — In the malignant 
stage, with diarrhoea. 

7. .Antimonial powder 2 to 4 gr., nitre 5 to 10 gr., 
"digitalis J to 2 gr. Afterwards the tonic pills No. 4. — 

Poudre Kusique : a French nostrum. Mix 45 gr. of 
nitre, 45 of sulphur, and 1 of charcoal. Divide into 3 
doses. Give 1 for two successive mornings, and the third 


on the fourth morning, mixed with lard or butter, or in 
milk. For a large dog a second packet (of 3 powders) may 
. be required. — Habert. 

Another French nostrum, Hemel's powder, is of a similar 

8. A strong solution of salt, to the amount of J pint 

9. Powdered tin, sulphur, gunpowder, of each 1 oz. ; 
lard sufficient to form a mass. The size of a nutmeg to be 
given twice or thrice a week. , 

10. Physic ball No. 11. 


1. Castor oil J oz., oil of peppermint 1 drop, laudanum 
20 drops. If it does not open the bowels, give ^ dr. to 1|- 
dr. of aloes. — Blaine. 

2. Castor oil 3 oz., syrup of buckthorn 2 oz., syrup of 
poppies 1 oz. Give from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful. 
— You ATT. 

3. Ether |- dr., laudanum J dr., camphor 3 to 6 gr., 
castor oil (unless he is purged) 3 to 5 dr. — Blaine. 


Give Colic mixture No. 3, and apply warm bath and 


1. Calomel 8 gr., carbonate of iron | dr., extract of hem- 
lock 20 gr., conserve of roses, or plain oil, to form a mass 
for 12, 9, or 6 balls. — Blaine. 

2. Give the Alterative balls No. 1, or the pills of nitrate 
of silver, as for St. Vitus's dance. — Clater. 

3. For epilepsy of suckling bitches : Ether 1 dr., laud- 
anum ^ dr., strong ale 2 oz. ; give from a dessert-spoonful 
to 1 or ^ tablespoonfuls every 2 or 3 hours. — Blaine. 

4. For epilepsy attending distemper : The Tonic balls, or 
the pills for chorea. — Clater, 

5. After an emetic : Gentian 10 to 20 gr., ginger 3 to 6 
gr., carbonate of iron 2 to 4 gr., or from an eighth to a 
fourth of a gr. of nitrate of silver, and ^ gr. of spiders' web 
once a day. — Spooner. 

6. Ether 1 dr., laudanum | dr., camphor 6 gr., spirit of 
hartshorn 1 dr. ; in a spoonful of ale : for small dogs give 
half the quantity. — Blaine. 



1. Calomel, emetic tartar, of each 1 oz. ; vermilion 10 
gr. ; rub together : dose, from 1 to 3 gr., dropped on the 
tongue, or mixed with a teaspoonful of niilk. — Clater. 

2. Emetic tartar, from 1 to 3 gr. 

8. Turpeth mineral, from 1 to 3 gr. 
4. A teaspoonful of common salt. 


1. In inflammation of the lungs : After bleeding and 
- purging, digitalis 12 gr., emetic tartar 3 gr., nitre 1 dr. ; 

mix, and divide into 6, 9, or 12 powders. — Blaine. 

2. Ditto, with much cough: Tincture of digitalis 1 dr., 
emetic tartar 3 gr., nitre 1 dr., simple oxymel 2 oz. : dose, 
1 or 2 dr. every 3 hours. — Blaine. 

3. In pleurisy, with incipient water in the chest : Digi- 
talis 6 gr., calomel 6 gr., tartarized iron 18 gr. ; into 6, 9, 
or 12 doses. — Youatt. 

4. In inflammation of the liver: Digitalis 8 gr., anti- 
monial powder 16 gr., nitre 1 dr.: divide into 7, 9, or 12 
powders, or boluses. — Blaine. 

5. In chronic inflammation of the liver : Calomel 20 gr., 
antimonial powder J dr., myrrh, gentian, aloes, of each 2 
dr. ; mix, and divide into 15, 20, or 25 balls. 

6. In inflammation of the bowels : After bleeding and a 
warm bath, give the castor oil mixture (Purgatives No. 8). — 

7. Bilious inflammation (with oS"ensive, often black, vom- 
iting and purging) : Calomel 10 gr., opium 4 gr. : in 4 or 8 
pills — one 3 times a day ; afterwards the astringent reme- 
dies for diarrhoea. — Spooner. 


1. After warm bath, and friction, give tincture of 
opium 20 drops, ether 20 drops, castor oil J oz. to 1 oz. — 

2. Calomel 2 to 4 gr., opium ^ gr., oil of peppermint 1 
drop, aloes 1 dr. ; form a ball with butter or lard : repeat it 
every 4 hours till the bowels are well opened ; and use the 
Embrocation No. 3. — Clater. 

3. After warm bath, &c., give 40 drops of laudanum, and 
a teaspoonful of hartshorn, in warm beer ; and rub with the 
Embrocation No. 1. — Mayer. 



1. Gentian 1 oz., chamomile J oz., oak bark J oz., gin- 
ger ^ oz., carbonate of iron ^ oz., palm oil 1 oz. : beat them 
together to form a. mass : dose 2 to 6 scruples. — Clater. 

2. Sulphate of quinine |- dr., powdered chamomile 3 dr., 
balsam of Peru 1^ dr., camphor 1 scruple ; form a mass with 
conserve of roses, and divide into 12, 9, or 6 balls ; one 
every 6 hours, in the debilitating stage of distemper. — 

3. Chamomile 1 oz., rue J oz., ginger ^ oz. (all in pow- 
der) , beat them into a mass with 7 dr. of palm oil, and 
divide into 12, 16 or 20 balls ; one night and morning in 
gutta Serena. — Clater. 

4. Gentian powder 10 to 20 gr., ginger 5 gr., cascarilla 
10 to 20 gr. ; conserve of roses, or syrup, to form a ball. 
One twice a day. 


1. Carbonate of iron ^ oz., ^thiops mineral 1 dr., gen- 
tian 1 oz., ginger ^ oz., levigated glass 1 oz., palm oil 9 dr.; 
beat well together : dose from | to 2 dr. — Clater. 

2. As much finely-powdered glass as will lie on a six- 
pence, mixed with butter. — Blaine. Mr. Youatt says from 
^ dr. to 1 dr. powdered glass, with a little ginger, made into 
a ball Avith lard. 

3. Aloes, sulphur, prepared hartshorn, and juice of worm- 
wood, made into a mass; thfrsize of a hazel-nut to be given 
three times a week, fasting, wrapped in butter. — Daniel. 

4. Tin filings, or pewter filings, ^ dr. to 1 dr., with butter 
or lard. - 

5. Jalap 10 to 15 grs., calomel 2 to 3 gr., mixed with 
butter ; no cold liquid should be allowed. — White. 

6. Cowhage ^ dr., iron filings 4 dr., conserve q. s. to 
form a mass, to be divided into 4, 6, or 8 balls ; one every 
night and morning ; and afterwards the purgative No. 4. — 

7. Epsom salts 1 oz., common salt 1 dr. ; give a small or 
large teaspoonful daily. 

8. Give green walnut leaves boiled in milk. — Mayer. 

9. For Tajje Worm. Oil of turpentine | dr., mixed with 
yolk of egg ; for very large dogs 2 scruples. Some writers 
prescribe larger doses (1 or 2 dr.), but these sometimes prove 
fatal. — Blaine.. 


10. For Tape Worm. Oil of turpentine and olive oil, of 
each ^ oz., mix, and give carefully ; three or four hours 
after give 1 oz. castor oil. But see No. 9. — White. 

11. For Stomach Worms. Give the emetic powder 
(above) and afterwards a physic ball. 

12. Thread Worms. These are destroyed by an aloetic 


1. After bleeding : Calomel 2 to 3 gr., jalap 10 gr., scam- 
- mony 4 gr. — White. 

2. Aloes 20 to 40 gr., calome 12 to 4 gr. ; afterwards the 
tonic alterative balls. — Blaine. See Alteratives. 


1. Nitrate of silver 8 gr., ginger 10 gr., syrup to form a 
mass ; divide into 64 pills, and give one or two morning and 
night. — Clater. 

2. Strychnia 1 gr., oxide of zinc 24 gr., assafoetida 24 
gr., conserve of roses q. s. ; mix very accurately, and divide 
into 12, 9, or 6 balls. 

3. Nitrate of silver 3 gr., carbonate of iron 2 dr., gentian 
3 dr., conserve of roses to form a mass, for 12, 9, or 6 balls. 
— Blaine. 


1. Digitalis 9 gr., squill 12 gr., cream of tartar 2 dr., 
mix, and divide into 9, 12, or 15 powders ; one night and 

2. Foxglove 12 gr., antimonial powder 15 gr., nitre 1 
dr. ; as the last. — Blaine. 

3. Foxglove 1 gr., nitre 10 gr., ginger 8 gr. ; night and 
morning; then iodide of potassium ^ gr. to 1 gr. — Youatt. 

BALLS for enlarged GLANDS and CANCEROUS 

1. Extract of hemlock 1 to 3 gr., burnt sponge 10 to 20 
gr. ; make a ball, to be given once or twice a day. 

2. Iodine 12 gr., powdered gum 40 gr., syrup to form a 
stiff mass, divide into 48 pills, and give one or two night 
and morning. — Clater. 

gr. : pulverize, and add ginger 16 gr., syrup q. s. : beat into 


a mass, and divide into 5 pills ; give one every hour, or to a 
small bitch, half of one. — Clater. 


1. Powdered leaves of the Scutellaria lateriflora 40 gr., 
powdered belladonna 2^ gr. ; to be given night and morning 
for 6 weeks, gradually increasing the dose. — Youatt. 

2. Infuse a teaspoonful and a half of powdered Scutellaria 
in a quart of hot water ; give half a pint morning and night, 
omitting the dose every third day, when a mild dose of sul- 
phur must be given. — Dr. Spalding. 

3. Fresh leaves of the tree box 2 oz., rue 2 oz., sage 
J oz., chop them fine, and boil them in a pint of water 
till reduced to half a pint ; strain and press out the liquid ; 
beat the herbs, and boil them in a pint of new milk to 
half; strain, press the herbs, and mix the liquids. For a 
man, give a third of this quantity every other morning 
fasting ; double the above quantity makes 3 doses for a 
horse or cow ; two-thirds will suflice for a middle-sized dog, 
and a third for smaller dogs. It produces extreme nausea 
and distress, and has occasionally proved fatal to dogs. — 


1. Bruised oak-bark 2 oz., catechu 1 oz., water 3 pints ; 
boil to a pint, and strain. — Clater. 

2. Tincture of myrrh and aloes 1 oz., alum J oz., water 1 

3. For sore feet : the Lotion No. 1, 4 oz., tincture of 
aloes J oz., water 1 pint, 

4. Nitrate of silver 10 gr., water 1 oz. : to excite sluggish 


1. Sulphate of zinc 20 gr., sugar of lead | dr., water 4 
oz. — White. 

2. Sulphate of zinc 20 gr., decoction of oak-bark 4 oz. — 


3. Nitrate of silver 1 gr., rain-water 2 oz. 

4. Sugar of lead,| dr., rose-water 4 oz. A teaspoonful to 
be introduced blood-warm into the ear. 

5. 3Iild Canker Lotion. Infusion of foxglove leaves |- 
pint, Goulard's extract of lead J oz. ; mix. To be used as 
the last. — Clater. 

6. Strong Canker Lotion. Goulard's extract 2 dr., white 
vitriol 1 dr., alum 2 dr., water ^ pint. 

7. Chloride of lime -20 to 30 gr., water J pint. 

LOTION TO ALLAY ITCHING. Dilute hydrocyanic acid 
1 dr., water 1 pint. — Youatt. 


1. Equal parts of zinc ointment, and ointment of nitrate 
of quicksilver. — Blaine. 

2. Sublimate 3 gr.. Turner's cerate 1 dr., sulphur 1 

3. White vitriol, alum, each in fine powder 1 dr., lard 4 
oz. To be rubbed gently into the crack. — Clater. 

4. Stronger. Nitrate of silver 20 gr., lard 1 oz. Rub 
them well together. — Clater. 

5. Levigated red precipitate J oz., lard 2 oz. — Mayer. 


1. Astringent Wash for Weak Eyes. — White vitriol 4 
gr., spirits of wine ^ dr., water 4 oz. — Clater. 

2. Sugar of lead 30 gr., rose-water 6 oz. — Blaine. 

3. Laudanum ^ dr., infusion of green tea 4 oz. — 

4. For naturally weak • eyes : Laudanum 2 dr., water 8 
oz. To be used every morning. — Clater. 

5. Sugar of lead \ dr., distilled water 6 oz., tincture of 
opium J dr. In inflammation after bleeding, physic, and 
warm fomentations. — Spooner. 


1. Red precipitate, levigated, 10 grains, zinc ointment 
J oz. 

2. Ointment of nitrate of quicksilver 1 dr., sugar of lead, 
20 gr., spermaceti ointment 3 dr. — Blaine. 

3. Dissolve a drachm of quicksilver in a drachm and a 
half of strong nitric acid, and mix the warm solution well 
with 6 oz. of melted lard. — Clater. 



N.B. — An alterative ball should be given daily and a 
physic ball occasionally. Bleeding is sometimes pre- 

1. For Scabby Mange : Sulphur 4 oz., sal ammoniac 
J oz,, aloes 1 dr., Venice turpentine ^ oz., lard 6 oz. : 
mix. After four applications wash well with soap and 
water. — Blaine. 

2. Horse turpentine and palm oil, each J Bb, train oil |- 
pint. Melt together, and while cooling stir in 3 Sb of flow- 
ers of sulphur. — Clater. 

3. Aloes 2 dr., hellebore J oz., sulphur 4 oz., lard or train 
oil 6 oz. — McEwEN. 

4. Sulphate of zinc 1 dr., snuff ^ oz., white hellebore |- 
oz., sulphur 4 oz., aloes ^ oz., soft soap 6 oz. — Blaine. 

5. Charcoal powder 2 oz., sulphur 4 oz., salt of tartar 1 
dr., Venice turpentine ^ oz., lard 6 oz. 

6. For Red Mange : Add 1 oz. of strong mercurial oint- 
ment to 6 oz. of either of the above. 

7. Charcoal 1 oz., chalk 1 oz., sugar of lead 1 dr., white 
precipitate 2 dr., sulphur 2 oz., lard 5 oz. — Blaine. 

8. Wash for Red Mange. — Sublimate 20 gr., spirit of 
wine 2 dr. ; dissolve and add milk' of sulphur ^ oz., lime- 
water |- pint. Apply by means of a sponge. — Clater. 

9. For Ulcerated Mange : Ointment of nitrated quick- 
silver 2 dr., sugar of lead 20 gr., flowers of sulphur ^ oz., 
lard 1 oz. ; mix. — Blaine. 

ARSENICAL OINTMENT. Yellow sulphuret of arsenic 
IJ g^'-5 cerate or lard J oz. : in mange and other skin dis- 
eases. — Delafond. 

SURFEIT OINTMENT. After bleeding and purging, apply 
sugar of lead 1 dr., spermaceti ointment 2 oz. 


Ointment. Sugar of lead 6 gr., tar ^ dr., elder ointment 3 
dr. — Blaine. 

Poivders. Nitre J dr., milk of sulphur 3 dr. ; mix, and divide 
into 9, 12, or 15 doses. — Blaine. 


1. Palm oil 3 fib, resin 1 ft) ; melt together, and when they 
begin to cool, add 1 ft) of powdered calamine. — Clater. 

2. Oxide of zinc ^ oz., lard IJ oz., balsam of Peru 1 dr. 



date of potash 1 dr., lard 7 dr. ; rub together till perfectly 


ointment 1 oz., simple cerate 1 oz. A small quantity to be 
rubbed over the region of the liver once a day till the mouth 
is sore, — Blaine. 


1. Oil of turpentine 2 oz., spirit of hartshorn 2 oz., tinc- 
. ■ ture of opium ^ oz., olive oil 2 oz. — Blaine. 

2. Cajeput oil 1 oz., soap liniment 2 oz. 

3. Spu'it of turpentine, spirit of hartshorn, camphorated 
spirit, of each 1 oz., laudanum J oz. — Clater. 


1. Common salt and cold vinegar. ^ 

2. Sal ammoniac ^ oz., vinegar a pint. 

3. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., old beer J pint, brine J pint. 
For strains. — Mayer. 

4. Spirit of Minder erus 4 oz., Goulard water 8 oz. 


&c. Bruised oak-bark 2 oz., catechu 1 oz., water 3 pints ; 
boil to 1 pint, and strain. — Clater. 


1. Equal parts of sal ammoniac and savine, powdered to- 

2. Sublimate 1 dr., muriatic acid 1 dr., spirit of wine 3 
dr., water 2 dr. The warts to be touched with the liquid 
twice a day. — Youatt. 


1. Rub the skin with powdered resin and bran. 

2. Let the dog sleep on deal shavings. 

3. Scotch snuflF steeped in gin. — Mayer. (This requires 


Astringent. Alum whey. 

Purgative. The purgative medicine No. 8 ; with gruel. 

For Worms. Solution of aloes 2 oz., linseed oil 1 oz. Mix. 

Anodyne. Boiled starch \ pint, laudanum 5 to 10 drops. — 





1. A saturated solution of common salt. Medium dose, 
half a teaspoonful. 

2. Antimonial powder 1 gr., with sopped bread, twice a 
day. — Clater. 

3. Garlic, rue, brickdust, and butter, beaten together, and 
a little crammed down the throat. 

4. For wet roup in pigeons : Give 3 or 4 pepper-corns in 
3 or 4 days. — Moore. 

5. For dry roup : Give 2 or 3 pills of garlic every day. 
[Some recommend assafoetida to be mixed with the food of 
Poultry, whenever they manifest disease by drooping their 
wings. J 

OIL-VESSEL. — Open the tumor, and squeeze out the col- 
lected oil. 


1. Pills of sulphur, turpentine, and wheat flour. — ("Veteri- 
narian," Oct., 1840.) 

2. Oil of turpentine 2 dr., linseed oil 1 oz. ; or oil of tur- 
pentine 2 dr., flour enough to make it into 20 pills. For 
20 doses, one every other day for 3 or 4 times, 

3. Tobacco smoke. 


Give a grain each of calomel and antimonial powder, 


1. Change the diet and give whole wheat or rice ; and 


if obstinate, cram down small pieces of the following mass : 
Chalk, p. caraway, and syrup of poppies. — Clater, 

2. Put chalk in their water, or give forge-water. 


If the obstruction is in the crop, endeavor to force the con- 
tents into the gullet and mouth by gentle pressure. When 
partially emptied give rue and butter. 

When the obstruction is in the bowels, give bran and pol- 
lard, mixed with a little greasy hot liquor, to which, if neces- 
sary, a little sulphur may be added ; or give a teaspoonful 
of the castor-oil mixture. — See Chipping. 


1. Wash the mouth two or three times a day with a mix- 
ture of equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water. 
.2. Rub the sore with common salt. 

3. Solution of chloride of soda 1 dr., water 1 oz., honey 
of roses 3 dr. 

CANKER IN PIGEONS. Apply burnt alum, mixed with 

seed, cumin seed, fennel seed, of each lib, assafoetida 1^ oz., 
bay salt ^ ib, common salt ^ ft) ; knead them with fine clay 
and flour. Bake it in earthen pots, and set it for the birds 
to peck. — Moore. 

G-enuine Salt-Oat. — Sifted gravel, brickmakers' earth, rubbish 
of old walls, of each a peck, cumin seed 1^ ft), baysalt ^ ft) ; 

filings, nutmegs, and honey ; mix, and give a small piece as 
often as necessary. 

CHIPPING, IN CHICKENS.— Remove the chickens to a 
warm place. Mix 1 oz. of castor oil with ^ oz. of syrup of 
ginger ; mix a teaspoonful of this with a little thick gruel, 
and force a little down several times a day, so that it shall 
get half a teaspoonful of the mixture in the course of the 

FOR CHILL, IN TURKEY CHICKS. Give ground malt 


and barlej-meal in equal quantities, adding a little powdered 
caraway or coriander-seed. 

hard, nettles, and parsley, all chopped up, and moistened 
with wine or water. 

MEGRIMS, OR GIDDINESS. Castor oil 1 oz., syrup of 
ginger J oz., syrup of poppies J oz. ; mix with gruel, and 
force a little down occasionally. — Clater. 

CONVULSIONS OF DUCKS. Give to grown-up ducks 4 
grains of pepper, mixed with fresh butter. 

FOR BLINDNESS. Foment with warm water, then drop a 
few drops of the following solution into the eyes ; laudanum 
1 teaspoonful, water a teacupful. 


1. Laudanum a few drops, added to a teacupful of water. 

2. Tincture of myrrh and paregoric, each a teaspoonful, 
water J a pint. 

phate of soda, placed within reach of the hens, is said to be 
useful. Warmth, good feeding, with a little chopped meat 
in winter, are also recommended. To prevent their laying 
soft eggs, supply them with old mortq,r, bruised egg-shells, 
or chalk. 

THE HEAD. Burnt alum, 2 dr., honey 1 oz. ; mix, and 
apply twice a day. 

VERMIN, TO DESTROY. Tobacco smoke, with good food 
and cleanliness. 

MOULTING. It is usual to put saffron into the water of cage 
birds when moulting ; others recommend a rusty nail. 

FOR SNIFFLES IN RABBITS. Sulphate of copper 1 to 
2 gr., morning and evening, in bran. — Clater. 

FOR ROT, OR POT BELLY. Give them young green 
broom, and bread well toasted. — Mayer. 


This division consists of those medicinal compounds which 
are excluded from the Pocket Formulary, as belonging 
rather to empirical than regular practice. It includes, in 

. ■ addition to those secret and patent remedies which are 
usually termed Quack Medicines, preparations of various 
drugs made according to private formulae ; some favorite 
domestic remedies ; and a few compounds which, though 
not empirical, are better known by the names of individual 
practitioners than by any other title. The supposed 
composition of some of the secret remedies is given on 
the authority of Dr. Paris, the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, and others ; but without vouching for their cor- 

Abernethy's Pills. The nostrum to which this distinguished 
surgeon's name has been applied is said to consist of 2 gr. 
of blue pill, and 3 of compound extract of colocynth. 

Ague Drops (tasteless). A solution of arsenic, probably 
similar to the liquor postassce arsenitis of the Pharma- 

Anderson's Pills. See Pilulae Andersonis, P. F. Other 
published formulee are — 

1. Barbadoes aloes 1 oz., jalap ^ oz., soap 1 dr., oil of 
aniseed ^ dr., tincture of aloes q. s. ; mix, and divide into 
4-grain pills. 

2. Barbadoes aloes 5 oz., water 1 oz. ; soften by the 
heat of a water-bath, and add powdered jalap, powdered 
aniseed, and ivory-black, of each 1 oz., oil of aniseed 1 

3. Barbadoes aloes 16 oz., black hellebore, jalap, sub-car- 
bonate of potash, of each 1 oz,, oil of aniseed ^ oz., syrup 
of buckthorn q. s. to form a mass. To be divided into 
4-grain pills. 

4. Barbadoes aloes 24 oz., soap 4 oz., colocynth 1 oz., 
gamboge 1 oz., oil of aniseed J fluid oz. : mix, and divide 
into pills of 3 gr. each. Phil. Col. of Pharmacy. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 167 

Anodyne Necklaces. Beads formed of the root of henbane, 
and used as necklaces to allay the pain of teething. 

Antipertussis. Dr. Paris states that the basis of this 
nostrum is a salt of zinc. 

Arquebusade (acid). 1. Sulphuric acid ^ Bb, vinegar and 
spirit of wine, of each 3 ft, clarified honey 1 ft, — Swediaur. 
2. Distilled vinegar and rectified spirit, of each 10 oz., 
sulphuric acid (by weight) 1|- oz., sugar 2^ oz. ; mix. For 
the aromatic spirituous arquebusade water, see Arquebusade 
Water, under Perfumery ; also Spiritus Vulnerarius, P. F. 

Aromatic Vinegar. Strongest acetic 1 ft, camphor 1 oz. ; 
dissolve, and 1 oz. each of oil of lavender, oil of cloves, and 
oil of lemon. 

Aperient and Antibilious Pills. See Anderson's, Bail- 
lie's, Barclay's, Dixon's, &c., Pills. The following are 
useful forms : 

1. Compound extract of colocynth 60 gr., comp. rhubarb 
pill 30 gr., soap 10 gr. In 24 pills. 

2. Compound extract of colocynth 2 dr., extract of rhu- 
barb J dr., compound soap pill 10 gr. ; mix, and divide into 
40 pills ; 1, 2, or 3 for a dose. 

3. Compound extract of colocynth 8 oz., soap 1 oz., 
scammony 2 oz., extract of rhubarb 2 oz., oil of cassia 5 
dr., spirit q. s. to form a mass. Divide into 4 grain pills. 

4. Blue pill, compound extract of colocynth, of each a 
scruple ; scammony, and Castile soap, of each 10 gr., 
oil of caraway 4 drops ; mix, and divide into 15 pills — 3 at 
bedtime. — Sir B. Brodie. 

5. Compound extract of colocynth 4 scruples, scammony 
a scruple, extract of rhubarb 12 gr., soap 6 gr., oil of 
cinnamon 4 drops ; mix, and divide into 24 pills. — Mr. 

6. Mr. Vance's Stronger Pills, with Calomel. Compound 
extract of colocynth 4 scruples, scammony 2 scruples, 
calomel 24 gr., oil of cinnamon 6 drops, in 24 pills. — Dr. J. 

7. Compound extract of colocynth 1 dr., calomel 15 gr., 
emetic tartar 1 gr., oil of cassia 5 drops. In 24 pills. — Dr. 
J. Johnson. 

8. Scammony 10 to 15 gr., compound extract of colo- 
cynth 2 scruples, extract of rhubarb J dr., soap 10 gr., oil 


caraway 5 drops. In 20 pills. One or two when required. 


9. Compound rhubarb pill J dr., ipecacuanha 6 dr., com- 
pound extract colocynth 20 gr. In 12 pills. One or more 
at bedtime occasionally. — Dr. Baron. 

10. The same as Pil. Coloc. et Hyoscyami, Ed. Ph. — Dr. 

11. (Strong.) Compound extract of colocynth 2 dr., 
aloes and myrrh pill 2 dr., calomel 1 dr. ; mix, and divide 
into 40 pills. Two for a dose. — Dr. Lynn. 

12. Compound extract of colocynth 2 scruples, ipecac- 
uanha 6 gr., soap 10 gr., extract of henbane 30 gr. In 18 
pills. Two at bedtime. — Dr. Copland. 

13. Dr. Neligan's Purgative Pills, for general use. 
Comp. colocynth pill, and soap of jalap, of each 1 dr. In 
24 pills. Two when required. 

14. (Without aloes.) Simple extract of colocynth 24 gr., 
extract of jalap 12 gr., blue pill 12 gr., ipecacuanha 4 gr., 
oil of peppermint 3 drops. In 12 pills. 

Other formulae will be found in the P. F. See Pilulse 
Colocynthidis ; Pil. Coloc. c. Oleo Crotonis ; Pil. Catharticse ; 
Pil. Jalapas ; Pil. Purgantes, &c. Those which do not con- 
tain calomel should be preferred for general and repeated 

Atkinson's Infant Preservative. Carbonate of magnesia 
6 dr., white sugar 2 oz., oil of aniseed 20 drops, spirit of 
sal volatile 2J dr., laudanum 1 dr., syrup of saifron 1 oz., 
caraway water to make a pint. 

Atropine Paper. Green tissue paper imbued with a solution 
of sulphate of atropia, so that a piece one-fifth of an inch 
square contains as much as a drop of a solution 2 gr. to 1 
oz. of water. The paper is hung up and turned about 
while drying. A piece of the size named will dilate 
the pupil if placed on the sclerotic and the lids closed 
over it and tied with a handkerchief. — Mr. Streat- 

Backer's Tonic Pills. Alkaline extract of black hellebore 
2 dr., extract of myrrh 2 dr., powder of holy thistle 1 dr., 
mix, and divide into 4-grain pills. 

Dr. Baillie's Pills. Compound extract of colocynth IJ 
dr., extract of aloes IJ dr., Castile soap ^ dr., oil of cloves 
15 drops ; in 38 pills. 3 at bedtime occasionally. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 169 

Dr. Baillie's Dinner Pills. Aloes 20 gr., ginger J dr., 
ipecacuanha 8 gr., syrup q. s. Mix, and divide into 16 
pills. One daily, before dinner. 

Bailey's Itch Ointment. Olive oil 1 Bb, suet 1 ft), alkanet 
root 2 oz. Melt, and macerate until colored ; then strain, 
and add 3 oz. each of alum, nitre, and sulphate of zinc, in 
very fine powder ; adding vermilion to color it, and oil of 
aniseed, lavender, and thyme to perfume. 

Baking Powder. Tartaric acid 8 oz., bicarbonate of soda 
9 oz., arrowroot, or rice flour, 10 oz. Mix. Delfort's is 
said to consist of alum 5 oz., bicarbonate of soda 2f oz., 
bicarbonate of ammonia |- oz., arrowroot 4 oz. 

Balm of Gilead (factitious). 4 oz. of gum benzoin may be 
dissolved by heat in 1 lib of Canada balsam, and to the mix- 
ture, when cold, ^ oz. each of the oils of rosemary, lemon, 
and cassia, added. 

Balm of Rakasiri. Oil of rosemary dissolved in common 

Balsam. See Ford's, Hill's, Fryar's, &c. 

Barclay's (Rev. D.) Antibilious Pills. Extract of colo- 
cynth 2 dr., soap of jalap 2|- dr., extract of guaiacum wood 
3 dr., emetic tartar 8 gr., oil of juniper, caraway, and rose- 
mary, each 4 drops ; into 4-grain pills. 

Baregian Balls. Extract of soapwort (or of artichoke 
leaves) 3 oz., gelatine 1^ oz., water 3 oz. ; heat together till 
dissolved, pour the solution into a warm iron mortar ; add 
6 oz. of sulphuret of lime, and 1 oz. of salt, previously pow- 
dered and mixed. Stir constantly till a mass is obtained, 
and divide it into balls of 2J oz. each. Use one for a gene- 
ral bath, half of one for a foot bath. 

Bark, Essential Salt of. See Extractum Cinchonge Sic- 
catum, P. F. 

Baker's Tooth Tincture. An alcoholic solution of pyre- 
thrum, colored Avith tincture of red cabbage. 

Bateman's Pectoral Drops. 1. Compound spirit of aniseed 
16 fluid ounces, opium 1 dr., camphor 1 dr., oil of fennel 20 
drops, cochineal 2 dr. 

2. Proof spirit 4 gal., red sanders 2 oz. ; digest 24 
hours, filter, and add powdered opium 2 oz., camphor 2 
oz., catechu 2 oz., oil of aniseed 4 fluid drachms ; digest 


for 10 days. Pliiladelphia Qollege of Pharmacy. The old 
wine gallon is here intended. 

Bateman's Itch Ointment. Carbonate of potash | oz., rose- 
water 1 oz., vermilion 1 dr., sulphur 11 oz., oil of bergamot 
I dr., lard 11 oz. ; mix. 

Bates's Anodyne Balsam. Soap liniment 2 parts, tincture 
of opium 1 part. 

Bates's Camphorated Eye-water. Sulphate of copper 15 
gr., French bole 15 gr., camphor 4 gr., boiling water 4 
-oz. ; infuse, strain, and dilute with 4 pints of cold water. 

Bates's Styptic Wash. See Liquor Aluminis Co., P. F. 

Bathinq Spirits. These resemble liquid opodeldoc (soap 
liniment), and are usually colored by the addition of some 
dark tincture. See Freeman's Bathing Spirits. 

Bath Digestive Pills. Rhubarb 2 oz., ipecacuanha | oz., 
cayenne pepper ^ oz., soap ^ oz., ginger \ oz., gamboge 
1^ oz. ; mix, and divide into 4-grain pills. 

Bath Lozenges (in imitation of Dawson's). Pure extract 
of liquorice 1 oz., powdered gum arabic 1 oz., white sugar 

1 ft), hot water q. s. to form a mass ; to be rolled into 

Battley's Liquor Cinchona and Liquor Opii. See Pocket 

Battley's Senna Powder. Senna leaves heated until they 
become light in color, reduced to powder, and mixed with 
some finely powdered charcoal. 

Baume de Vie. Socotrine aloes 2 dr., rhubarb 6 dr., saffron 

2 dr., liquorice-root 1 oz., proof spirit 8 oz,, digest for 8 
days and filter. The original Swedish form is this : Aloes 
9 dr., rhubarb, gentian, zedoary, saffron, theriaca, agaric, 
of each a drachm, proof spirit 2 pints. 

Baynton's Plaster. Simple litharge plaster 16 oz., yellow 
resin 6 dr. ; melt together, and spread on linen or calico. 

Beddoe's Pills ; for Gravel, &c. Carbonate of soda, dried 
without heatj 1 dr., soap 4 scruples, oil of juniper 10 drops, 
syrup of ginger q. s. for 30 pills. 

Beetle Wafers. Red lead, sugar, and flour ; made in wafer- 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 171 

Belloste's Pills. Quicksilver, scammony, and jalap, of each 
1 ib, sugar 4 oz. ; mixed and made up into a mass with 
sherry wine. 

Bestuchefp's Nervous Tincture. A mixture of a strong 
solution of perchloride of iron with sulphuric ether and spirit, 
exposed in long bottles to the rays of the sun until it has 
quite lost its brown color. 

Betton's British Oil. Oil of turpentine 8 oz., Barbadoes 
tar 4 oz., oil of rosemary 4 dr. ; mix. See British Oils. 

Bewley & Evans' Chalybeate Water. Citrate of iron 13 
grains, carbonated water 6 oz., syrup of orange-peel 1 oz. 

Biscuits, Aperient. An ounce of powdered jalap, mixed 
with 16 oz. of the materials for gingerbread, or other kind 
of cake. See Gingerbr6ad, Purgative. 

Black Drop (Lancashire). Fine opium, cut small, 8 oz., 
verjuice 48 fluid oz., nutmegs grated 1^ oz., saffron ^ oz., 
boil together until the opium is dissolved ; add sugar 4 oz., 
yeast 2 tablespoonfuls. Keep it near the fire for 6 or 8 
weeks, then place it in the open air till it becomes a syrup ; 
decant and filter. 

Black Draught. 1. Infusion of senna 10 dr., sulphate of 
magnesia 3 dr., syrup of ginger 1 dr., aromatic spirit of 
ammonia 20 drops. 

2. Tartrate of potash IJ dr., manna J dr., tincture of 
jalap J dr., aromatic spirit of ammonia 20 drops, extract of 
liquorice 4 gr., infusion of senna 11 dr. See Mistura Sennse 
Comp., Haustus Sennge, and Mistura Aperiens, in Pocket 
Formulary, for other formulae. 

Blaine's Distemper Powders. The basis of these is said to 
be aurum musivum (sulphuret of tin). 

Blistering Paper. Melt cantharidine 1 dr., white wax 1 
dr., olive oil 5 dr. Paint it with a brush on white bibulous 
paper, and hang it up to dry in a current of air. Take a 
piece of pink paper of form and size required, paint the 
under colored side with a weak solution of India-rubber, 
cut the cantharidine paper to the size, less a margin of 
the pink paper, and place it on while the India-rubber 
solution is still sticky. Before applying, the blister must 
be held over the steam of hot water. See Papier Epis- 



Blistering Tissue. Taffetas Vesicant. Powdered cantha- 
rides exhausted by ether, the tincture distilled to recover 
the principal part of the ether for the same use, and the 
residue heated in a water-bath till it ceases to boil. The 
green butjraceous oil which remains is to be melted with 
twice its weight of wax, and spread on waxed silk, or any 
convenient and adhesive material. An extract prepared 
by evaporating a tincture made with 4 parts of flies, 1 of 
strong acetic acid, and- 16 of rectified spirit, is used for the 
same purpose. 

Bochet's Syrup, /or scrofulous affectio7is. Compound syrup 
of sarsaparilla, with senna, and 1 per cent, of iodide of 

Brandish's Alkaline Solution, or Caustic Alkali. 
American pearl ashes 6 ft), quick -lime 2 ft), wood ashes pre- 
pared by burning the branches of the ash 2 ft), boiling water 
t) old gallons (5 imp.) ; slake the lime, add the rest of the 
water and the pearl ashes, and lastly stir in the wood ashes ; 
let it stand in a covered vessel for 24 hours, and decant. 
To each pint add one drop of true oil of juniper berries. 
Keep it in stoppered bottles of green glass. 

Brandish's Alkaline Tincture of Rhubarb. Coarsely 
powdered rhubarb 1 oz., alkaline solution (Brandish's) 32 
fluid ounces. The original formula directs only |- oz. rhu- 
barb, but as smaller doses than were given by Mr. B. are 
now usually prescribed, the quantity of rhubarb is here 
increased. Or an alkaline infusion of rhubarb may be 
made by pouring boiling water 8 parts on rhubarb 3 parts, 
and carbonate of potash 1 part. 

British Herb Tobacco. The principal ingredient in this 
compound is dried coltsfoot leaves, to which a smaller por- 
tion of thyme, wood-betony, eyebright, and rosemary, are 

British Oils. Oil of turpentine, and linseed oil, of each 8 
oz. ; oil of amber, and oil of juniper, of each 4 oz. ; true 
Barbadoes tar 3 oz. ; American petroleum (seneca oil) 1 oz. ; 
mix. See Betton's British Oil, above. 

Brodum's Nervous Cordial. Iron wine, compound spirits 
of lavender, tinctures of calumba, gentian, cinchona, and 
cardamoms, equal parts of each. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 173 

Brocchieri's Styptic Water. Pieces of fresh pine, bruised 
in a mortar, and distilled with twice their weight of water, 
till half the water has come over. After standing in a wide 
vessel, any floating oil is to be removed from the surface, and 
the Avater kept for use. 

Burnett's (Sir William) Disinfecting Fluid. A nei tral 
solution of zinc in commercial muriatic acid. 

Cachou Aromatise. See Perfumery. 

Cajbput Liniment. Soap liniment 7 oz., camphor | oz., oil 
of cajeput 1 oz. 

Camphor Liniment, extemporaneous. Rectified spirit 17 
fluid oz., strong water of ammonia 2^ oz., camphor 2 oz., 
oil of lavender 50 minims. 

Carron Oil. Lime-water and linseed oil, equal quantities. 

Castillon's Powders. Sago meal, salep, tragacanth, each 
1 dr., prepared oyster-shells a scruple; colored with cochi- 
neal. A drachm to be boiled with milk, in bowel com- 

Cephalic Snuff. Dried asarabacca leaves 3 parts, marjoram 
1 part, lavender flowers 1 part ; rub together to a powder. 
Boeli's consists of 2 dr. valerian, 2 dr. of snuff", 3 drops of 
oil of lavender, 3 drops of oil of marjoram ; mix. This is 
said to relieve the eyes as well as the head. 

Chamberlain's Pills. Common milk of sulphur, and ver- 
milion. Dr. Paris's statement that they contain sulphate 
of lime would probably surprise the proprietor, if not aware 
that a great part of the commercial milk of sulphur contains 
half its weight of that substance. 

Chamomile Drops. Dr. Paris states that the nostrum sold 
under this name is merely spirit flavored with essential oil of 
chamomile. A strong tincture of the flowers would probably 
be more efficacious. 

Chamomile Pills. We are not aware of the composition of 
Norton's chamomile pills. The following is a good form : 
Watery extract of aloes 12 gr., extract of chamomile 36 gr., 
oil of chamomile 3 drops ; make 12 pills. Two every night, 
or twice a day. 

Chelsea Pensioner. Powdered rhubarb 2 dr., cream of tar- 
tar 1 oz., guaiacum 1 dr., sulphur 2 oz., 1 nutmeg grated 


fine, clarified honey 16 oz. ; mix. Take 2 spoonfuls night 
and morning ; for chronic rheumatism, &c. 

Cheltenham Salts (factitious). Sulphate of soda 16 oz., 
sulphate of magnesia 8 oz., muriate of soda 1 oz., sulphate 
of iron 8 gr. ; dissolve in the smallest quantity of hot water, 
strain, and evaporate to dryness by a gentle heat, or dry the 
salts separately, and mix. 

Chilblains, Popular Remedies for. 1. Soap liniment 1 oz., 
cajeput oil ^ oz., tincture of cantharides J oz. ; mix. 

2. Sal ammoniac |- oz., vinegar 5 oz., spirit of rosemary 
, 1 oz. ; mix. 

3. Oil of turpentine 1 oz., camphor ^ oz., Goulard's ex- 
tract ^ oz. ; mix. 

4. Dr. Graves's Preventive. Sulphate of copper 10 gr., 
water 1 oz. ; dissolve. Brush over the parts with the lotion 
by means of a camel-hair pencil, and when dry apply a lit- 
tle simple ointment ; repeat this for some evenings in succes- 

5. Lejeune's Balsam. Camphor 1^ dr., tincture of ben- 
zoin 1 oz., iodide of potassium 3 dr., extract of lead 2 oz., 
a mixture of equal parts of rectified spirit and rosewater 4 
oz. ; mix the above with a solution of 2 oz. of soap in 4 oz. 
of the same diluted spirit ; mix the whole, adding a few drops 
any essential oil. 

6. Sal enixum, alum, and sulphate of zinc, of each \ oz. ; 
water a pint ; apply it frequently. 

7. Muriatic acid |- oz., Fryar's balsam 3| oz. ; mix. 

8. Swediaur's Paste. Bitter almonds 8 oz., honey 6 oz., 
powdered camphor |- oz., flour of mustard ^ oz., burnt alum 
^ oz., olibanum ^ oz., yolks of 3 eggs ; beat together to form 
a paste. Rub a portion of it on the part afiected, moistened 
with water, night and morning; then wash with warm water, 
and dry with a cloth. 

9. Wahler's Ointment for Broken Chilblains. Black 
oxide of iron, bole, and oil of turpentine, of each 1 dr. ; 
rub together, and add the mixture to 1 oz. of melted resin 

10. Another Ointment for the same. Locatelli balsam 1 
oz;, citrine ointment ^ oz., balsam of Peru 20 drops ; mix. 

11. Russian remedy. Dry the peelings of cucumbers, 
and when required for use soften the inner part with water, 
and apply it to the part aifected. 

Ching's Worm Lozenges. , The yellow lozenges contain 1 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 175 

gr. of calomel in each, with sugar and sufficient mucilage 
(colored with saffron) to form a paste. The brown contain 
§ gr. of calomel, with 3 J gr. of resinous extract of jalap, 
according to Gray ; or with 1 gr. of resin of jalap, accord- 
ing to Dr. Paris and others. 

Chlorodynb. The preparation sold under this name contains 
chloroform, morphia, Indian hemp, and prussic acid. Many 
formulae have been published. The following is an improve- 
ment by Mr. Groves, on the recipe of Dr. Ogden. Take 
chloroform 4 dr., ether 1| dr., oil of peppermint 8 drops, 
resin of Indian hemp 16 gr., capsicum 2 gr. ; macerate for 2 
or 3 days, and filter. Then dissolve hydrochlorate of mor- 
phia 16 gr. in 1 oz. of syrup, add perchloric acid and water 
J dr. each, assisting the solution by a water-bath ; then, 
when cold, add hydrocyanic acid (Scheele's) 96 drops. 
Mix the solutions. 

Cholera Medicines. The following are some of the more 
popular remedies that have been used during the visitations 
of this disease : 

1. Liverpool Preventive Powders. Bicarbonate of soda 
1 scruple, ginger 8 gr. : to be taken in a glass of water after 
breakfast and supper. These powders are said to have been 
used with good effect among the workmen in the mining and 
manufacturing districts, during a former visitation of cholera. 

2. Dr. Stevens's Saline Poivders. Bicarbonate of soda 
^ dr., muriate of soda 1 scruple, chlorate of potash 7 gr. ; 
mix, for 1 dose. 

3. Mr. Hope's Rertiedy. Nitrous acid (red) 2 dr., pep- 
permint-water or camphor mixture 1 oz., tincture of opium 
40 minims. Dose, 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls in a cupful of gruel 
every 3 or 4 hours. 

4. Spirit of wine 1 oz., spirit of lavender \ oz., oil of 
origanum \ oz., compound tincture of benzoin |- oz., spirit 
of camphor ^ oz. Twenty drops on moist sugar ; to be 
rubbed outwardly also. 

5. Ajnerican Remedy. Equal parts of lard, maple-sugar, 
and charcoal; to be mixed and the size of a nut swal- 

6. Remedies recommended by the Board of Health, in 
premonitory diarrhoea: Chalk mixture 1 oz., aromatic con- 
fection 10 to 15 gr., tincture of opium 5 to 15 drops ; to be 
repeated every 3 or 4 hours, or oftener if the attack be 
severe, until the looseness is stopped. 


7. Dr. Graves's Astringent Pills. Acetate of lead 20 
gr., opium 1 gr. : in 12 pills. One every half hour till the 
watery discharges cease. 

8. Mr. Buxton's Remedy. Twenty-five minims of diluted 
sulphuric acid in an ounce of water. 

We have inserted the above, not to encourage quackeiy in 
reference to this terrible disease, but because the druggist 
may be called upon to supply these remedies, and expected 
to know their composition. For Elixir Woroneje, see P. F. 

Chirayta Pills and Mixture. Dr. Reece's Pills. Extract 
, of chirayta 2 dr., dried soda 20 gr., ginger 15 gr. ; mix, and 
divide into 36 pills. Two twice a day. Mixture : Infusion 
of chirayta 8 oz., subcarbonate of soda 1 dr. ; two table- 
spoonfuls 3 times a day. 

Glutton's Febrifuge Spirit and Tincture. Spirit : The 
original formula is — oil of sulphur by the bell, oil of vitriol 
and sea salt, of each 1 oz., rectified spirit 3 oz. ; mix, digest 
for a month, and distil to dryness. Tincture: Febrifuge 
spirit 8 fluid oz., angelica root, serpentary, cardamom seed, 
of each 1^ dr. ; digest and strain. Water acidulated with 
these and SAveetened to the taste, forms a cooling diuretic 
and diaphoretic julep. Though never admitted into the 
Pharmacopoeias, these preparations are favorites with a few 

Cochrane's Cough Medicine. An acidulated syrup of 

Collier's (Dr.) Wine of Quinine. Disulphate of quinine 
18 gr., citric acid 15 gr., sound orange wine 1 bottle, or 24 
fluid oz. 

Collier's (Dr.) Cream of Taraxacum. See Cremor Tarax- 
aci, P. F. 

Collins's Disinfecting Powder. See Disinfecting Com- 
pounds, among the Trade Chemicals. 

Consumption, Popular Remedies for. 1. Rum J pint, lin- 
seed oil, honey, garlic (beaten to a pulp), and loaf sugar, of 
each 4 oz., yolks of 5 eggs ; mix : a teaspoonful night and 

2. Breastplate. Dissolve 1 oz. of aloes in 12 oz. of a 
strong decoction of fresh rue : fold a large piece of soft 
muslin in 8 folds, large enough to cover the chest and part 

druggists' nostrums, etc. ■ 177 

of the stomach ; steep it in the solution and dry it in the 
shade : wear it on the chest constantly. 

Cough Lintus. 1. Rose Linctus. Confection of roses 3 oz., 
paregoric elixir 1^ oz., diluted sulphuric acid 1 dr. and a 
half ; mix : a teaspoonful now and then when the cough is 

2. Dr. Latham's Cough Linctus. Dover's Powder ^ 
dr., compound powder of tragacanth 2 dr., syrup of Tolu 
^ oz., confection of hips, and simple oxymel, of each, 1 
oz. ; a teaspoonful 3 or 4 times a day. For other For- 
mulae, see Linctus ; Linctus Oleosus ; Linctus Pectoralis, 
&c. ; P. F. 

Cough Lozenges. See Bath Lozenges, above ; also Lozenges, 

Corn Plasters. See Kennedy's Corn Plaster, and Emplas- 
trum ^ruginis. Pocket Formulary. Most of the advertised 
corn plasters contain verdigris. A few additional formulae 
are subjoined. 

1. Galbanum Plaster 1 oz., prepared verdigris 1 scruple ; 
melt, and mix. 

2. Galbanum 1 oz., black pitch |^ oz., simple diachylon 
^ oz., verdigris a scruple, sal ammoniac a scruple. Melt 
together the first three, and add the last tAvo in fine 

3. Plaster of ammoniacum with quicksilver IJ oz., soap 
plaster ^ oz., opium in fine powder ^ dr. 

Mechanical Corn Plasters. Any suitable adhesive plaster 
is spread on soft thick leather (buckskin), which is after- 
wards cut to a suitable size, and a hole punched in the 
centre. They are sometimes spread on amadou, or on vul- 
canized India-rubber. 

Corn Solvents. One of the preparations sold under this 
name is probably a strong solution of subcarbonate of 
potash. A powder sold for the same purpose consists of 
subcarbonate of potash colored with ochre or bole. A pinch 
is placed on the corn, and confined by means of a piece 
of adhesive plaster or rag. Sir Humphrey Davy's name 
has been given to a remedy which consists of subcarbonate 
of potash and salt of sorrel, similarly applied. The fol- 
lowing is one of the advertised Corn and Bunion remedies : 
Subcarbonate of soda 1 oz., finely powdered and mixed with 
^ oz. of lard. Applied on linen rag every night : the outer 



skin to be pared off every 2 or 3 days. It may be varied 
thus : Dried soda 4 dr., powder blue (smalts) a scruple, lard 
4 dr. ; mix. 

Caustic for Corns. Tincture of iodine 4 dr., iodide of iron 
12 gr., chloride of antimony 4 dr. ; mix, and apply with a 
camel-hair brush, after paring the corn. It is said to cure 
in 3 times. 

Court Plaster is made by repeatedly brushing over stretched 
sarcenet with a solution of 1 part of isinglass in 8 of Avater 
mixed with 8 parts of proof spirit, and finishing with a coat 
of tincture of benzoin, or of balsam of Peru. See Miscel- 
laneous Preparations. 

Custard Powder. See Dietetic Articles. 

Daffy's Elixir. This is similar to the compound tincture of 
senna : but different makers have their peculiar formulae. 
The following are some of them. Avoirdupois weight seems 
to be intended. 

1. Senna leaves 3| lib, jalap, aniseed, caraway seed, of 
each 20 oz., rectified spirits 18 pints, sugar 5 ft). Infuse 
the senna 2 or 3 times in suflScient boiling water to yield, 
when strained with pressure, 4 gallons in the whole. Add 
to this the tincture made with jalap and seeds digested with 
the spirit for a week. Pour off the clear liquor and add the 
sugar and brandy coloring if required. 

2. Dicky's, according to Gray. Senna 5 oz., guaiacum 
shavings (some recipes add red sanders), dried elecampane 
root, seed of anise, coriander, and caraway, and root of 
liquorice, of each 2^ oz., stoned raisins 8 oz., proof spirit 6 ft). 

3. Swinton's. Jalap 3 ft), senna 2 oz., coriander seed, 
aniseed, liquorice root, and elecampane, of each 4 oz. ; spirit 
of wine and water, of each a gallon. 

4. Small senna 10 oz., bruised jalap, coriander seed, and 
aniseed, of each 2f oz. ; proof spirit a gallon. Digest 8 
days, frequently shaking, and strain. Pour on the remain- 
ing ingredients 6 oz. of boiling water in which 2 dr. of salt 
of tartar have been dissolved ; press strongly, and add the 
liquid to the tincture, with 3 oz. of treacle. Some recipes 
add rhubarb, in the proportion of about 4 oz. to the 

Daley's Carminative. 1. Carbonate of magnesia 1 oz., 
syrup of poppies 5 oz., tincture of wood soot 1 oz., oil of 

•druggists' nostrums, etc. 179 

caraway 25 drops, oil of peppermint 16 drops, water and 
spirit of wine, each |- oz. Mix. 

2, Carbonate of magnesia 2 scruples, oil of peppermint 1 
drop, oil of nutmegs 2 drops, oil of aniseed 3 drops, tincture 
of castor 30 drops, tincture of assafoetida 15 drops, tincture 
of opium 5 drops', spirit of pennyroyal 15 drops, compound 
tincture of cardamom 30 drops, peppermint water 2 oz. Mix. 
— Dr. Paris. 

Dandelion Copfee. The roots, collected at the end of the 
year, are dried at a gentle heat and reduced to powder. 
Some mix coffee with it. Others o-oast the root in the manner 
of coifee, but probably at the expense of its medical virtues. 
The better Avay is to dry and powder it, and direct it to be 
mixed with coffee when used. If considered necessary to 
give it more color and flavor, it may be previously mixed 
with a sufficient quantity of roasted chicory, which should 
not exceed one-eighth of the whole. 

Darcet's Alkaline Lozenges, or Vichy Lozenges. Bi- 
carbonate of soda 2 dr., refined sugar 14 oz., oil of pepper- 
mint 4 drops, mucilage of tragacanth q. s. Mix, and divide 
into 60 lozenges. 

Dawson's Lozenges. — See Bath Lozenges, above. 

Delamott's Golden Drops. Muriate of iron 1 oz., spirit of 
sulphuric ether 7 oz. ; dissolve and expose to sunshine in a 
closely-stopped bottle till it becomes divested of color. See 
Bestugheff's Nervous Tincture. 

Derbyshire's Patent Embrocation for Preventing Sea- 
sickness. Boil 2 oz. of opium, 2 dr. of extract of hen- 
bane, 10 gr. of mace, and 2 oz. of mottled soap, in 3 pints 
of water for J hour. When cold, add 1 quart of rectified 
spirit, and 3 dr. of spirit of ammonia. 

Deshler's Salve. This is merely resin cerate. 

Digestive Pills. See Bath Digestive Pills, Dinner Pills, 
Baillie's Pills, Lady Webster's Pills, Dr. Reece's 
Chirayta Pills. 

Dinner Pills. See Bath Digestive Pills, Lady Webster's 
Pills, &c. The following are a few additional formulas : 

1. Bhubarb 30 gr., aloes 60 gr., ipecacuanha 12 gr., 
tincture of ginger q. s. to form a mass ; to be divided into 
24 pills. 



2. Sir Charles Bell's. Rhubarb 50 gr,, mastic 6 gr., 
sulphate of quinine 4 gr. ; in 12 pills. 

Dixon's Antibilious Pills. Equal parts of aloes, scammony, 
and rhubarb, with the addition of a small quantity of tartar 
emetic, and made up with Castile soap. 

Dover's Powders. The Pulvis Ipecacuanha Compositus of 
the Pharmacopoeia. But the original powder consisted of 
nitre and sulphate of potash, each 4 oz., fused in a red-hot 
mortar, and afterwards reduced to powder, and mixed with 
1 oz. each of ipecacuanha, opium, and liquorice. 

Depuytren's Pommade. See Hair Cosmetics. 

Depuytren's Eye Salve. Nitric oxide of Mercury 10 gr., 
sulphate of zinc 20 gr., lard 2 oz. ; rub perfectly smooth. 

Duncan's Fluid Extract of Senna. See Extractum Sennse 
Fluidum, Pocket Formulary. 

Dr. Duncan's Lactucarium Lozenges. As the Trochisci Opii 
(Pocket Formulary), substituting lactucarium for opium. 

Duncan's Gout Remedy. A preparation of colchicum with 
opium, &c. 

Dutch (or Haerlem) Drops. The basis of this popular 
remedy is said to be the residue which is left in redistilling 
oil of turpentine. The following is one of the imitations 
of it made in this country : Linseed oil 1 quart, resin 2 ft), 
sulphur 1 ft) ; boil together over a slow fire ; when com- 
bined remove from the fire, and add 1 pint of oil of turpen- 
tine and 50 drops of liquor of ammonia ; stir well together 
and bottle. 

Eaton's Styptic. It is similar to that of Helvetius, which 
see below. 

Eau de Magnanimite. a tincture of ants, with aromatics. 

Eau Medicinale d'Husson. It is prepared, according to 
Dr. Williams, from the juice of colchicum flower with half 
the quantity of brandy ; mix, and after standing a few 
days, decant into small bottles. But it was more probably 
made from the root, as prescribed in the following formu- 
lae. — (In one of the French codices.) J^au colchique 
d'Husson. Dry colchicum 60 parts in sherry 125 parts. 
20 drops for a dose. (According to Mr. Want.) — 4 ounces 
of the fresh root sliced, macerated in J pint of proof spirit. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 181 

Eau de Cologne, Eau de Melisse, &c. See Perfumery. 

Eau de Jarvelle. Dry chloride of lime 2 oz., carbonate of 
potash 4 oz., water 2 pints ; mix the chloride with 1^ pint 
of water, dissolve the potash in the remainder ; mix the solu- 
tions, and filter. 

Eau de Luce. See Perfumery. 

Eau de Rabel. See Acidum Sulphuricum Alcoholisatum, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Edinburgh Ointment. White hellebore powder, sal ammo- 
niac, and lard. 

Ellerman's Deodorizing Fluid. It consists chiefly of per- 
salts of iron. See Disinfecting Compounds. 

Elixir de Garus. See Pocket Formulary. 

Elixir Long^ Vit^. Similar to Baume de Vie, above. 

Elixir of Haller. See Elixir Acidum Halleri, Pocket 

Elixir Paregoric. See Tinctura Camphorse Composita, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Elixir of Vitriol (Mynsicht's Elixir). See Acidum Sulphu- 
ricum Aromaticum, Pocket Formulary. For common sale 
druggists frequently keep a more ready and economical pre- 
paration, of which the following is one form : Compound 
tincture of cardamoms 1 ft), tincture of cinnamon 3 ft), cin- 
namon water 2 ft) ; mix, and add gradually 1^ ft) of pure 
sulphuric acid. 

Ervalenta, and Eevalenta. See Dietetic Compounds. 

Essences. Essences of flowers will be found under Perfu- 
mery. Essence of Celery, and other culinary essences^ will 
be found, with allied compounds, in another place. A few 
concentrated infusions, and other strong preparations of 
drugs, not sanctioned by the colleges, but very generally 
used, may be noticed here. 

Essence of Yellow Bark. Resinous extract of bark J oz., 
sulphate of quinine 60 gr., rectified spirit 6 oz., tincture of 
orange-peel 2 oz. For Mr. Battley's preparation, see 
Liquor Cinchonse, Pocket Formulary. 

Essences of Calumba, Rhubarb, Senna. See Liquor Ca 
lumbse, Rhei, Sennse, Pocket Formulary. 


Essence of Camphor. See Liquor Cainpliorje, Pocket Form- 
ularj. ' 

Essence of Chamomile. As a substitute for the infusion, it 
may be made as Liquor Calumet, P. F. See Chamomile 
Drops for another preparation of this drug. 

'Essence of Ergot. See Essentia Secalis Cornuti, Pocket 

Essence of Ginger. Unbleached Jamaica ginger in coarse 
powder 5 oz., rectified spirit a pint ; digest for 8 days, and 

- strain with pressure ; or it may be made by percolation. 
. As there is no established form, it varies in strength as pre- 
pared by different makers, and often contains cayenne 

Essence of Cueebs. Mix powdered cubebs with ether, in a 
well-stopped bottle ; in twelve hours put the paste into a per- 
colator, and add ether till the cubebs are nearly exhausted ; 
distil off the ether in a water-bath, and preserve it for the 
same purpose. Dissolve the extract which remains in three 
times as much brandy. One drachm is equal to 2 drachms 
of the powder. A fluid extract is also made by concentra- 
ting the tincture. 

Essences of Mint, Peppermint, and Pennyroyal. The 
strength of these varies as prepared by different makers ; 
some use 1 part of the essential oil to 3 of rectified spirit, 
but more usually, we believe, 1 part to 7. They are some- 
times colored with the leaves of the plant or of spinach. 

Essence of Mustard. Rectified spirit of turpentine 16 fluid 
oz., bruised black mustard seed 2 oz., camphor 4 oz., oil of 
rosemary ^ oz., annotto to color. 

Essence of Sarsaparilla. (See also Extractum Sarzse 
Fluidum et Liquidum, Liquor Sarzge, and Essentia Sarsapa- 
rillse, in Pocket Formulary. The latter is an elegant and 
efiicacious preparation.) Jamaica sarsaparilla 16 oz., luke- 
warm distilled water (l00° to 112° F.) suflicient to cover 
it. Macerate for 6 hours, and strain. Bruise the root, 
macerate it again in suflicient warm water, and repeat the 
maceration with fresh water until it ceases to be much 
colored. After such straining, let the liquid be immediately 
heated to 180° F., allowed to cool, and filtered. Evaporate 
the whole of the filtered liquids by a water or steam-bath, at 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 183 

a heat not above 160°, until reduced to 14 or 15 fluid ounces ; 
add 2 ounces of rectified spirit, and keep it in a close bottle 
in a cool place for a few days. Then carefully pour oif the 
clear liquid from any sediment into a clear dry bottle. 1 
fluid ounce represents 1 ounce of the root, or 8 ounces of 
the decoction. 

Compound Essence of Sarsaparilla. Jamaica sarsaparilla 
16 oz. ; proceed as above, but reserve the liquor of the last 
maceration for boiling the other ingredients ; namely, guaia- 
cum raspings, bruised liquorice root, sassafras, each 2 oz., 
mezereum f oz. Boil them in 4 or more pints of the weak 
infusion for f an hour, and strain ; evaporate to 4 fluid 
ounces ; let it cool, stirring it occasionally, and add 2 oz. of 
rectified spirit in which a few drops of oil of sassafras have 
been dissolved. Evaporate the sarsaparilla liquid to 11 
ounces, and when cool, add the other liquid. Proceed as for 
the former. One measure with 7 of water forms a near 
approximation to the Pharmacopoeia Decoction. 

Essences (concentrated infusions) of quassia, cascarilla, chiretta, 
gentian, &c., may be made as directed for Liquor Calumbse, 
P. F. Take 8 times the quantity of ingredients directed in 
the Pharmacopoeia for one pint of infusion, and infuse then 
in one pint of boiling water for the time prescribed ; strain 
with strong pressure, and again infuse the ingredients in 
nearly as much water as the liquor obtained is short of a 
pint. Strain again with pressure ; mix the products, which 
will measure 18 or 19 oz. ; add 2 oz. of rectified spirit, set 
aside for a few days in a well-closed bottle, and filter. Some 
substances, as chiretta, senna, calumba, &c., yield their 
active principles to cold water, which some prefer in these 
cases ; but then it is necessary before adding the spirit, to 
place the liquor (in a bottle) in a water-bath, and heat it to 
180°, in order to precipitate any albumen it may contain. 
When cold, filter and add .the spirit. They may also be 
made by percolation. 

Vinous Essences (by fermentation). Dr. B. Lane has pro- 
posed to produce strong and permanent solutions of vegeta- 
ble medicinal substances, by fermenting concentrated infu- 
sions with sugar and yeast. Further experiments are neces- 
sary to deterraine the value of these preparations, and the 
best means of producing them ; an outline of the process is 


therefore all that can now be given. A strong infusion of 
the drug, usually 4, times as strong as that of the Pharma- 
copoeia, is mixed with lump sugar, usually 3 ft) to 7 old wine 
pints, and fermented Avith yeast at the temperature of 70° 
to 80° Fahrenheit, for 10 or 20 hours. When the action 
subsides, the vessels are closed, and placed in a cool cellar, 
about 55°, till fit for bottling. Wines of senna, gentian, 
calumba, cascarilla, valerian, &c., are thus made. In making 
vinous liquor of opium, the opium is macerated in water for 
some days, strained through coarse canvas, and the liquor 
- submitted to fermentation. It should be made twice the 
• strength of the tincture. A new name would be required 
to distinguish these preparations from the Vina of the Phar- 
macopoeias, and the latter also from the Vinum opii fermen- 
tatione paratum of the French Codex. 

Extracts, Medicinal. See Pocket Formulary. 

Extracts of Flowers. See Perfumery, in this volume. 

Extract of Malt. Evaporate sweet wort to the consistence 
of treacle. It is sold as a cough medicine. 

Fairthorn's (Dr.) Mild Provisional Pills. Sulphate of 
potash 1 scruple, extract of aloes 2 scruples, extract of senna 
1 scruple, compound gamboge pill 50 gr., tartarized anti- 
mony 2 gr., compound powder of scammony 12 gr., Peruvian 
balsam 6 gr. ; in 30 pills ; one, two, or more occasionally, 
when required. 

Ford's Balsam of Horehound. It contains the ingredients 
of paregoric elixir, with squills, honey, and a strong infusion 
of horehound and liquorice. 

Ford's Laudanum. A tincture of opium containing cinnamon 
and cloves. 

Fothergill's (Dr.) Pill. Diaphoretic antimony, aloes, scam- 
mony, and extract of colocynth. 

Frank's Solution. See Solution of Copaiva. 

Freeman's Bathing Spirits. Mix water and rectified spirit, 
of each 3 gallons ; dissolve in them soft soap 6 ft), and cam- 
phor 8 oz. ; add Dafiy's elixir, 8 oz. 

Fryar's Balsam. Compound tincture of benzoin, L. P. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 185 

Geleb pour le Goitre, Dissolve 1 oz. of white soap in 2| 
oz. of proof spirit by a gentle heat ; and add to it while still 
warm, a warm solution of 5 dr. of iodide of potassium in 2^ 
oz. of proof spirit. A few drops of any fragrant and essen- 
tial oil may be added. 

Gingerbread, Purgative. Flour 14 oz., butter 4 oz., treacle 
8 oz., p. ginger 1|^ oz., jalap 2 oz., caraway |- oz. Mix the 
powders, then add the butter, and lastly the treacle, previ- 
ously warmed. Roll out, and divide into cakes of ^ oz. each, 
containing each 6 or 7 grains of jalap. 

Glycerine Jelly. Used as an application to chaps and 
roughened parts of the skin. It may be made of pure gly- 
cerine thickened with tragacanth powder and scented with 
otto of roses. An imitation may be prepared in the follow- 
ing manner (Pharm. Journal) : Mix good soft soap ^ dr. in- 
timately with purified honey 2 dr., gradually add pale olive 
oil 5 oz., stirring without intermission until all is taken up. 
Care must be taken not to mix in the oil too fast. Finally 
perfume as desired. 

Glycerine Paste. A stiff glutinous compound, recom- 
mended by Dr. Tilt as a basis of plaster. It is made by 
boiling 100 or 150 grains of common starch in 1 oz. of gly- 

Godbold's Vegetable Balsam. An acidulated syrup, or oxy- 
mel, of various herbs. The following is an imitation : Dis- 
solve by heat 1 Bb of lump sugar in white wine vinegar 1 
quart, in which 3 oz. of garlic have been steeped for 3 days ; 
add tincture of Tolu 2 dr. 

Godfrey's Cordial. The active ingredient is opium, and 
there is a great diversity in the strength of the compound 
as prepared by different makers. Many accidents have 
arisen from its too general use as a stupefactive for infants ; 
but we believe its sale is now less encouraged by druggists 
than formerly. The following are some of the more usual 

1. Heat together 7 ft) (avoird.) of treacle, 8 ft) of water 
till united ; when nearly cold add the following : rectified 
spirit 3 fluid ounces, oil of sassafras 40 minims, oil of ani- 
seed 10 drops, laudanum 4 oz. Mix and make up the weight 
if necessary to 15 ft). It contains rather more than 9 min- 
ims (equal according to some authorities, to 16 or 18 drops), 
of laudanum in each fluid ounce. 


2. Treacle 3| ft), water 6 ft), spirit of wine 8 fluid ounces^ 
laudanum 4 fluid ounces, oils of aniseed, sassafras, and cara- 
way, of each J dr. Mix. Contains 12 or 14 minims of 
laudanum in an ounce. 

3. Sliced sassafras 2 oz., opium cut small 1 oz., bruised 
aniseed 8 oz., boiling water a gallon. Infuse, strain, and 
make the infusion into a syrup with 14 ft) of treacle. If the 
whole of the active principles of the opium are extracted, 

' this is much stronger than the preceding. 

4. Make a syrup with 3 ft) (avoird.) each of treacle and 
coarse sugar, and water sufiicient to make up a gallon. 

-■ Dissolve 24 drops of oil of sassafras, and 16 of oil of ani- 
seed, in 3 fluid ounces of spirit of wine ; and 10 fluid 
drachms of tincture of opium, and mix the whole with 8 
pints, 0. m., of the syrup. This is weaker than either of the 
preceding, containing only five minims of laudanum in a fluid 
ounce, or 1 drop in a dr. 

5. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, to prevent the 
mischief arising from the different strength of this com- 
pound, directs it to be prepared as follows : Dissolve 2^ oz. 
of carbonate of potash in 26 pints of water, add 16 pints of 
treacle ; heat together over a gentle fire till they simmer, 
remove the scum, and when sufficiently cool, aidd J oz. of oil 
of sassafras dissolved in 2 pints of rectified spirit, and 24 
fluid ounces of tincture of opium, previously mixed. The 
old wine measure is here intended. It contains about 16 
minims of laudanum, or rather more than one grain of opium 
in each fluid ounce. 

6. Sassafras 9 oz., seeds of coriander, caraway, and anise, 
of each 1 oz. ; infuse in 6 pints of water, simmer the mix- 
ture till reduced to 4 pints ; then add 6 ft) of treacle, boil 
the whole for a few minutes, and when cold add 3 fluid 
ounces of tincture of opium. Nearly the strength of No. 1. 
— Dr. Paris. 

[These forms are inserted rather with a view to show the 
dangerous nature of this compound than to encourage its 
use. No terms are sufliciently strong to express the culpa- 
bility of those who would place in the hands of ignorant 
persons, for administration to infants and children, com- 
poiinds containing opium.] 

Godfrey's Smelling Salts. Sesquicarbonate of ammonia 
resublimed with pearlash, and a little spirit. — Dr. Paris. 

Golden Spirit of Scurvy Grass. It is said to be colored 
with gamboge. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 187 

Golden Ointment. Singleton's ointment q. v. The oint- 
ment of nitric oxide of mercury is also called golden 

Goulard's Extract of Lead. Liquor plumbi diacetatis, 
P. L. 

Gout Paper. See Charta Antirheumatica, P. F. 

Granville's (Dr.) Counter-irritant Lotions. These con- 
sist of very strong water of ammonia (sp. gr. 872, being 
more than three times the strength of the Liquor Ammoniae 
of the Pharmacopoeia), of spirit of rosemary (fresh tops of 
rosemary) 2 ft, alcohol 8 pints ; infuse 24 hours, and distil 
7 pints, and spirit of camphor, containing 4 oz. camphor in 
2 pints of alcohol. The inilder consists of 4 dr. of the 
above ammonia, 3 of spirit of rosemary, and 1 of spirit of 
camphor. The stronger, of 5 dr. of ammonia, 2 of spirit 
of rosemary, and 1 of camphor. The milder is generally 
sufficient to produce full vesication in from 3 to 10 minutes. 
The stronger is seldom used except in apoplexy, and to pro- 
duce cauterization. 

Graves' (Dr.) Gout Preventive. Orange-peel 2 oz., rhu- 
barb 1 oz., hiera picra 2 oz., brandy a quart. Digest for a 
week. ^ 

Gregory's Powder. Calcined magnesia 2|- oz., powdered 
Turkey rhubarb 1 oz., powdered ginger |- oz. Mix. The 
above is Dr. Gregory's formula. Some recipes add pow- 
dered chamomile. Rhubarb 1 oz., ginger \ oz., p. chamo- 
mile J oz., magnesia 2 oz. Mix. Some druggists prepare 
it with the heavy carbonate of magnesia, instead of the 

Greenough's Tincture. See Tooth Cosmetics. 

Griffin's Tincture, for coughs. Oil of caraAvay and anise, 
each 2 dr., saffron |- oz., benzoic acid f oz., opium 5 dr., 
camphor ^ oz., spirit 6 oz., honey 6 oz. When mixed and 
dissolved, color with burnt sucjar. 

Griffith's Mixture. This is merely Mistura Ferri Com- 
posita of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Grinrod's (Dr.) Remedy for Spasms. Sulphuric ether, aro- 
matic spirit of ammonia, of each i oz. ; acetate' of morphia 
I gr., camphor mixture 2 oz. Mix, A teaspoonful in a 
little water when required. 


GuLSTONiAN Embrocation. Oil of turpentine 1|- oz., olive 
oil IJ oz., dilute sulphuric acid 3 fluid drachms. — Dr. 

Guthrie's Black Ointment. 10 grains of nitrate of silver 
with 1 dr. of spermaceti ointment and 10 drops of a solu- 
tion of acetate of lead. 

Guthrie's Eye Ointment. A weaker preparation of the 
• same kind ; used in ophthalmia, but causes great pain. 
See Ung. Hyd. Nit., Pocket Formulary. 

Halford's (Sir H.) Gout Pills. Acetic extract of colchi- 
- cum 2^ gr., Dover's powder 1^ gr., compound extract of 
colocynth 1|- gr., in each pill. One for a dose. 

Harrowgate Salts (Dr. Duffin's). Sulphate of magnesia 
2 dr.,. bitartrate of potash 10 gr., sal polychrest (potassae 
sulphas cum sulphure, Ph. Ed.) ^ dr. ; in a pint of warm 
water. For another formula see Mineral Waters [factitious) 
and salts for producing them, p. 205. 

Helvetius' Styptic. Melt together equal parts of alum and 
dragon's blood ; when cold, powder the compound. 

Henry's Magnesia. A solution of Epsom salts is precipi- 
tated by one of carbonate of potash in the cold ; the pre- 
cipitate is well washed, rose-water being used for the last 
washing ; it is then made up while drying into large or 
small cubes. See Magnes. Carbonas, P. F. 

Hill's Balsam of Honey. Balsam of Tolu 2 oz., styrax 
2 dr., opium ^ dr., honey 8 oz., spirit of wine 32 fluid 

Hoffman's Pills contain corrosive sublimate, about |-th of a 
grain in each. 

Houlton's Laudanum. Opium 2| oz., distilled vinegar 32 
fluid oz. ; macerate 6 days with a gentle heat and filter. 
Evaporate to an extract. Dissolve this in 5 fluid oz. of 
rectified spirit, and 35 fluid oz. of distilled water. 

Hooper's Female Pills. These, according to Dr. Paris, 
consist of RuFUs's Pill, sulphate of iron, canella, and a 
portion of ivory-black. Mr. Gray gives two formulae : 

1. Sulphate of iron 8 oz., water 8 oz. ; dissolve, and add 
Barbadoes aloes 40 oz., canella '6 oz., myrrh 2 oz., opoponax 
^ oz. Make a mass. 

2. Sulphate of iron 2 oz., powder of aloes with canella 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 189 

16 oz., mucilage of tragacanth and tincture of aloes q. s. to 
form a mass. Divide 60 grains into 18 pills. But, accord- 
ing to a recent analysis, the iron is in a peroxidized state ; 
probably the sulphate is partially calcined. 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy gives the following 
formula : 

3. Barbadoes aloes 8 oz., dried sulphate of iron 2 oz. 
1^ dr., extract of black hellebore 2 oz., myrrh and soap each 
2 oz., canella 1 oz., ginger 1 oz., water q. s. to form a mass. 
Divide into pills of 2J gr. each. 

Hooping Cough ; popular remedies for. 1. Cochineal and 
salt of tartar mixture. This appears to have been first 
introduced by Dr. Lobb, in 1765, and is still a favorite 
domestic remedy. Salt of wormwood (subcarbonate of 
potash) 20 gr., powdered cochineal 10 gr., hot water :^ of a 
pint ; triturate together, strain, and sweeten with white 
sugar (or sugar candy). Dose, a teaspoonful to a table- 
spoonful, according to the age. 

2. Fumigating Poivders. Styrax calamita and gum ben- 
zoin, of each a scruple, placed on hot cinders or a heated 
shovel, in the patient's roam, every day. 

Huxham's Tincture of Bark. The Compound Tincture of 
Bark of the London Pharmacopoeia is precisely that of 
HuxHAM, except that he used brandy instead of proof 

Issue Peas. Those in general use are unripe oranges (orange 
berries) turned in a lathe. The unturned berries are also 
used. Peas are also turned from orris root. Niemann 
gives the following composition for issue peas : Yellow 
wax IJ oz., powdered turmeric 1 oz., powdered orris 
1|- oz., Venice turpentine q. s. These are more stimulating, 
and are used to increase the discharge. The following, 
according to Dr. Gray, will open an issue itself: yellow wax 
6 oz., verdigris 2 oz., white hellebore 2 oz., cantharides 1 oz., 
orris 1|- oz., Venice turpentine q. s. 

James's Powder. It is not known in what respect the mode 
of preparing this powder differs from the Pharmacopoeia 
process for antimonial powder. Dr. James's specification 
is vague and impracticable. 

James's Analeptic Pills. Equal parts of James's powder, 
RuFUs's pill, and gum guaiacum, made into pills with tine- 


ture of castor. Dr. Paris has ammoniacum in the place 
of guaiacum. Another formula is : compound powder of 
aloes, aloes and myrrh pill, and James's powder, in equal 
quantities, formed into pills with tincture of castor and 

Jarave Spanish. Pour 4 gallons of boiling water on 2ft) 
Rio Negro sarsaparilla, 8 oz. powdered guaiacum bark, 4 oz. 
- each of rasped guaiacum wood, anise seed, and liquorice root, 
2 oz. of bark of mezereon root, 2 ft) of treacle, and 12 bruised 
cloves. Shake it thrice a day, and keep it in a warm place. 
. "When fermentation has set in, it is fit for use. Dose, a 
small tumblerful. 

Jesuits' Drops. Walker's. Balsam of copaiva 6 oz., gum 
guaiacum 1 oz., Chio turj)entine ^ oz., subcarbonate of 
potash J oz., cochineal 1 dr., rectified spirit 1 quart. See 
also Ehxir Antivenereum, Pocket Formulary. 

Kennedy's Corn Plaster. Yellow wax 1 ftj, Venice tur- 
pentine 2 oz., verdigris 1 oz., melted together, and spread 
on leather. 

Keyser's Pills. See Pilulse Hydrargyri Acetatis, P. F. 

King's Cordial. Dissolve in ^ pint of proof spirit IJ dr. 
each of the oils of caraway and cinnamon ; extract the stones 
from 3 ft) of black cherries, and ma^h the fruit in a pan ; 
grate one nutmeg; take 2 quarts of Madeira wine, 2 quarts 
of brandy, and 1 gallon of syrup ; mix all together, and 
color with red sanders wood. 

Kirkland's Neutral Ointment and Cerate. See Unguen- 
tum Plumbi Compositum and Ceratum Neutrale, P. F. 

Kitchener's (Dr.) Peristaltic Persuaders. Turkey rhu- 
barb in powder 2 dr., oil of caraway 10 drops, simple syrup 
1 dr. by weight ; mix, and divide into 40 pills. Dose, 2, 3, 
or more. "From 2 to 4 will generally produce one addi- 
tional motion within 12 hours. The best time to take them 
is early in the morning." 

Lartigue's Gout Pills. Compound extract of colocynth 
20- gr., extract of colchicum 60 gr., extract of opium 1 gr. ; 
mix, and divide into 18 pills. Dose, one or more, according 
to their purgative effect. 

Ledoyen's Disinfecting Fluid. It consists of about 20 oz. 
nitrate of lead in a gallon of water. Its specific gravity 
should be 1.40. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 191 

Leech-bites, Astringent for. Dissolve 1 part of crystallized 
perchloride of iron in six parts of collodion very gradually. 
A drop or two of the product form an admirable hsemostatic. 
(French Journal.) 

Lee's Wyndham's Pills. Gamboge 3 oz., aloes 2 oz., Castile 
soap 1 oz., nitre f oz., extract of cow-parsnip 1 oz. In pills 
of 5 gr. each. (Amer. Jour, of Pharmacy.) 

Lee's Antibilious Pills. Aloes 12 oz., scammony 6 oz., 
gamboge 4 oz., jalap 3 oz., calomel 5 oz., soap 1 oz., syrup 
of buckthorn 1 oz., mucilage 7 oz. ; mix and divide into 
5-grain pills. (The same.) 

Leroy's Purgative. 1 '2 3 

Scammony, 12 dr. 16 dr. 24 dr. 

Vegetable turbith, ... 6 dr. 8 dr. 12 dr. 

Jalap, 6 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. 

Brandy, 10 pints imperial. 

Digest for 12 hours, strain, and add the following syrup : 

Senna, 6 oz. 8 oz. 12 oz. 

Water, 24 oz. 32 oz. 48 oz. 

Infuse, strain with pressure, and add — 

Brown sugar, . , . . . 32 oz. 36 oz. 48 oz. 
Make a syrup. 

No. 4 is stronger than the above. 

Lejeune's Balsam for Chilblains. Camphor 1 dr., tincture 
of benzoin 5 dr. ; dissolve, and add iodide of potassium 5 dr., 
extract of lead 10 gr., spirit of wine reduced to proof with 
rose-water 2|- oz. ; dissolve 10 dr. of white soap in 2^ oz. of 
the same diluted spirit by a gentle heat, mix the solutions 
whilst still Avarm, and add any perfume. Let it cool in wide- 
mouthed bottles, and cork. 

Liebert's Cosmetic. For Chapped Nipples. Dissolve 10 
grains of nitrate of lead in 1 oz. of water. A pair of fine 
lead shields accompany the lotion, to be worn after applying 
it. The nipples must be carefully washed before the child 
is put to the breast. 

Lignum's Anti-scorbutic Drops. These contain bichloride 
of mercury, and should not therefore be used without great 

Liqueur Doree. Peruvian bark, bitter orange-peel, and 
cinnamon, of each 4 dr., saffron 2 dr., brandy 4 quarts, 
Malaga wine 2 quarts ; digest for 4 days, strain, and add 


2J ft) of sugar. [Liqueurs, which are not medicated, but 
merely alcoholic drams, do not come "within the plan of this 

Liquid Blister. Powdered cantharides 5 oz., and sulphuric 
ether 15 ounces. — Toynbee. 

Liston's Isinglass Plaster. Soak 1 oz. of isinglass in 2 oz. 
of water, and dissolve it in 2 oz. of rectified spirit and IJ 
oz. of water, by the heat of a water-bath. Brush it over the 
surface of oiled silk, properly stretched. An improved kind 

- is made by brushing one side of the peritoneal membrane of 
the cjBcum of the ox (prepared in the same manner as gold- 
beaters' skin) with the same solution, and the other side with 
drying oil. 

Locatelli's Balsam. Melt together 4 oz. of yellow wax, 
1 ft) of common oil, and 1 ft) of Venice turpentine, plac- 
ing with them 4 oz. of alkanet root wrapped in a linen 

Locock's Wafers. These owe most of their activity to Morphia. 
They should thus be used with caution. 

Long's (St. John) Liniment. See Linimentum Terebinthinse 
Aceticum, Pocket Formulary. 

Lozenges. See Ching's Lozenges, Dawson's, Darcet's. 

The medicated lozenges which are sanctioned by the Phar- 
macopoeias, and employed in practice, will be found under 
Trochisci and Pasta, in the Pocket Formulary. A few other 
formulae are here added : 

Absorbent Lozenges. Precipitated chalk 3 oz., heavy carbon- 
ate of magnesia 2 oz., nutmeg in fine powder 1 dr., sugar 6 
oz., powdered gum 1 oz., water q. s. to form a stiff paste, 
which divide by a punch into lozenges of the usual size, and 
dry them gradually in a warm room. 

Aperient Lozenges. Calomel 60 gr., pure scammony 80 gr., 
jalap 40 gr. (or jalapine 4 gr.), ginger 8 gr., cinnamon 4 
gr., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. to form a stiff paste ; 
mix the other powders accurately together, then with the 
sugar, lastly add the mucilage, beat the whole into a uni- 
form mass, and divide it into 40 equal lozenges. Each 
contains 1\ gr. calomel, 2 of scammony, and 1 of jalap. 

Black Currant Paste. Soften 12 ft) of picked black currants 
by heating them in a water-bath in a covered earthen vessel, 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 193 

pulp through a hair sieve, and evaporate to a paste, incorpo- 
ratiDg with it 1 ft) powdered sugar ; roll it out into a sheet 
of proper thickness. Mr. Bartlett gives the following for- 
mul{B : 3 ft) of powdered sugar, 3 fli of extract of black cur- 
rants (the inspissated juice), 1 oz. of tartaric acid, 6 oz. of 
powdered gum ; mixed, rolled out, and cut, when dry, with 
a large pair of scissors into square pieces. 

Black Currant or Ipecacuanha Lozenges. Black currant paste 
(as above) 8 oz., ipecacuanha 30 gr., tragacanth 90 gr. ; in 
240 lozenges. 

Cough Lozenges {with Lactucarium). Powdered lactucarium 
2 dr., extract of liquorice root 12 dr., ipecacuanha 30 gr., 
powdered squill 15 gr,, refined sugar 6 oz., mucilage of 
tragacanth q. s. ; mix, and divide into 240 equal lozenges. 
Each contains ^ gr. lactucarium, ^ gr, ipecacuanha, Jg gr. 
of squill. 

For other Cough Lozenges, see Trochisci Anticatar- 
rhales, Glycjrrhizse, et Opii, Lactucse, Morphise et Ipecac.^ 
Opii, ■ Papaveris, Pectorales, Scillse, Tolutani, &c., Pocket 

Ligestive or Live-long Candy. 1. Powdered rhubarb 6j0 
gr., heavy magnesia 1 oz., bicarbonate of soda 1 dr., 
finely-powdered ginger 20 gr., cinnamon powder 15 gr., 
powdered white sugar 2 oz., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. ; 
beat together, and divide into paralellograms of 20 gr. 

2. Caraway Candy. Rhubarb 60 gr.,, powdered caraways 
60 gr., oil of caraway 10 drops, ginger and cinnamon, each 
15 gr., magnesia 6 dr., carbonate of soda 1 dr., sugar 2 oz., 
mucilage q. s. — as the last. 

Edinburgh Lozenges. Extract of poppies 2 oz., powdered 
sugar 8 oz., powdered tragacanth 4 oz., water q. s. 

Fruit Lozenges. Black currant paste 8 oz., red currant paste 
(or the juice evaporated to a paste) 4 oz., syrup of rasp- 
berries 4 oz., soften by a gentle heat, and beat in a warm 
mortar with 2 ftj of powdered sugar, and 1 dr. of powdered 
citric acid, and, if required, a little mucilage of gum traga- 

Marshmallow Lozenges. Marshmallow root powdered 2 oz., 
sugar 14 oz., mixed with some mucilage of tragacanth and 
orange-flower water. 



Peppermint Lozenges. Rub together -white sugar 6 oz., oil of 
peppermint 36 drops, and the whites of 2 eggs. Make into 

Lynch's Embrocation. Olive oil colored with alkanet, per- 
, fumed, and rendered stimulating by essential oils. 

Madden's Essence. A strongly-acidulated infusion of 

Mahomed's Electuary. Grocer's currants 1 oz., powdered 
senna ^ oz., powdered ginger 30 gr., oil of croton 1 drop, 
syrup of roses sujfficient to make an electuary ; two tea- 
spoonfuls every morning. — Bateman. 

Mahy's Plaster (American). Boil 12 oz. of white lead, 32 
fluid ounces of olive oil, and a little water, stirring con- 
stantly until incorporated. Add yellow wax 4 oz., lead 
plaster 18 oz., and when these are melted stir in 9 oz. of 
powdered orris. 

Maredant's Norton's Drops. Corrosive sublimate, gentian, 
ginger, and cochineal. 

Marshall's Cerate. Palm oil 5 oz., calomel 1 oz., acetate 
of lead J oz., ointment of nitrate of mercury 2 oz. ; mix. — 
Dr. Paris. 

Marshall's Eye-Drops. These are said to consist of 2 gr. 
of nitrate of silver in 1 oz. of decoction of snails. 

Marsden's Antiscorbutic Drops, Morton's, Perry's, Lig- 
num's, and other antiscorbutic drops, contain corrosive subli- 
mate. — Dr. Paris. 

Magnesia, Fluid. A solution of carbonate of magnesia in 
water by means of carbonic acid gas, forced into it by 
pressure. Murray's and Dinneford's should contain from 
12 to 15 gr. of the carbonate in each fluid ounce. See Liquor 
Magnesiae Carbonatis, Pocket Formulary. 

Mathieu's Vermifuge. Tin "filings 1 oz., fern root f oz., 
worm seed J oz., resinous extract of jalap 1 dr., sulphate of 
potash 1 dr., honey to form an electuary. A teaspoonful 
every 3 hours for 2 days ; then substitute the following : 
jalap 2 scruples, sulphate of potash 2 scruples, scammony 1 
scruple, gamboge 10 gr. ; made into an electuary with honey, 
and given in the same dose." 

Mineral Waters (Factitious), and Salts for producing 
them. See below, p. 205. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 195 

Montein's Barege Balls (for Sulphur Baths). Sulphate of 
lime 8 oz., common salt 2 oz., Flanders glue 1 oz., extract 
of soapwort 1 oz. ; make into 8 balls ; to be kept from the 
air. M. Meniere recommends : Extract of soapwort J oz., 
water 6 oz., lime in powder 4 oz., sulphur 3 oz., gelatine 1 
oz. ; dissolve the extract and gelatine in the water, add the 
lime and sulphur, heat gently, stirring it constantly, till the 
mass gets detached from the sides of the vessel ; then form it 
into balls of IJ oz. each. 

Morrison's Pills, No. 1, consist of equal parts of aloes and 
cream of tartar ; No. 2 consists of 2 parts of gamboge, 3 of 
aloes, 1 of colocynth, and 4 of cream of tartar, made into pills 
with syrup. 

Morrison's Adhesive Paste, for Ring-worm. See Pasta 
Adhesiva, Pocket Formulary. 

Moseley's Pills. Turkey rhubarb 60 gr., Jamaica ginger 
24 gr., syrup and tincture of rhubarb q. s. to form a mass, 
to be divided into 24 pills. 

Moxon's Effervescing Magnesian Aperient. The follow- 
ing have been proposed as imitations : 

1. Heavy carbonate of magnesia 2 ft), bicarbonate of soda 
1 ft), tartaric acid 1^ ft), refined sugar J Ife, essence of lemon 
40 minims ; the powders to be all separately dried at a 
moderate temperature. 

2. Sulphate of magnesia 1 ft), bicarbonate of soda 1 ft), 
tartaric acid J ft) ; the ingredients to be well dried separately 
at a moderate temperature. (Pharmaceutical Journal.) 

3. Carbonate of magnesia 1 ft), sulphate of magnesia 2 
ft), bicarbonate of soda 2 ft), potassio-tartrate of soda 2 ft), 
tartaric acid 2 ft) ; to be separately dried, and mixed. — M. 


MuNRo's Cough Medicine. 4 dr. of paregoric with 2 dr. of 
sulphuric ether, and 2 dr. of tincture of Tolu. Dose, 1 
teaspoonful in some warm water. 

Murray's (Sir J.) Fluid Camphor. Each ounce contains 3 
gr. of camphor and 6 gr. of carbonate of magnesia, dissolved 
by carbonic acid, by pressure. 

Murray's Gout Specific. It contains iodide of potassium, 
sulphate of magnesia, and an aromatic tincture. (Pharma- 
ceutical Journal.) , 


Nepenthe. Supposed to be a watery solution of opium, 
resembling Battley's. See Liquor Opii Sedativus, Pocket 

NoRRis's Drops. A solution of tartarized antimony, with a 
tincture of some vegetable substances, not ascertained. 

Nouffleur's (Madame) Worm Medicine. Powdered fern 
root 3 dr., to be given in the morning (the patient being 
prepared by an emollient clyster, and a supper of panada) ; 
followed in 2 hours by a bolus of calomel, scammony, and 

Ollivier's Biscuits. Beat up the white of 2 eggs with 16 
oz. of water, and a solution of 76 gr. of corrosive sublimate; 
collect, wash, and dry the precipitate, -^th of a gr. of which 
is contained in each biscuit of 2 dr. 

Opodeldoc. Lin Saponis. 

Ormskirk Medicine, to prevent Hydropliohia. Elecampane 

1 dr., chalk 4 dr., Armenian bole 3 dr., alum 10 gr., oil of 
aniseed 5 drops. 

Palamoud. See Dietetic Compounds. 

Palmer's Aerated Chalybeate. Mix IJ parts of acetic 
acid with 40 of water, add 4 of proto-sulphate of iron, and 
20 of syrup. Put into 4-ounce bottles, for No. 1 and No. 

2 respectively, as much of the above as contains 2 and 4 
gr. of sulphate of iron, and fill the bottles with a solution 
of carbonate of soda, or of potash strongly charged . with 
carbonic acid gas. Tartaric acid may be substituted for 

Papier Epispastique d'Albespeyres. The Pommade Upis- 
pastique of the French Codex, spread on waxed paper. See 
Unguentum Epispasticum, Pocket Formulary. 

Papier Epispastique de Vee. This is of three strengths, 
distinguished by the colors white, green, and red. The 
composition is made by boiling cantharides for an hour with 
water, and lard, green ointment, or lard colored with alka- 
net; adding white wax to the strained fats, and spreading 
on paper, silk, or linen. No. 1 is made with 10 oz. of can- 
tharides to 4 ft) of lard ; No. 2 of 1 ft) of flies to 8 ft) of 
green ointment ; and No. 3, of 1 J ft) to 8 ft) of colored lard ; 
and to each are added 2 ft) of white wax. — Dorvault. See 
Blistering Paper. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 197 

Papier Fayard. G-out Paper. Euphorbium 3 dr., can- 
tharides 6 dr., powdered and digested with 4 oz. alcohol ; 
and 3 dr. Venice turpentine added to the strained tincture. 
Fine paper is dipped into it and dried in the air. Mohr 
directs 4 dr. of cantharides and 1 dr. euphorbium to be 
digested in 5 oz. of highly rectified spirit ; filter and add \\ 
oz. Venice turpentine previously liquefied with 2 oz of resin. 
To be spread on the paper while warm. 

Pelletier's Ethereal Opodeldoc. See Balsamum Aceticum 
Camphoratum, Pocket Formulary. 

Peter's Pills. Aloes, jalap, gamboge, and scammony, of 
each 2 dr. ; calomel 1 dr. 

Piles, popular remedies for. Dr. Wardleworth's Pills 
contain 3J gr. of pitch in each ; 2 every night. For 
Electuaries for piles see Confectio Resinas, Confectio Sul- 
phuris Composita, Electuarium Heemorrhoidale, Electuarium 
Sulphuris Compositum, in Pocket Formulary. See also 
Ward's Paste, below. For Pile Ointments, see Unguen- 
tum Gallse, Unguentum Gallge Compositum, Unguentum et 
Opii, Unguentum Haemorrhoidale, Pocket Formulary. Sir 
H. Halford's Pile Ointment consists of equal parts of 
citrine ointment and oil of almonds triturated in a glass 
mortar till perfectly smooth. Mr. Ward's is — Powdered 
nutgall 2 dr., camphor 1 dr., melted wax 1 oz., tincture of 
opium 2 dr. Mix. 

Pills. See proprietors' names in alphabetical order. A 
great variety of formulae for pills of every kind will be found 
in the Pocket Formulary. 

Pills, to coat, with Gelatine . 1 See Pilulae, Pocket 

, to silver / Formulary. 

M. Durden recommends collodion as a covering for pills : 
others, a solution of gutta percha in chloroform : but the 
ready solubility of these materials in the stomach may be 
questioned. M. Blanchard uses balsam of To-lu dissolved 
in ether. Mr. Baildon recommends chloroform instead of 

Plunket's Ointment for Cancer. White arsenic, sulphur, 
powdered flowers of lesser spearwort and stinking chamomile, 
levigated together, and formed into a paste with white of 

Pomade Divine. Beef marrow 3 ft) ; put it into an earthen 


vessel, and cover it with cold water, and change the 
water daily for a . few days, using rose-water the last 
day. Pour off and press out the water ; add to the 
marrow 4 oz. each of styrax, benzoin, and Cliio turpen- 
tine, 1 oz. orris powder, ^ oz. each of powdered cinna- 
inon, cloves, and nutmeg. Set the vessel . in hot water, 
and keep the water boiling for 3 hours ; then strain. For 
, Pomades for the hair, see Hair Cosmetics, after Per- 

Portland's (Duke of) Gout Powder. Equal quantities of 
. ' the roots of gentian and birthwort, tops of germander, 

ground pine, and lesser centaury : all to be powdered and 

mixed together. 

Powell's Balsam for Cough. Mix together 2 dr. of syrup 
of Tolu, 1 oz. of paregoric elixir, and 2 oz. of liquorice- 

Queen op Hungary's Water. Tops and flowers of rosemary 
2 ib, rectified spirit 3 R) ; digest in a close vessel for 50 
hours in a gentle heat, then distil by water-bath. 

Quinine and Camphor Pills. See Pilulge Quinse et Cam- 
phorse, Pocket Farmulary. 

Radcliffe's Elixir. Aloes 6 dr., cinnamon, zedoary, and 
cochineal, each ^ dr., rhubarb 1 dr., syrup of buckthorn 2 
oz., proof spirit 16 fluid oz., water 5 fluid oz. — Dr. 
Paris. According to Gray, it contains jalap, scammony, 
and senna. 

Easpail's Camphor Cigarettes. These are merely camphor 
inclosed in a tube (a quill or paper tube may be used), con- 
fined by blotting paper, and used cold. Another kind of 
camphorated cigars is made by saturating dried coltsfoot or 
other leaves with a strong solution of camphor, and rolling 
them in the form of cigars. 

Eeece's Chirayta Pills. Extract of chirayta 2 dr., dried 
carbonate of soda 1 scruple, p. ginger 15 gr. ; mix, and 
divide into 36 pills. Two twice a day. 

Regnauld's Pectoral Paste. Pectoral flowers (mullein, 
coltsfoot, catsfoot, and red poppies mixed) 16 oz., boiling 
water 3 flb ; infuse, strain, and add to the clear liquor 6 ft) 
of clean gum Arabic ; dissolve by a gentle heat, and evapo- 
rate to a proper consistence, adding towards the end 6 dr. 
of tincture of balsam of Tolu. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 199 

Reynold's Gout Specific. It is supposed to be a wine of 

Revalenta. It is said to be prepared from tbe seeds of the 
Ervum lens. See Dietetic Articles. 

Riga Balsam for Bruises. Mix 4 oz. of spirits of wine with 
1 dr. of compound tincture of benzoin, and 2 dr. of tincture 
of saffron. 

Robinson's (Dr.) Stimulating Purgative Pills. Watery 
extract of aloes 1 dr., balsam of Peru 10 gr., oil of caraway 
10 drops, scammony ^ dr. ; mix and divide into 20 pills : 2 
or 3 when required. 

Roche's Embrocation. Olive oil, with half its weight of oil 
of cloves and oil of amber. — Dr. Paris. 

Roge's Magnesian Purgative. Calcined magnesia 1 oz,, 
carbonate of magnesia ^ oz., citric acid 3^ oz., sugar, rubbed 
with a few drops of essence of lemon, 6^ oz. To form 
Aerated Magnesian Lemonade, put ^ of the powder into a 
soda-water bottle nearly filled with water, and cork it 

Rousseau's Drops. See Vinum Opii Fermentatione Paratum, 
P. F. 

RuspiNi's Styptic. It contains (according to Dr. A. T. 
Thompson) gallic acid, sulphate of zinc, spirit, and rose- 

Ryan's Essence of Coltsfoot. Tincture of balsam of Tolu 
.2 oz., compound tincture of benzoin 2 oz., spirit of wine 4 
oz. — Gray. 

Rymer's Tincture. A tincture of capsicum, camphor, car- 
damom, rhubarb, aloes, and castor, in proof spirit, with a 
small quantity of sulphuric acid. — Dr. Paris. 

(The inventor states that it is impregnated with an aerial 

Salts, Mineral. See Waters, Factitious Mineral, p. 205. 

Scott's Pills. See Anderson's Pills. 

Scott's Plaster. It appears to be a carefully prepared Emp. 
Plumbi, spread on calico. If it contains resin, the quantity 
is probably less than in Emp. Resinae, 

Seidlitz Powders (in separate powders). One contains 2 dr. 


of powdered Rochelle salts, and 40 gr. of bicarbonate of 
soda ; the other powder is p. tartaric acid 35 gr. 

Seidlitz Powder, in one bottle. Note. — The powders are 
all to be thoroughly dried separately, at a gentle heat — the 
potassio-tartrate of soda, at a temperature not exceeding 110° 
F. ; the others not higher than 120°. Take of potassio- 
tartrate of soda, dried, 15 oz., tartaric acid, dried, 5 oz. ; 
(or citric acid 4J oz.), dried bicarbonate of soda 6 oz. ; 
mix, and keep in a well-closed bottle. Dose, 3 dr. Or, 
mix two parts of bitartrate of soda with one part bicarbonate 
of soda. Keep dry. The above have no resemblance to 
the natural water of Seidlitz. See Waters (Mineral), page 

Singleton's Golden Ointment. Orpiment mixed with lard 
to the consistence of an ointment. 

Soda Powders. These usually contain in one paper 30 gr. 
of bicarbonate of soda, and in the other 25 gr. of tartaric 
acid (or 24 of citric acid). For sherbet, lemonade, and 
ginger-beer powders, see Beverages, in another division of 
this work. 

Smellome's Eye-Ointment. Prepared verdigris 30 gr. ; levi- 
gate with 30 drops of olive oil, and add 1 oz. of resinous 

Speediman's Pills. Rhubarb, aloes, myrrh, and extract of 
chamomile, of each 60 gr. ; oil of chamomile 12 drops ; mix, 
and divide into 4-grain pills. 

Solomon's Balm of Gilead. An aromatic tincture, of which 
cardamoms form a leading ingredient, made with brandy. — 
Dr. Paris. It is thought to contain cantharides. 

Solomon's Anti-impetigines is said to be a solution of corro- 
sive sublimate. 

Smith's (Dr. Hugh) Stomachic Pills. Aloes, rhubarb, aro- 
matic powder, gum sagapenum, of each 1 dr. ; oil of mint 
and oil of cloves, each 10 drops ; balsam of Peru q. s, In 
5-grain pills ; 2 to 4 every night. 

Solution of Copaiva. Mix 2 parts of balsam of copaiva 
with 3 of liquor potass^ and 7 of water. Boil them for a 
quarter of an hour, and when a little cooled, add 1 part of 
spirit of nitric ether. Let the mixture rest for a few hours, 
then draw off the clear liquor from the lower part of the 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 201 

vessel. This is supposed to resemble Frank's Solution. 
Or copaiva may be boiled in water with an equal weight 
of carbonate of potash. (For other preparations of copaiva, 
see Gelatina Copaibse, Electuarium Copaibse, Elec. Cubebaa 
et Copaiba, Sjrupus Oopaibge, Mistura Copaibse, &c., in 
P. F.) 

Spilsbury's Antiscorbutic Drops. Corrosive sublimate 2 
dr. (not 2 oz.^ as misprinted in the eighth edition of Dr. 
Paris's Pharmacologia), precipitated sulphuret of antimony 
1 dr., gentian 2 dr., orange-peel 2 dr., red sanders 1 dr., 
proof spirit 16 fluid oz. ; digest and strain. — Dr. Paris. 
But we are informed that this is incorrect. Another formula 
is : Levigated crocus metallorum 18 dr., corrosive sublimate 
135 gr., red sanders \\ dr., gentian 6 dr., orange-peel 6 dr., 
brandy 48 fluid oz. ; digest for 10 days, shaking frequently, 
and strain ; dose 5 to 60 drops. 

Squire's Elixir. Opium 1 oz., camphor 1 oz., spirit of ani- 
seed (compound) 4 pints, tincture of serpentaria 1 pint, water 

4 pints, tincture of ginger \ oz. Some recipes add a little 
aurum musivum. 

Standert's Red Mixture. Carbonate of magnesia 4 dr. 
powdered rhubarb 2 dr., tincture of rhubarb \\ oz., tincture 
of opium 1 dr., oil of aniseed 24 drops, essence of peppermint 
30 drops, water \\ pint ; mix. A popular remedy for bowel 
complaints in the West of England. 

Standert's Stomachic Candy. Cardamom seed, ginger, 
rhubarb (all in fine powder), each 4 dr., lump sugar 4 oz.,, 
water 6 dr. ; boil together, stirring constantly till the sugar 
is dissolved, then pour it into a proper mould. 

Steer's Opodeldoc. ' 1. Rectified spirit a quart, Castile soap 

5 oz., camphor 2^ oz., oil of rosemary 2| dr., oil of origanum 
5 dr., weaker ammonia 4 oz. ; digest till dissolved, and pour 
while warm into wide-mouthed bottles. 

2. Rectified spirits 8 pints o. m., white soap 20 oz,, 
camphor 8 oz., water of ammonia 4 oz., oil of rosemary 
1 oz., oil of horsemint 1 oz. ; dissolve the soap in the spirit 
by the gentle heat, and add the other ingredients.- — Bottle 
whilst warm. — Phil. Col. of Pharmacy. 

Stoughton's Elixir. 1. Gentian 36 oz., serpentary 16 oz., 
dried orange-peel 24 oz., calamus aromaticus 4 oz., rectified 
spirit and water, of each 6 gallons, old measure. 


2. Gentian 4 ft), orange-peel 2 ft), cochineal 2 dr., car- 
damom seed 1 oz., rectified spirits 8 gallons. 

Storey's Worm Cakes. Calomel 1 scruple, jalap 1 dr., gin- 
ger 2 scruples, sugar 1 oz., cinnabar to color, syrup q. s. to 
form 10 cakes. 

Struve's Lotion for Hooping-Cough. Emetic tartar 60 gr., 
. water 2 oz., tincture of cantharides 1 oz. 

Swaim's Vermifuge. Wormseed 2 oz., valerian, rhubarb, 
pink root, white agaric, of each 1^ oz. ; boil in sufficient 

,■ "water to yield 3 quarts of decoction, and add to it 30 drops 
of oil of tansy, and 45 drops of oil of cloves, dissolved in a 
quart of rectified spirit. (American remedy.) 

Sydenham's Liquid Laudanum. See Vinum Opii, Pocket 

Tanjore Pills. See Pilulse Arsenici, Pocket Formulary. 

Thibaut's Balsam for wounds. Digest flowers of St. John's 
wort, one handful, in J pint rectified spirit, then express the 
liquor, and dissolve in it myrrh, aloes, and dragon's blood, 
of each 1 dr., with Canada balsam ^ oz. 

Tincture o:f Quinine (Aromatic). See Tinct. Quinse Co., 
and Tinct. Quin^ Sulphatis Acida, Pocket Formulary. 

Tissot's Purgative Powders. Jalap, rhubarb, senna, and 
soluble cream of tartar, equal quantities. Dose, 2 to 6 
drachms. Used in Normandy. 

Turlington's Balsam. Rectified spirits 8 old wine pints, 
benzoin 12 oz., liquid styrax 4 oz., socotrine aloes 1 oz., 
balsam of Peru 2 oz., myrrh 1 oz., angelica root J oz., 
balsam of Tolu 4 oz., extract of liquorice 4 oz. ; digest 10 
days and strain. — Phil. Col. of Pharm. The certified 
copy of the original recipe is more comj)lex, containing three 
times as many ingredients. 

Valangin's Solution of Solvent Mineral. Arsenious acid' 
(which has been mixed with muriate of soda, and resublimed) 
30 gr., hydrochloric acid 90 gr., distilled water 1 oz. ; dis- 
solve, and add distilled water to make up 30 fluid oz. Dose, 
from 3 drops, increased very gradually to 10. See Liquor 
Arsenici Chloridi, P. F. 

Venlo's Vegetable Syrup. It is supposed to be a decoction 
of burdock, mint, dandelion, senna, &c., boiled with sugar, 
and a small portion of solution of sublimate added. 

druggists' nostrums, etc. 203 

Walker's Jesuit's Drops. See Jesuit's Drops, above. 

Warburg's Fever Tincture. M. Fuchs gives the following 
recipe for imitating this secret remedy : Hepatic aloes and 
zedoarj root, of each 1 dr., angelica root and camphor, of 
each 2 gr., saffron 3 gr., proof spirits 3 oz. In 25 dr. of the 
filtered tincture dissolve 30 gr. of sulphate of quinine. Put 
it up in 5-drachm bottles, containing a dose. Sold at about 
5 shillings each bottle. 

Ward's Paste. The same as Confectio Piperis Nigri of the 
London Pharmacopoeia. 

Ward's White Drops. To 16 oz. of strong nitric acid add 
gradually 7 oz. of subcarbonate of ammonia ; let it stand 2 
or 3 hours ; then put it into a bolt-head which it will only 
half fill, and to each 16 oz. put 4 oz. of pure quicksilver, and 
digest in a sand-heat till the solution is complete ; then 
gently increase the heat and add a little more quicksilver at 
intervals till it will dissolve no more ; then evaporate it in a 
glass or earthen dish placed in sand, till a pellicle appears, 
and set it aside to crystallize. Dissolve 1 K) of the drained 
salt in 3 ft) of rose-water by the heat of a sand-bath. 

Ward's Essence for the Headache. Spirit of wine 2 ft), 
roche alum in fine powder 2 oz., camphor 4 oz., essence of 
lemon J oz., strong water of ammonia 4 oz. ; stop the bottle 
close, and shake it daily for 3 or 4 days. 

Ward's Red Pill. Glass of antimony levigated with a fourth 
of its weight of dragon's blood, made into a mass with wine, 
and divided into pills of a grain and a half each ; one pill is 
a dose, on an empty stomach. In foulness of the stomach 
and bowels, and obstinate rheumatic disorders. 

Ward's Dropsy Purging Powder. Jalap 1 ftj, cream of tar- 
tar 1 ft), red bole 1 oz. ; mix. Dose, from 30 to 40 gr., in 
broth or warm beer, repeated for 2 or 3 days, or oftener if 

Ward's Sweating Powder. Similar to Dover's Powder. 

Ward's Washing Powder. See Washing Compounds, Trade 

Warner's Cordial. Rhubarb 1 oz., senna | oz., safiron 1 
dr., liquorice J oz., raisins 1 ft), brandy 3 pints ; digest for a 
week, and strain. 


Warwick's (Countess of) Powders. Scammony 2 oz., calx of 
antimony 1 oz., cream of tartar |- oz. ; mix. 

Webster's Diet Drink. A decoction of syrup of sarsaparilla, 
betony, dulcamara, guaiacum, liquorice, sassafras, turmeric, 
and thyme. 

Webster's (Lady) Pills. See Pilulse Aloes cum Masticlie, 
P. F. 

Whitehead's Essence of Mustard. See Essence of Mus- 
tard for an imitation of it. 

Whitehead's Mustard Pills. Dr. Paris says they consist 
of balsam of Tolu and resin. 

Whitelaw's Ethereal Tincture of Lobelia. See Tinctura 
LobeliaB Etherea, Pocket Formulary. 

Wilson's Gout Tincture. A vinous infusion of colchicum. 

Wisdom's (Dr.) Eye- Water. Bole 2 oz., sulphate of zinc J 
oz., camphor (dissolved in 1| oz. of rectified spirit) ^ oz., 
water a gallon. 

Wright's Pearl Ointment. White precipitate 8 oz., extract 
of lead a pint ; rub together and add 7 Sb of white wax melted 
with 16 S) of ohve oil. — Pharm. Journal. 

Worm Lozenges. See Ching's Lozenges, and Story's Worm 
Cakes, above ; see also Trochisci Anthelmintici, and Tro- 
chisci Santoninse, Pocket Formulary. 

Young's Purging Drink. Carbonate of soda in crystals 2|- 
dr., cream of tartar in crystals 3 dr., water 8 oz. ; put it into 
a stone bottle and secure the cork. 


mlis for frodudng %\mi 


These require the aid of the powerful machine employed by 
soda-water manufacturers, to charge the waters strongly 
with carbonic acid gas. The gas is made from whiting and 
diluted sulphuric acid, and is forced by a pump into the 
watery solution. Sometimes the gas is produced by the 
mutual action of the ingredients introduced into the bottle 
of water, which must be instantly closed ; but this method 
is found practically inconvenient, and is only adopted in 
the absence of proper apparatus. The quantity of gas 
introduced is directed, in the French and American Phar- 
macopoeias, in most cases, to be 5 times the volume of 
liquid. For chalybeate and sulphuretted waters, the water 
should be previously deprived of the air it naturally con- 
tains, by boiling it, and allowing it to cool in a closed 

Bakewell's apparatus will be found very convenient for 
making small quantities of aerated waters ; and the syphon 
bottles suitable for holding them. 

Simple Aerated Water. Carbonic acid gas water. Water 
charged with five or more volumes of carbonic acid gas, as 

Alkaline Aerated Waters. Aerated soda and potash 
waters should be made by dissolving 1 dr. of the carbonated 
alkali in each pint of water, and charging it strongly with 
carbonic acid gas. But the soda water of the shops generally 
contains but little (or no) soda. 

Aerated Magnesia Water. This is made of various 


Murray's and Binneford's Fluid Magnesia may be thus 
made : To a boiling solution of 16 oz. of sulphate of mag- 
nesia in 6 pints of water, add a solution of 19 oz. of crys- 
tallized carbonate of soda in the same quantity of water; 
boil the mixture till gas ceases to escape, stirring con- 
stantly ; then set it aside to settle ; pour off the liquid, 
and wash the precipitate on a cotton or linen cloth, with 
warm water, till the latter passes tasteless. Mix the pre- 
cipitate, without drying it, with a gallon of water, and 
force carbonic acid gas into it under strong pressure, till a 
.complete solution is effected. The Eau Magnesienne of 

> the French Codex is about a third of this strength ; and we 
have met with some prepared in this country not much 

Carbonated Lime-water. Carrara Water. Lime-water (pre- 
pared from lime made by calcining Carrara marble) is super- 
saturated, by strong pressure, with carbonic acid ; so that 
the carbonate of lime at first thrown down is redissolved. 
It contains 8 gr. of carbonate of lime in 10 fluid oz. of 

Aerated Lithia Water. This may be conveniently made 
from the fresh precipitated carbonate, dissolved in car- 
bonated water, as directed for fluid magnesia. Its antacid 
and antilithic properties promise to be useful. (See page 


The following afford approximate imitations of these waters. 
The earthly salts, with the salts of iron, should be dissolved 
together in the smallest quantity of water. The other in- 
gredients to be dissolved in the larger portion of the water, 
and the solution impregnated with the gas. The first solu- 
tion may be then added, or be previously introduced into the 
bottles. The salts, unless otherwise stated, are to be crys- 

Baden Water. Muriate of magnesia 2 gr., muriate of lime 
40 gr., muriate of iron \ gr. (or 3 minims of the tinc- 
ture), muriate of soda 30 gr., sulphate of soda 10 gr., 
carbonate of soda 1 gr., water 1 pint, carbonic acid gas 5 

Carlsbad Water. Muriate of lime 8 gr., tincture of mu- 


riate of iron 1 drop, sulphate of soda 50 gr., carbonate of 
soda 60 gr., muriate of soda 8 gr., carbonated water 1 pint. 

Eger. Carbonate of soda 5 gr., sulphate of soda 4 scruples, 
muriate of soda 10 gr., sulphate of magnesia 3 gr., muriate 
of lime 5 gr., carbonated water a pint. (Or it maj be made 
without apparatus thus : Bicarbonate of soda 30 gr., muriate 
of soda 8 gr., sulphate of magnesia 3 gr., water a pint ; dis- 
solve and add a scruple of dry bisulphate of soda, and close 
the bottle immediately.) 

Ems. Carbonate of soda 2 scruples, sulphate of potash 1 gr., 
sulphate of magnesia 5 gr., muriate of soda 10 gr., muriate 
of lime 3 gr., carbonated water a pint. 

Marienbad. Carbonate of soda 2 scruples, sulphate of soda 
96 gr., sulphate of magnesia 8 gr., muriate of soda 15 gr., 
muriate of lime 10 gr., carbonated water a pint. (Or, bicar- 
bonate of soda 50 gr., sulphate of soda 1 dr., muriate of 
soda 15 gr., sulphate of magnesia 10 gr. ; dissolved in a pint 
of water, add 25 gr. of dry bisulphate of soda, and cork im- 

Marienbad Purging Salts. Bicarbonate of soda 5 oz., ' 
dried sulphate of soda 12 oz., dry muriate of soda 1^ oz., 
sulphate of magnesia, dried, 2 oz., dried bisulphate of soda 
2^ oz. Mix the salts previously dried, separately, and keep 
them carefully from the air. 

PuLLNA Water. Sulphate of soda 4 dr., sulphate of mag- 
nesia 4 dr., muriate of lime 15 gr., muriate of magnesia 
(dry) a scruple, muriate of soda a scruple, bicarbonate of . 
soda 10 gr., water slightly carbonated a pint. One of the 
most active of the purgative saline waters. 

PuLLNA Water, without the Machine. Bicarbonate of 
soda 50 gr., sulphate of magnesia 4 dr., sulphate of soda 3 
dr., muriate of soda a scruple ; dissolve in a pint of water ; 
add, lastly, 2 scruples of bisulphate of soda, and close the 
bottle immediately. 

Salts for Making Pullna Water. Dry bicarbonate of 
soda 1 oz., exsiccated sulphate of soda 2 oz., exsiccated 
sulphate of magnesia IJ oz., dry muriate of soda 2 dr., 
dry tartaric acid |- oz. (or rather, dry bisulphate of soda 
1 oz.) 

Seidlitz Water. This is usually imitated by strongly aerat- 


ing a solution of 2 dr. of sulphate of magnesia in a pint of 
water. It is also made with 4, 6, and 8 dr. of the salts to a 
pint of water. 

Seidlitz Powder. The common Seidlitz powders (as given p. 
199) do not resemble the water. A closer imitation would 
be made by using effloresced sulphate of magnesia instead of 
the potassio-tartrate of soda. A still more exact compound 

- Avill be the following : Effloresced sulphate of magnesia 2 oz., 
bicarbonate of soda J oz., dry bisulphate of soda ^ oz. ; mix, 
and keep in a close bottle. 

"Seidschutz Water. Sulphate of magnesia 3 dr., muriate of 
lime, nitrate of lime, bicarbonate of soda, of each 8 gr., sul- 
phate of potash 5 gr.. aerated water 1 pint. 

Seltzer Water. Muriate of lime and muriate of magnesia, 
of each 4 gr. ; dissolve these in a small quantity of water, 
and add it to a similar solution of 8 gr., of bicarbonate of 
soda, 20 gr. muriate of soda, and 2 gr. of phosphate of soda ; 
mix, and add a solution of |- of a gr. of sulphate of iron ; 
put the mixed solution into a 20-oz, bottle, and fill up with 
aerated water. But much of the Seltzer water sold is said 
to be nothing more than simple carbonated water. An imi- 
tation of Seltzer water is also made by putting into a stone 
Seltzer bottle, filled with water, 2 dr. bicarbonate of soda, 
and 2 dr. of citric acid in crystals, corking the bottle im- 
mediately. Sodiac powders are sometimes sold as Seltzer 

Vichy Water. Bicarbonate of soda 1 dr., muriate of soda 2 
gr., sulphate of soda 8 gr., sulphate of magnesia 3 gr., tinc- 
ture of muriate of iron 2 drops, aerated water 1 pint. DoR- 
VAULT directs 75 grains of bicarbonate of soda, 4 grains of 
chloride of sodium, ^ gr. sulphate of iron, 10 gr. sulphate of 
soda, 3 grains sulphate of magnesia, to a pint of water. By 
adding 45 grains (or less) of citric acid an effervescing water 
is obtained. 

M. SouBEiRAN, relying on the analysis of Longchamps, 
imitates Vichy water by the following combination : Bi- 
carbonate of soda 135 grains, chloride of sodium 2J gr., 
cryst. chloride of calcium 12 gr., sulphate of soda llj gr., 
sulphate of magnesia 3f gr., tartrate of iron and potash ^ 
gr., water 2jL pints (1 litre), carbonic acid 305 cub. inches 
(5 litres). Dissolve the salts of soda and iron in part of the 


water, dissolve and add the sulph. magnes., and then the 
chlor, calc. in the remaining water. Charge now with the 
carbonic acid gas under pressure. 

Vichy Salts. Bicarbonate of soda 1^ oz., muriate of soda 
15 gr., effloresced sulphate of soda 1 dr., effloresced sul- 
phate of magnesia 1 scruple, dry tartarized sulphate of iron 
1 gr., dry tartaric acid 1 oz. (or dry bisulphate of soda) ; 
mix the powders, previously dried, and keep them in a close 


Sea-Water. Muriate of soda 4 oz., sulphate of soda 2 oz., 
muriate of lime J oz., muriate of magnesia 1 oz,, iodide 
of potassium 4 gr., bromide of potassium 2 gr., water a 
gallon. A common substitute for sea-water as a bath is 
made by dissolving 5 or 6 oz. of common salt in a gallon 
of water. 

The following mixture of dry salts may be kept for the imme- 
diate production of a good imitation of sea-water. Muriate 
of soda (that obtained from evaporating sea-water and not 
recrystallized, in preference) 85 oz. ; effloresced sulphate 
of soda 15 oz., dry muriate of lime 4 oz., dry muriate of 
magnesia 16 oz., iodide of potassium 2 dr., bromide of 
potassium 1 gr. Mix and keep dry. Put 5 or 6 oz. to a 
gallon of water. 

Balaruc Water. Muriate of soda 1 oz., muriate of lime 
1 oz., muriate of magnesia J oz., sulphate of soda 3 dr., 
bicarbonate of soda 2 dr., bromide of potassium 1 gr., water 
a gallon. Chiefly used for baths. 


Simple Sulphuretted Waters. Pass sulphuretted hydro- 
gen into cold Avater (previously deprived of air by boiling, 
and cooled in a close vessel), till it ceases to be absorbed. 

Aix-la-Chapelle Water. Bicarbonate of soda 12 gr., mu- 
riate of soda 25 gr,, muriate of lime 3 gr., sulphate of soda 
8 gr., simple sulphuretted water 2|- oz,, water slightly car- 
bonated 17J oz. 

Bareges Water. (Cauterets, Bagneres de Luchon, Bonnes 



St, Sauveur, may be made the same.) Crystallized liydro- 
siilphate of soda (see Sod?e Hydrosulplias, P. F.), crystal- 
lized carbonate of soda, and muriate of soda, of each 2J gr., 
water (freed from air) a pint. A stronger solution for 
adding to baths is thus made : Crystallized hydrosulphate 
of soda, crystallized carbonate of soda, and muriate of soda, 
of each 2 oz., water 10 oz. : dissolve. To be added to a 
common bath at the time of using. 

Naples Water. Crystallized carbonate of soda 15 gr., fluid 
magnesia 1 oz., simple sulphuretted water 2 oz., aerated 
■water 16 oz. Introduce the sulphuretted water into the 
bottle last. 

Harrogate Water. Muriate of soda 100 gr., muriate of 
lime 10 gr., muriate of magnesia 6 gr., bicarbonate of soda 
2 gr., water 18|^ oz. Dissolve and add simple sulphuretted 
water 1^ oz. 

Harrogate Salts. See Dr. Duffin's, above. 


Simple Chalybeate Water. Water freed from air by boil- 
ing 1 pint, sulphate of iron ^ gr. 

Aerated Chalybeate Water. Sulphate of iron 1 gr., 
carbonate of soda 4 gr., water deprived of air, and charged 
with carbonic acid gas, a pint. Dr. Pereira recommends 
10 gr. each of sulphate of iron and bicarbonate of soda 
to be taken in a bottle of ordinary soda-water. This is 
equivalent to 4 gr. of carbonate of iron. 

Brighton Chalybeate. Sulphate of iron, muriate of soda, 
muriate of lime, of each 2 gr., carbonate of soda 3 gr., 
carbonated water 1 pint. 

BusSANG, Forges, Provins, and other similar waters, may 
be imitated by dissolving from J to fds of a grain of 
sulphate of iron, 2 or 3 gr. of carbonate of soda, 1 gr. of 
sulphate of magnesia, and 1 of muriate of soda, in a pint 
af aerated water. 

Mont d'Or Water. Bicarbonate of soda 70 gr., sulphate of 
iron f gr., muriate of soda 12 gr., sulphate of soda ^ gr., 
muriate of lime 4 gr., muriate of magnesia 2 gr., aerated 
water a pint. 


Passy Water. Sulphate of iron 2 gr., muriate of soda 3 gr., 
carbonate of soda 4 gr., muriate of magnesia 2 gr., aerated 
water a pint. 

Pyrmont Water. Sulphate of magnesia 20 gr., muriate of 
magnesia 4 gr., muriate of soda 2 gr., bicarbonate of soda 
16 gr., sulphate of iron 2 gr., Carrara water a pint. 

The mineral waters prepared by Messrs. Sturve, of Brigh- 
ton, are stated to be the very exact imitations of the natural 


Mialhb's Aerated Chalybeate Water. Water a pint, 
citric acid 1 dr., citrate of iron 15 gr. ; dissolve, and add 75 
gr. of bicarbonate of soda. 

Trousseau's Martial Aerated Water. Potassio-tartrate 
of iron 10 grains, artificial Seltzer water a pint. 

Bouchardat's Gaseous Purgative. Phosphate of soda 1| 
oz., carbonated water a pint. 

Mialhe's Ioduretted Gaseous Water. Iodide of potassium 
15 gr., bicarbonate of soda 75 gr., water a pint ; dissolve 
and add sulphuric acid diluted with its weight of water 75 
gr. Cork immediately. 

Dupasquier's Gaseous Water of Iodide of Iron. Solution, 
of iodide of iron (containing j\ of dry iodide) 30 gr., syrnp 
of gum 2^ oz., aerated water 17f oz. 

[See also Magnesia, Carrara, and Lithia Waters, page 
206 ; Bewley's Chalybeate Water, page 171. Also Aqua 
Benzoata Aerata, and Aqua Magnesias Citratis, P. F.] 



The simple distilled waters (without spirit) used in perfumery 
are chiefly those of rose, elder, and orange flower, cinna- 
mon, &c. The points requisite to be attended to are, that 
the flowers be fresh, gathered after the sun has risen and 
the dew exhaled, and that sufiicient water be used to pre- 
vent the flowers being burned, but not much more than is 
sufiicient for this purpose. The quantities usually directed 
are— Roses 15 lb, water 40 ft) : distil 15 ft) for single, and 
the same water with 15 ft) of fresh roses for double rose- 

Orange-flowers 12 ft), water 36 ft) : distil 24 ft) for double 
orange-flower water; this with an equal quantity of distilled 
water forms the single. The flowers should not be put into 
the still till the water nearly boils. 

Elder-flower Water, Acacia-flower Water, and Bean- 
flower Water, are prepared in the same manner as rose- 

Cinnamon Water. A gallon should be distilled from 20 oz. 
of fine cinnamon (bruised) and 2 gallons of water. 

Strawberry Water. Bruised strawberries 4 ft), water a 
gallon ; macerate for 12 hours, and distil 6 pints. 

The waters prepared without distillation (by difi'using 
the essential oils through water, after mixing them with 
ehalk, magnesia, or silica, or dissolving them in spirit) 
are seldom so proper for perfumery purposes as those dis- 
tilled from the flowers, &c. Rose-water, made from the 
otto (8 drops of otto, previously mixed with a drachm of 
precipitated chalk, diff"used in a quart of distilled water, 
and afterwards distilled or simply filtered), is to most 
persons very agreeable ; but that distilled from the 
flowers should also be kept, as ■ it is by others greatly pre- 

Musz Water, Violet Water, Jessamine Water, and some 


others, are made by mixing the spirituous essences with dis- 
tilled or pure soft water. A usual proportion is 2 dr. to a 


The spirit employed in perfumery should be selected with great 
care ; it should be perfectly free from grain-oil and other 
impurities. It should be 60° over-proof, unless otherwise 

Simple Spirit of Lavender. Lavender-flower (free from 
stalks) 2 K), rectified spirit 8 pints, water 16 pints ; distil 8 

Smyth's Distilled Essence of Lavender. Essential oil of 
English lavender 4 oz., rectified spirit (60° over proof) 5 
pints, rose-water 1 pint : mix, and distil 5 pints for sale. 

Essence of Lavender (by mixture). Essential oil of lavender 
3|- oz., rectified spirit 2 quarts, rose-water J pint, tincture of 
orris ^ pint. 

Lavender Water. English oil of lavender 4 oz.„ spirit 3 
quarts, rose-water 1 pint : mix and filter. (A commoner 
and cheaper preparation may be made with the French 

Odoriferous Lavender Water. 1. Rectified spirit 5 gallons, 
essential oil of lavender 20 oz., oil of bergamot 5 oz., essence 
of ambergris ^ oz. Sometimes 4 oz. of orris-root are digested 
with the above. — Mr. Brande. 

2. Oil of lavender, oil of bergamot, of each 3 dr. ; otto 
of roses and oil of cloves, of each 6 drops ; musk 2 gr., 
true oil of rosemary 1 dr., honey 1 oz., benzoic acid 2 
scruples ; rectified spirit a pint, distilled water 3 oz. — Dr. 

3. Oil of lavender 2 oz., essence of ambergris 1 oz., eau 
de Cologne a pint, rectified spirit a quart. 

4. Oil of lavender 4 dr. ; essence of bergamot, essence of 
lemon or cedrat, and otto of roses, of each 20 minims ; 
essence of ambergris 1 dr., rectified spirit 3 pints, orange- 
flower water 4 oz., rose (or distilled) water 12 oz., burnt 
alum 20 gr. Agitate frequently, then let it stand in a cool 
place for some days before filtering. 

5. Oil of lavender 3 dr., oil of bergamot 20 drops, neroli 
6 drops, otto 6 to 12 drops, essence of cedrat 8 or 10 drops, 


essence of musk 20 drops, rectified spirit 28 fluid oz., dis- 
tilled (or orange-flower) water 4 oz. 

6. Eau de Lavande aux Millefleurs. Oil of lavender 4 
dr. ; essence of bergamot, essence of lemon, otto of roses, of 
each 12 drops ; essence of millefleurs 3 dr., essence of am- 
bergris 1 dr., rectified spirit a pint and a half. 

Note. — The oil of lavender in the above should be the 
finest English oil; that. which first comes over is said to be 
the most fragrant. It should be kept for 12 months before 
using, either alone or mixed with an equal quantity of alco- 
«■ hoi. Some makers prefer a mixture of old and new oil. The 
lavender water improves by age. 

Eau de Cologne — Cologne Water. 1. English oil of lav- 
ender, oil of bergamot, oil of lemon, oil of neroli, of each 1 
oz. ; oil of cinnamon J oz. ; spirit of rosemary, and spirit of 
balm {Eau des Cannes)^ of each 15 oz. ; highly rectified 
spirits 7J pints. Let them stand together for 14 days, then 
distil in a water-bath. — Dr. Granville. 

2. Oil of bergamot, citron, and lemon, of each 3 oz. ; oils 
of rosemary, neroli, and lavender, of each \^ oz. ; oil of cin- 
namon 6 dr., rectified spirit 24 pints ; compound spirit of 
balm [Eau des Oarmes, below) 3 pints, spirit of rosemary 2 
pints. Mix, and after standing a week, distil 24 pints. — 
French Pharmacopceia. 

3. Essential oils of bergamot, of lemon, of neroli, of 
orange-peel, and of rosemary, each 12 drops : cardamom 
seeds a dr. ; rectified spirit a pint. It improves by age. — 

4. Essence of bergamot 40 minims, essence of lemon 45 
minims, oil of rosemary 6, oil of orange 22, neroli 12 min- 
ims, highly rectified spirit 6 oz. 

5. Alcohol a pint, oil of bergamot, oil of orange-peel, true 
oil of rosemary, cardamom seed, of each a drachm ; orange- 
flower water a pint. Mix and distil a pint by water-bath. — 
Dr. A. T. Thomson. 

Eau des Carmes — Eau de Melisse. Fresh flowering balm 
24 oz.. ; yellow rind of lemon, cut fine, 4 oz., cinnamon, 
cloves, and nutmeg (bruised), of each 2 oz. ; coriander seed 
(bruised) 1 oz., dried angelica root 1 oz., rectified spirit a 
gallon. Macerate for 4 days,' and distil in a water-bath. 

Arquebusade Water. 1. Sago, angelica, wormwood, savory, 
sweet fennel, hyssop, balm, sweet basil, rue, thyme, mar- 
joram, rosemary, angelica seed, origanum, red calamint, 


creeping thyme, lavender . flowers, of each 10 oz. ; SAveet 
flagroot 5 oz., rectified spirit 2 gallons, water q. s. Distil 
3 gallons. 

2. (Simplified.) Balm, rosemary, thyme, calamus root, 
angelica seeds, lavender flowers, of each 4 oz. ; rectified 
spirit 3 pints, water q. s. Macerate for a day, and distil 4 

Queen OF Hungary's Water. Spirit of Rosemary. 1. Rose- 
mary tops 2 ft), rectified spirit 1 gallon, water q. s. Distil 
carefully 1 gallon. 

2. Spirit of rosemary (as No. 1) 4 pints, orange-flower 
water ^ pint, essence of neroli 4 drops. 

3. Simple spirit of rosemary 3 pints, simple spirit of 
lavender 1 pint, rose-water 8 oz. 

Eau d'Ange. Flowering tops of myrtle 16 oz., rectified 
spirit 1 gallon ; digest, and distil to dryness in a water-bath. 
Or dissolve ^ oz, essential oil of myrtle in 3 pints of rectified 
spirit. Mr. Gray gives under this name a water without 
spirit : Water 2 pints, benzoin 2 oz., storax 1 oz., cinnamon 
1 dr., cloves 2 dr., calamus 1 stick, coriander seeds 1 pinch ; 

Honey Water. Eau de Miel. 1. Rectified spirit 8 pints, 
oil of cloves, oil of lavender, oil of bergamot, of each ^ oz. ; 
musk 15 gr., yellow-sanders shavings 4 oz. ; digest for 8 
days, and add 2 pints each of orange-flower and rose waters. 

2. Oil of santal 20 drops, tincture of musk 2J oz., essence 
of bei"gamot 2\ oz., oil of cloves 5 dr., oil of lavender 5 dr., 
rose-water 2 pints, orange-flower water 2 pints, spirit of 
wine 1 gallon ; mix and filter. 

3. (With honey.) White honey 8 oz., corinader seed 8 
oz., fresh lemon-peel 1 oz., cloves f oz., nutmeg, benzoin, 
styrax calamita, of each 1 oz. ; rose and orange-flower 
water, of each 4 oz. ; rectified spirit 3 pints ; digest for a 
few days and filter. Some recipes add 3 dr. of-vanilla, and 
direct only ^ oz. of nutmeg, storax, and benzoin. 

4. Coriander seeds 7 ft), cloves 12 oz., storax 8 oz., nut- 
meg 8 oz., fresh lemon-peel 10 oz., calamus root 6 oz., recti- 
fied spirit 15 pints; macerate for a month, add Avater q. s. 
Distil 22 pints, and add to the distilled spirit .5 pints of 
orange-flower water, 24 drops otto of roses, 1 dr. of amber- 

tris, and 2 oz. of fine vanilla; macerate for a week, and 
Iter. The dry ingredient to be bruised or cut small. 


Lisbon Water. To rectified spirit, 1 gallon, add the essential 
oils of orange-p6el and lemon-peel, of each 3 oz., and of otto 
of rose J oz.— PiESSE. 

Eau de PoRTuaAL. To rectified spirit, 1 gallon, add the fol- 
lowing essential oils : of orange-peel 6 oz., of lemon-peel 1 
oz., of lemon-grass ^ oz., of bergamot 1 oz,, and of otto of 
rose I oz. — Piesse. 

Eau d'Elegance. Spirit of jessamine 2 ft), spirit of styrax 1 
ft), spirit of hyacinth 1 ft), spirit of star aniseed, 4 oz., tinc- 
ture of balsam of Tolu 4 oz., tincture of vanilla 2 oz. 

Eau de Maresciiale. Spirit of wine IJ pint, spirit of jessa- 
mine 1 oz., essence of bergamot ^ oz., essence of violets 1 oz. 

Eau Romaine. Spirit of jessamine 3 quarts, tincture of 
vanilla 1 quart, spirit of acacia flowers 1 quart, spirit of 
tuberose 1 pint, essence of ambergris 2 oz., tincture of ben- 
zoin 8 oz. 

Eau de Millefleurs. Rectified spirits 2 pints, balsam of 
Peru J oz., essence of bergamot J oz., oil of cloves ^ oz., 
essence of neroli |- dr., essence of musk 1 dr., orange-flower 
water 2 oz. 

Eau Spiritueuse d'Heliotrope. Vanilla 3 dr., double 
orange-flower water 6 oz., rectified spirit 1 quart ; macerate 
for 3 days, and distil in a water-bath. It may be colored 
with cochineal. But the Essence d'Heliotrope of some per- 
fumers appear by the color, not to have been distilled. 

Eau d'Ispahan. Essential oil of bitter orange-peel 4 oz., oil 
of rosemary 3 dr., oil of mint 1 dr., oil of cloves 7 scruples, 
neroli 7 scruples, spirit of wine 14 pints. It is used for the 
same purposes as Eau de Cologne. 

Eau sans Pareille. Essential oil of lemon J oz., of berga- 
mot 2J dr., of cedrat |- oz., rectified spirit 6 pints, spirit of 
rosemary 8 oz. ; mix. Some authorities state that it is 
improved by distillation. 

Eau de Bouquet de Flore. 1. Honey-water 2 oz., tincture 
of cloves 1 oz., tincture of calamus, of lavender, and of long 
cyperus, each^ oz. ; eau sans pareille 4 oz. ; spirit of jessa- 
mine 9 dr., tincture of orris 1 oz., spirituous essence of 
neroli 20 drops. 

2. Essence of violets J oz., spirit of rosemary ^ oz.. 


essence of lemon 1 dr., rectified spirit 24 oz., rose-water 8 

3. Spirit of rosemary 8 oz., rectified spirit 8 oz., lavender 
water 2 oz., oil of neroli 5 drops, cloves 1 dr., orris root 2 
dr., rose-water 2 oz. ; digest for a few days, and filter. 

Esprit de Bouquet. English oil of lavender, oil of cloves, 
and of bergamot^ of each 2 dr. ; otto of rose and oil of cinna- 
mon, each 20 drops ; essence of musk 1 dr., rectified spirit 1 
pint; mix. 

Eau de Rosieres. Spirit of roses 4 pints, spirit of jessamine 
1 pint, spirit of orange-flowers 1 pint, spirit of cucumber 2J 
pints, spirit of celery seed 2J pints, spirit of angelica root 
2f pints, tincture of benzoin (simple) f of a pint, balsam of 
Mecca a few drops. 

Eau d'Ambre Royale. Rectified spirit 2 fib, tincture of 
musk seed 1 fib, essence of ambergris 1 oz., tincture of musk 
1 oz., reduced with a proper proportion of orange-flower 

Esprit de Suave. Spirit of jessamine IJ pint, spirit of 
acacia flowers 1^ pint, spirit of wine 12 oz., spirit of tube- 
rose 8 oz., oil of cloves IJ dr., oil of neroli 30 drops, es- 
sence of bergamot 1| dr., tincture of musk 1 oz., rosewater 
12 oz. 

Parfum des Rois. Spirit of wine 2 gallons, styrax 6 oz., 
benzoin 16 oz., aloes wood 8 oz., spirit of rose 2 pints, 
spirit of orange-flowers 2 pints, essence (tincture) of am- 
bergris 8 oz., tincture of musk 8 oz., tincture of vanilla 
16 oz. 

Odor Delectabilis. Rose-water, orange-flower water, each 
4 oz. ; oil of lavender, oil of cloves, each 1 dr. ; oil of ber- 
gamot 2 dr., musk 2 gr , rectified spirit 1 pint. 

New Victoria Perfume. Cloves, bruised, 2 scruples ; vanilla, 
cut small, 1 dr. ; oil of cedrat 4 drops, oil of santal 1 dr., 
cinnamon 12 gr., oil of verbena 8 drops, otto of roses 8 drops, 
oil of neroli 20 drops, oil of lavender 1 dr., ambergris 16 gr., 
tincture of musk 1 dr., rectified spirit 16 fluid oz. ; digest 
for a few days, and filter. Or the whole, except the musk 
and ambergris, may be distilled in a water-bath, and these 
added to the distilled spirit. 

Another similar perfume is : Vanilla J dr., yellow sanders 


6 dr., cloves No. 16, neroli 3 drops, oil of lavender 6 drops, 
rectified spirit 4 oz. ; digest for 3 days, and add 4 oz. of 
orange-flower water, water q. s. ; distil 6 oz., add essence of 
musk 1 dr. 

Jockey Club Bouquet. Piesse. Extract of orris root 2 
pints, esprit de rose triple 1 pint, esprit de pommade de rose 
1 pint, extract of pommade of cassia, and tuberose, |- pint 
each ; extract of ambergris J pint, otto of bergamot ^ oz. 

Esprit de Rose. 1. Macerate the fresh and picked flowers 
of the most fragrant varieties of the rose with half their 

,. " weight of rectified spirit, and distil in a water-bath to dry- 

2. Dissolve from 20 to 30 drops of otto in 1 pint of 
rectified spirit. A stronger solution, 6 or 8 drops of otto 
to 1 oz. of alcohol, forms essence of roses, or esjjrit de rose 

3. It is also made by agitating and digesting the spirit 
with the perfumed oil or pomade of roses. (See Extracts 

Esprit de Jasmin. Eau de Jasmin. It is prepared by 
digesting and agitating pure spirit with oil or pomade of 
jessamine made with the flowers. (See Extracts, below.) 
Spirit of jonquil, tuberose, violet, &c., may be obtained by 
the same process. 

Esprit de Violette. Eau de Violette. Macerate 5 oz. of 
fine orris root in 1 quart of rectified spirit for some days, 
and filter. It may also be obtained by the method just 
mentioned, or by mixing the product of both processes. 

Eau Odorante de Jasmin. Compound spirit of jessamine, for 
the handkerchief. Spirit of jessamine 1 pint, rectified spirit 
1 pint, essence of ambergris 1 dr., simple tincture of benzoin 
1 dr. 

Spirit of Orange-Flowers, Spirit of Elder-Flowers, and 
Spirit of Acacia-Flowers. Fresh flowers 1 lb, rectified 
spirit 4 ft), or pints, water 2 ft) ; distil 4 ft, or pints. 

Spirit of Orange-peel, of Lemon-peel, of Citron, and of 
Bergamot. Fresh peel 1 ft, rectified spirit 6 ft ; macerate 
for 2 days, and distil in a water-bath to dryness. Or, 1 oz. 
of the essential oil to 2 pints of spirits. 

Spirit of Cinnamon, of Cloves, of Nutmeg, and of Calamus 


Root. Macerate 1 ft) of the bruised drug with 8 ft), or a 
gallon of rectified spirit, and distil as the last. 

Spirit of Cucumbers. Cucumbers grated 8 &, rectified 
spirit 1 ft) ; distil 2 ft). 

Spirit of Rosewood. Rosewood shavings 1 ft), spirit 6 ft), 
water 2 ft) ; distil 6 ft». It is also made by adding the essen- 
tial oil of rhodium to spirit. 

Spirit of Angelica. Dried angelica root 1 ft), rectified 
spirit a gallon. Macerate, and distil by water-bath to 

Spirit of Balsam of Peru. Balsam 3 parts, spirit 15 parts, 
carbonate of potash 1 part ; macerate for 3 days, and distil 
by water-bath. 

Spirit of Strawberries, and of Raspberries. Fresh fruit 
3 ft), rectified spirit 1 ft) ; macerate 24 hours, and distil 2 ft). 

The following tinctures are chiefly used in the compound 
perfumes : 

Tincture of Balsam of Peru, and of Tolu. Digest 1 oz. 
of the balsam with 8 of the rectified spirit for some days, 
shaking it occasionally, then filter. Tincture of benzoin 
in the same manner. 

Tincture of Angelica. One part of the dried root to 8 of 
rectified spirit ; as the last. 

Tincture (common spirituous essence) of Lemon, Citron, 
Orange, and Bergamot. An ounce of the fresh peel to J 
pint of spirit, as above. 

Tincture of Musk Seed. Essence d' Amhrette. Digest 16 
oz. of bruised musk seed with 3 pints of rectified spirit for a 
month, and filter. 

Tincture of Musk. China musk 2 dr., rectified spirit 16 oz. 
For more compound tinctures of musk, see Essence of 
Musk, below. 

Tincture or Essence of Ambergris. Guibourt directs 1 
dr. of ambergris to be digested with a gentle heat in 3 oz. of 
rectified spirit. Another form is: Ambergris 1 dr., subcar- 
bonate of potash 1 dr., spirit of roses 4 oz., (or rectified 
spirit 4 oz., otto 6 drops). Some recipes direct a weaker 
tincture : 24 gr. of ambergris to 8 oz. of spirits. For other 
formulae, see Essence, below. 


Tincture of Civet, Bruise | oz. of civet, ^ oz. of amber- 
gris, and the same of sugar candy, and macerate in a quart 
of rectified spirit for 6 weeks, in a warm place, then 

Tincture of Essence of Vanilla. Vanilla cut very small 2 
oz., rectified spirit a pint; infuse for 2 or 3. weeks. This is 
sometimes distilled, forming spirit of vanilla. 

Tincture of Rhodium. Rosewood 1 ft), rectified spirit 3 or 
4 pints ; macerate for 3 or 4 weeks, and filter. 

Essence (or Tincture) of Vetiver. Take 2 ib of the root 
>■ of vittie vayr cut small, and moisten it with a little water; 
let it macerate for 24 hours, then beat it in a marble mortar. 
Macerate it in sufiicient spirit to cover it for 8 or 10 days, 
and strain with pressure : filter through paper, and in a 
fortnight repeat the filtration. Sometimes the root is 
moistened with diluted sulphuric acid, Avhich, after macera- 
tion, is neutralized by adding a sufficient quantity of chalk, 
and the whole digested with spirit. The tincture, when 
strained off, is distilled, and forms (with the addition 
of essence of balm and of roses) Essence de Vetiver 

Essence of Patchouli. Dried patchouli (puchu pat) 1 oz., 
rectified spirit a pint. It is generally combined with other 

Extracts (extraits) are spirituous solutions of the odorous 
principle of flowers, obtained, indirectly, by agitating and 
digesting oils and pomatums which have been perfumed 
by the flowers (see Huiles Antiques, under Hair Cos- 
metics) with pure spirit. This is repeated with fresh oil 
until the spirit is sufficiently perfumed. When the same oil 
or pomade is treated with fresh spirit, inferior extracts, 
numbered 2, 3, &c., are obtained. These preparations are 
chiefly made in France. 

Extracts (Extraits, or Esprits) of Jessamine, Violets, 
Lily of the Valley, are prepared by the process just 

Extrait de Bouquet. Spirit (extrait) of jessamine 2 quarts, 
extract of violets 2 quarts, spirit of acacia-flowers, of rose, 
and of orange-flowers, each a quart, spirit of carnations 
a quart, flowers of benzoin ^ oz., essence of ambergris 
8 oz. 


ExTRAiT DE Mareschale, Essence of millefleurs 1|- oz., 

essence of jessamine 1 oz., essence of musk J oz., essence of 

. ambergris |- oz., essence of cedrat 20 drops, essence of violets 

1 oz., sweet spirits of nitre 50 drops, true oil of rosemary 20 
drops, rectified spirit 6 oz., oil of neroli 48 drops. Set aside 
for some time. 

Compound Essences. Some of these contain a preparation of 
the substance whose name they bear, while others are ficti- 
tious or imitative, being made up of a variety of other essences 
and volatile oils. Several of the formulae are those of M. 


Essence oe Ambergris. This name is applied both to the 
simple and more compound tinctures of ambergris. See 
Tincture of Ambergris, above. Other formulae may here 
be given. . 

1. Ambergris 4 oz., musk 2 oz., tincture of musk seed 7 
pints. Digest with a gentle heat. 

2. Ambergris 1 dr., musk ^ dr., oil of cinnamon 18 drops, 
oil of rhodium 12 drops, rectified spirit 8 oz., spirit of roses 
4 oz., carbonate of potash 1^ dr. ; digest in a warm place for 
a few days, and strain. See also Essence Royale. 

Essence of Cedrat. Dissolve 2J oz. of oil of cedrat in 1 gal- 
lon of spirit, and add bergamot J oz. 

Essence of Clove Pink. Esprit de rose J pint, de fleur 
d'orange and de fleur de cassie, each ^ pint, esprit de vanille 

2 oz., oil of cloves 10 drops. 

Cologne Essence. Oil of bergamot 2 dr., essence of lemon J 
dr., essence of cedrat J dr., true oil of rosemary 15 drops, 
rectified spirit (or spirit of balm) IJ oz. 

Essence of Heliotrope. Spirituous extract of vanilla J pint, 
of Erench rose pomatum ^ pint, of orange-flower pomatum 2 
oz., of ambergris 1 oz. ; add 5 drops of the essential oil of 

Essence of Honeysuckle. Spirituous extract of rose poma- 
tum 1 pint, of violet 1 pint, of tuberose 1 pint ; extracts of 
vanilla and Tolu, of each 1 pint ; oil of neroli 10 drops, 
essential oil of almonds 5 drops. 

Essence of Hovenia. Rectified spirit 1 quart, rose water ^ 
pint, essential oil of lemons J oz., otto of roses 1 dr., oil of 
cloves ^ dr., oil of neroli 10 drops. 


Essence of Jonquil. Spirituous extract of jasmine pomade 1 
pint, of tuberose 1 pint, of orange-flower ^ pint : add extract 
of vanilla 2 oz. 

Essence of Lily of the Valley. Mix the following extracts : 
of tuberose |- pint, of jasmin 2 oz., of orange-flower 2 oz., 
of vanilla 3 oz., of cassia ^ pint, of rose-water ^ pint : add 
3 drops of hydrocyanic acid. Keep together for a month, 
then bottle. 

Essence of Magnolia. ' Spirituous extract of orange-flower 
pomatum 1 pint, of rose pomatum 2 pints, of tuberose poma- 

. " tum J pint, of violet pomatum J pint ; essential oil of citron 
2 dr., essential oil of almonds 10 drops. 

Essence of Mignonette. Digest 1 ib pomade de r^z^da in 
rectified spirit 1 pint for 14 days ; filter off", and add 1 oz. of 
extrait d'ambre. 

Essence of Moss Rose. Spirituous extract of French rose 
pomatum 1 quart, esprit de rose triple 1 pint, extract of 
orange-flower pomatum 1 pint, of ambergris ^ pint, and of 
musk 4 oz. 

Essence of Myrtle. Take the following extracts : of vanilla 
^ pint, of roses 1 pint, of orange-flower ^ pint, of tuberose 
^ pint, of jasmin 2 oz. Mix, and allow to stand for a fort- 

Essence of Musk. A tincture of musk, of various strength. 
The formulae given above (tincture of musk) is that of the 
Dublin Pharmacopoeia, 1826. Guibourt directs 1 part of 
musk to 12 of proof spirit. Other authorities direct a smaller 
quantity of musk. A French work gives the following : 
Musk in the bag cut small 6 oz., civet 1 oz., tincture of musk 
seed 7 pints ; digest in the sun, or in a warm place for 2 

Essence of Patchouli. Oil of patchouli 1^ oz., otto of roses 
J oz., rectified spirit 1 gallon. 

Essence of Rondeletia. Essence of bergamot, essence of 
lemon, oil of cloves, each 1 dr., otto of roses 6 drops, recti- 
fied spirit 1 pint. 

Essence Royale. Ambergris 1 dr., civet 15 gr., musk 30 gr,, 
carbonate of potash 20 gr. ; triturate together, and add oil 
of cinnamon 10 drops, oil of rhodium, and of neroli, 6 drops, 
otto of roses 6 drops, rectified spirit ^ pint ; digest and filter. 


Essence of Sweet Brier. Spirituous extracts of French 
rose pomatum 1 pint, of cassia and orange-flowers, each ^ 
pint, espirit de rose ^ pint, with oils of neroli and lemon- 
grass, of each ^ dr. 

Essence of Sweet Pea. Essences of tuberose", orange- 
flower, and rose-pomatum, each J pint, with essence of 
vanilla 1 oz. 

Essence of Verbena. Essential oil of verbena 2 dr., rectified 
spirit 4 oz., essence of ambergris ^ dr., orange-flower water 
^ oz. ; mix. Another form is : Oil of verbena ^ oz., 
essence of vanilla 40 drops, rectified spirit 4 oz. ; mix and 

Essence of White Lilac. Spirituous extract of tuberose 
pomade 1 pint, of orange-flower pomade ^ pint ; add essen- 
tial oil of almonds 3 drops, and extract of civet J oz. 

Frangipanni Bouquet. Essence of vetiver 3 oz., ol. neroli 
15 minims, oil of sandal-Avood J dr., otto of rose 40 minims, 
essence of musk 3 dr., esprit de violette 3 oz., essence of 
am^bergris 6 dr., rectified spirit to make up 20 oz. — Piesse. 

Essences for Scenting Pomatums. Millejieur : Oil of lemon 
3 oz., essence of ambergris 4 oz., oil of cloves 2 oz., oil of 
lavender 2 oz. — Cowslip : Essence of bergamot 16 oz., 
essence of lemon 8 oz., oil of cloves 4 oz., oil of orange-peel 
2 oz., oil of jessamine 2 dr., eau de bouquet 2 oz., oil of 
bitter almonds 16 drops. — For general use : Essence of 
bergamot 16 oz., essence of lemon 8 oz., true oil of origanum 
and oil of cloves, each 2 oz., oil of orange-peel IJ oz. 

Mistura Odorata. Rectified spirit 48 oz., tincture of ben- 
zoin 4 oz., tincture of vanilla ^ oz., tincture of musk J oz., 
balsam of Peru J oz., oil of cloves, of mace, and of cinna- 
mon, each J oz., oil of bergamot 1 oz., oil of cedrat 2 oz. — 


Scent for Snuff. Oil of lavender 2 dr., essence of lemon 4 
dr., essence of bergamot 1 oz. : mix. (1 dr. with 8 oz. of 
fine Scotch snufi" constitutes Queen's Snufi".) 

[The following Essences, Spirits, and Waters are given as 
specimens .of some of the cheaper perfumes as made in 


■ Essences (Spirituous). 

Essence (Spirituous) of Neroli. Spirit of wine J pint, orange- 
peel cut small 3 oz., orris-root in powder 1 dr., musk 2 gr. ; 
let it stand in a warm place for 3 days, and filter. 

Essence of Lemon. Spirit of wine ^ pint, fresh lemon-peel 4 
oz. ; as above. 

Essence of Bergamot, Spirit of wine ^ pint, bergamot-peel 4 
oz. ; as above. 

Essence of Violets. Spirit of wine ^ pint, orris-root 1 oz. 

Essence of Cedrat. Essence of bergamot (as above) 1 oz., 
essence of neroli 2 dr. 

Essence of Jessamine. Essence of violets 1 oz., essence of 
cedrat 2 dr. 

Essence of Mush. Spirit of wine J pint, musk 16 gr. 

Essence of Ambergris. Spirit of wine ^ pint, ambergris 
24 gr. 

Essence of Cloves. Spirit of wine |- pint, bruised cloves 1 
oz. Other essences in the same manner. 

Spirit of Rose. Spirit of wine ^ pint, otto 6 drops. 

Spirit of Jessamine. Spirit of wine J pint, essence of jes- 
samine (as above) a drachm. 

Spirit of Orange. Spirit of wine, essence of orange, or neroli, 
a drachm. 

Spirit of Lavender. Spirit of wine ^ pint, essential oil of 
lavender a drachm. 

Spirit of Musk. Spirit of wine J pint, essence of musk a 

Others in a similar manner. 

Simple Waters. 

Rose Water. Distilled or rain water J pint, spirit of roses 
a drachm. 


Jessamine Water, Mush Water, Violet, Orange-jloiver Water, 
&c., by adding a dr., of the above spirits to J pint of 


Ammoniated Cologne Water. A fragrant and reviving sub- 
stitute for Spirits of Sal Volatile. Muriate of ammonia 5 
dr., subcarbonate of potash 8 dr., eau de Cologne 12 oz., 
essential oil of cedrat and of bergamot, of each 15 drops 
(dissolved in an oz. of rectified spirit), orange-flower water 
8 oz. ; mix, and carefully distil 15 or 16 oz. 

Eau de Luce. Mastic 2 dr., rectified spirit 9 dr. ; dissolve 
and add to the clear tincture 30 drops of oil of lavender, 10 
drops of bergamot, and a pint of strong water of ammonia. 
This is more agreeable than the compound of the Pharma- 
copoeia, which, however, should always be used when pre- 
scribed medicinally. 

Essence for Smelling Salts. 1. English oil of lavender and 
essence of bergamot, of each a dr., oil of orange-peel, or of 
cedrat, 8 drops, oil of cinnamon 4 drops, oil of neroli 2 
drops, alcohol, and strongest water of ammonia, of each 2 
oz. (or 4 oz. of strong ammoniated alcohol). 

2. Ammoniated alcohol 12 fluid oz. English oil of laven- 
der, essence of bergamot and essence of lemon, of each a dr., 
cloves ^ dr., camphor ^ oz., macerate for a week, and filter. 

■ —Mr. Maggs. 

3. Essence of ambergris and musk 4 dr., otto of rose 
20 drops, oil of lavender 1 dr., ammoniated alcohol 10 oz. ; 
mix, and add strongest liquor ammonise 10 oz. — Pharivt.- 

Smelling Salts. Sesquicarbonate of ammonia 40 oz., 
broken into small pieces not any larger than a filbert, put 
into an air-tight J gallon jar ; pour over it 20 oz. strong 
solution of ammonia (sp. gr. .880) previously perfumed 
according to taste, and immediately fix on lid of jar, taking 
care that it is properly secured. Keep in a cool place, 
opening and stirring with a stifi" spatula every other day 
for a week ; allow it now to remain for 2 or 3 weeks, at the 
end of which time it will have become hard. — Mr. All- 

Godfrey's Smelling Salts. Dr. Paris says it is prepared 
by resubliming volatile salts with subcarbonate of potash and 




a little spirit of wine. It is usually scented with an alco- 
holic solution of essential oils. 


Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar. 1. Strong acetic acid 16 oz., 
Camphor 1 oz. ; when dissolved, add 1 oz. each of essential 
oils of cloves, lavender, and lemon. This is said to resemble 
, Henry's. 

2. Glacial acetic acid 8 oz., true oil of rosemary 20 gr., 
of bergamot 15 gr., of lavender 9 gr., of cloves 24 gr., 
-neroli 4 gr., cinnamon 20; dissolve the oils in 2 dr. of 
' rectified spirit. For another formula, see Pocket For- 

Aromatic Vinegars are made in France by infusing various 
flowers, &c., in distilled or finest wine vinegars, with or with- 
out the addition of spirit. Others are made by distillation. 
As they are seldom required in this country, a few examples 
will suffice. 

Rose A^inegar. Red roses, picked and dried, ^ ft), best vine- 
gar 8 ft) ; macerate for a fortnight, with occasional stirring, 
and strain ; then filter. 

Lavender Vinegar. Fresh lavender-flowers 1 ft), vinegar 
12 ft). Macerate as above. It is sometimes distilled, draw- 
ing off 8 ft). 

Distilled Rose Vinegar. Pale roses, dried, 2 ft), distilled 
vinegar 8 ft). Distil three-fourths oj sand-bath, and add 2 
ft) of spirit of roses. It is occasionally colored with cochi- 
neal, and used as a cosmetic. 

Orange-flower Vinegar. Fresh orange-flowers IJ ft), dis- 
tilled vinegar 8 ft), spirit of orange-flowers 1 ft). Macerate 
for 12 days, strain and filter. 

ViNAiGRE Virginal. Benzoin in powder 2 oz., rectified 
spirit 8 oz., white vinegar 2 ft. Digest the benzoin in the 
spirit for 6 days, strain, and add the vinegar to the resi- 
due; macerate for 6 days, decant and add to it the tincture. 
The next day filter. It is chiefly used as a cosmetic. 

ViNAiGRE DE COLOGNE. To each pint of eau de Cologne add 
an ounce of strong acetic acid. 

ViNAiGRE DE JouvENCE. Spirit of cucumbcr 4 oz., spirit of 
storax 2 ft, strong vinegar 8 ft). 


ViNAiGRE DE Flore. Equal parts of rose vinegar, vinaigre 
virginal, and orange-flower vinegar. 

YiNAiGRE DE QUATRE VoLEURS. Thieves' vinegar. Dried 
tops of large and small (pontic) wormwood, rosemary, sage, 
mint, rue, lavender-flowers, of each 2 oz.; calamus root, 
cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, garlic, of each ^ oz.; camphor 
^ oz., concentrated acetic acid 2 oz., strong vinegar 8 ft). 
Macerate the herhs, &c., in the vinegar for a fortnight, 
strain, press, and add the camphor dissolved in the acetic 


Pot Pourri. 1. Gather in the season the petals of the most 
fragrant kinds of roses (with which other flowers may be 
mixed, at pleasure, in small proportion) ; spread them out 
to dry in the sun, or in a warm room, sprinkle a little salt 
on them, and put them into a jar, in which they are to be 
kept covered up till wanted for use. Take of these rose 
leaves 4 oz., dried lavender flowers 8 oz., vanilla, cloves, 
storax, and benzoin, all bruised, of each 1 dr., ambergris 
20 gr., otto of roses 20 drops ; mix. 

2. Calamus root, yellow sanders, of each 1 oz., vanilla 

1 dr., musk 8 gr., ambergris 8 gr., cascarilla 1 oz., orris 
root 3 oz., cinnamon 1 oz., lavender flowers 1 oz., storax 

2 dr., benzoin 2 dr., cloves 2 dr., coriander seed 1 oz., nut- 
megs 2 dr., otto of roses 20 drops, oil of neroli 10 drops. 
The dry ingredients to be coarsely bruised ; mix. 

3. French. Take the petals of the pale and red roses, 
pinks, violets, moss rose, orange-flower, lily of the valley, 
acacia flowers, clove-gilliflowers, mignonette, heliotrope, jon- 
quils ; with a small proportion of the flowers of myrtle, balm, 
rosemary, and thyme ; spread them out for some days, and 
as they become dry, put them into a jar with alternate layers 
of dry salt, mixed with orris powder, till the vessel is full. 
Close it for a month, then stir the whole up, and moisten it 
with rose-water. 

4. Orris root 16 oz., dried acacia flowers 8 oz., dried 
bergamot-peel 2 oz., musk seed ^ oz., cloves J oz. ; pound 
them together. 

5. Dry rose leaves quickly on a wicker tray, in a warm 
place. To a pint of the petals add powdered orris 2 oz., 


pimento J oz., cascarilla J oz., musk 2 gr., otto of roses 2 
drops, bruised cloves ^ oz. 

Sachets or Scent Bags. The pot pourri No. 2 or 4 may be 
put into bags, alone, or witli any perfume to increase the 
strength. Or coarsely powdered patchouli (an herb of the 
Pogostemon genus) may be used, with any other perfume. 
Or the bags may be filled Avith carded cotton mixed with any 

' of the following scented powders : 

Scented Po'wders, Balls, &c. 

Rose. Powdered starch 3 oz., carmine to color, otto of roses 
8 drops, orris powder 1 oz. 

Violet. Orris powder 4 oz., essence of bergamot 20 drops, 
essence of ambergris 20 drops. 

Poudre de Clujpre. Oak-moss is macerated in clean water for 
a day or two, and strongly pressed in a cloth ; it is then 
moistened with rose-water mixed with a third of orange- 
flower water for two days, pressed, and pulverized. It 
serves as a basis for other perfumes, the power of which it 
is said to increase. 

Poudre a la llousseline. Orris 16 oz., coriander seed 8 oz., 
musk seed 2 oz., cirnamon, cloves, and sandal-wood, each 
1 oz., star aniseed ^ oz., mace, ginger, and violet ebony, 
of each 2 oz. ; beat them to a powder, and pass through a 

Poudre a VCEillet. Red roses 48 oz., orris 48 oz., cloves 6 
oz., bergamot-peel 20 oz., musk seed 24 oz., cinnamon 6 oz., 
long cyperus 6 oz., pale roses 26 oz., dried acacia flowers, 
orange floAvers, and clove stalks, of each 8 oz. 

Poudre a la Mareschale. Oak-moss in powder 2 ft), plain 
starch powder 1 ft), cloves 1 oz., calamus 2 oz., cyperus 2 
oz., rotten oak-wood powder 2 oz. ; mix. — Gray. 

Portugal. Dried orange-peel 1 oz., dried bergamot-peel ^ oz., 
cloves 4 oz., storax 1 dr., ambergris 8 gr., benzoin a drachm, 
musk seed a scruple, musk 4 gr. 

Scented Balls, Medallions, &c. Pastilles de Toilette odo- 
rantes. These consist of perfumed powders made into a 
paste, and moulded to any desired form before drying. The 
above scent powders beaten up with mucilage of tragacanth 
will answer the purpose ; or the following : 

1. Beat the fresh petals of red roses in an iron mortar to 
a smooth paste, with a few drops of essence of ambergris, or 


other suitable perfume. It becomes sufficiently smooth to 
take a polish. 

2. Powdered orris, oak-moss, and poudre de mousseline, 
of each 1 oz. ; lamp-black, or other color, q. s. Form into 
a stiff paste, with a jelly made of 6 dr. of isinglass, 2 of 
tragacanth, and boiling water q. s. Make it into beads by 
means of a pill-machine, or into any ornamental form by 

3. Jessamine flowers 1 oz., powdered gum tragacanth J oz., 
vermilion 2 oz. 

4. Yellow Sanders, cyperus, cloves, balsam of Peru, of 
each 2 dr., benzoin and storax, of each ^ oz,, musk and 
civet, of each 10 gr., oil of cinnamon 5 drops, oil of rhodium 
15 drops, essence of jessamine 1 dr., neroli 20 drops, ivory- 
black IJ oz., Paris plaster 2 oz., mucilage of tragacanth, 
made with rose-water, q. s. As the last. 

Pastils for Burning. 1. Yellow sanders 3 oz., storax 4 oz., 
benzoin 3 oz., olibanum 6 oz., cascarilla 6 oz., ambergris 
1 dr., Peruvian balsam 2 dr., myrrh 1^ oz., nitre 1^ oz., 
oil of cinnamon 20 drops, oil of cloves ^ dr., otto 30 to 
60 drops, oil of lavender IJ dr., balsam of Tolu 1| oz., 
camphor J oz., strong acetic acid 2 oz., charcoal 3 ft ; mix 
s. a., and beat into a paste with mucilage of tragacanth, and 
form into conical pastils. A second and third quality 
may be made by using, respectively, 4 and 5 ft) instead of 
3 ft of charcoal.^ These are highly approved, but rather 

2. [Olous fumans of the French Codex.) Benzoin 2 oz., 
balsam of Tolu ^ oz., labdanum 1 dr., yellow sanders J oz., 
light charcoal 6 oz., nitre \ oz., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. 
Ri'duce the substance to powder, and form into a paste 
with the mucilage, and divide into small cones with a trijDod 

3. Powdered cascarilla 8 oz., benzoin 4 oz., yellow san- 
ders 2 oz., storax calamita 2 oz., olibanum 2 oz., charcoal 
3 ft, nitre 1^ oz., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. 

4. Benzoin 1 oz., cascarilla 1 oz., myrrh 8 scruples, 
oil of nutmeg 4 scruples, oil of cloves 4 scruples, nitre 
1^ oz., charcoal 6 oz., mucilage of tragacanth q. s. — Dr. Paris. 

Incense. 1. Storax 2^ oz., benzoin 12 oz., musk 15 grains, 
burnt sugar J oz., frankincense 2|- oz., gum tragacanth 
IJ oz., rose-water sufficient to form a mass ; to be divided 
into small tablets. — Mr. Astley. 


2. Powdered cascarilla 2 oz., mjrrli, storax, benzoin, 
thus, Burgundy pitch, each 1 oz. ; mix. — Mr. Atkins 
(Ph. Journal). 

Mouth Pastils. Dry compounds for perfuming or correcting 
the breath. 

Qachou Aromatise. The basis of these compounds, as the 
name implies, was originally catechu, with which various 

' odoriferous substances were combined. The catechu, how- 
ever, is now often omitted. The following are some of the 
most approved forms : 

1. Extract of liquorice 3 oz., oil of cloves IJ dr., oil of 
cinnamon 15 drops; mix, and divide into one-grain pills, 
and silver them. 

2. (M. Chevallier's.) Chocolate powder and ground 
coffee, of each 1|- oz., prepared charcoal 1 oz., sugar 1 oz., 
vanilla (pulverized with the sugar) 1 oz., mucilage q. s. 
Make into lozenges of any form, of which 6 to 8 may be 
used daily to disinfect the breath. 

3. Cacliou de Bologne. Bologna Catechu. Extract of 
liquorice 3 oz., water 3 oz., dissolve by heat in a water- 
bath, and add catechu 1 oz., gum arable J oz., evaporate 
to the consistence of an extract, and add (in powder) ^ dr. 
each of mastic, cascarilla, charcoal, and orris : remove from 
the fire, and add oil of peppermint \ dr., essence of amber- 
gris and essence of musk each 5 drops ; roll it flat on an 
oiled marble slab, and out it into very small lozenges. (Or 
it may be rolled into small pills, and silvered. They are 
chiefly used by smokers.) 

4. Catechu 7 dr., orris powder 40 gr., sugar 3 oz., oil 
of rosemary (or of peppermint, cloves, or cinnamon) 4 drops, 
or q. s. Proceed as for the last. 

5. Cacliou Aromatise. Extract of liquorice and water, 
of each 3J oz. ; dissolve in a water-bath, and add Bengal 
catechu in powder, 462 grains, and gum arable in powder 
231 grains ; evaporate to an extract, and then incorporate 
the following substances, first reduced to a fine powder : 
Mastic, cascarilla, charcoal, and orris root, of each 30 
grains ; melt the mass to a proper consistence, remove 
it from the fire, and then add English oil of peppermint 
30 drops, tinctures of ambergris and musk, of each 5 drops ; 
pour it now on an oiled slab, and spread it out, by means 
of a roller, to the thickness of a sixpenny piece. When 
cool, apply some folds of blotting-paper to absorb any 

PASTILS. ^ 231 

adherent oil, moisten the surfaces with water, and cover it 
with sheets of silver leaf. Allow it to dry, and finally divide 
into thin strips, and these again into small pieces, about the 
size of a fenugreek seed. — (Journal de Pharmacie.) 

Pastils or Lozenges, with chlorine, for disinfecting the 
breath. 1. Sugar flavored with vanilla 1 oz., powdered 
tragacanth 20 gr., liquid chloride of soda q. s., any essential 
oil 2 drops. Form a paste, and divide into lozenges of 15 
gr. each. 

2. Dry chloride of lime 2 dr., sugar 8 oz., starch 1 oz., 
gum tragacanth 1 dr., carmine 2 gr. Form into small 



Aqua Cosmetica. Cosmetic Lotion. 1. Emulsion of bit- 
.ter almonds 3 oz., rose and orange-flower water, of each 
- 4 oz., borax 1 dr., tincture of benzoin 2 dr. ; mix. — Dr. 

2. EJder-flower water a pint, borax ^ oz., eau de Cologne 
1 oz. ; mix. 

Kalydor. The following is said to resemble Kalydor and 
Gowland's lotion : Bitter almonds blanched 1 oz., corrosive 
sublimate 8 gr., rose-water 16 oz. 

I^ILK OF Roses. 1. Sweet almonds 5 oz., bitter almonds 1 
oz., rose-water 2J pints, white curd soap J oz., oil of 
almonds ^ oz., spermaceti 2 oz., white wax ^ oz., English 
oil of lavender 20 drops, otto of roses 20 drops, rectified 
spirit a pint. Blanch the almonds, and beat them with the 
soap and a little of the rose-water. Melt together the oil 
of almonds, spermaceti, and Avhite wax, and mix with the 
former into a cream, and strain it through fine muslin. 
Then add gradually the remaining rose-water, and lastly the 
spirit, with the essential oils dissolved therein. 

2. A common kind is made by mixing 1 oz. of fine 
olive oil with 10 drops of oil of tartar, and a pint of rose- 

3. Bitter almonds 6 dr., sweet almonds 12 dr., blanch, 
dry, and beat up with 1 dr. of Castile soap ; gradually 
adding 15 gr. of spermaceti, 30 gr. of white wax, and a 
dr. of almond oil, melted together. When thoroughly 
incorporated add gradually six drops of otto of roses, dis- 
solved in 6 oz. of rectified spirit, and 14 oz. of distilled 
water. . 

Milk op Cucumbers. In the same manner as milk of roses, 
substituting juice of cucumbers for the rose-water. 

Milk of Houseleek. As milk of roses No. 1, substituting 
expressed juice of houseleek for a pint of the rose-water. 


Alibert's Cosmetic. Cucumber pomade (see below) 3 oz., 
almond soap 1 oz., rose-water a quart; mix the pomade and 
soap, and add the rose-water gradually, 

Siemmerling's Cosmetic. Make an emulsion with 1 oz. of 
sweet almonds, i oz. bitter almonds, black cherry-water 10 
oz., and bichloride of mercury 5 dr., tincture of benzoin 5 
dr., lemon-juice |^ oz. 

Withering's (Dr.) Cosmetic. An infusion of horseradish in 

Lait Virginal. Virgin's Milk. Simple tincture of benzoin 
2 dr., orange-flower water 8 oz. It may be varied by using 
rose or elder-flower water. 

Lait de Fraicheur. Double rose-water 8 oz., tincture of 
benzoin 4 dr., balsam of Mecca ^ oz. 

Schubarth's Cosmetic Emulsion. Almond Emulsion (made 
with rose-water) 8 oz., tincture of benzoin 3 dr. 

Italian Cosmetic Wash. Melilot water 12 oz., tincture of 
benzoin 2 dr. 

Augustin's. Rose-water 8 oz., salt of tartar 2 dr., tincture 
of benzoin 3 dr. 

Kittoe's Lotion for Freckles. Muriate of ammonia 1 dr., 
spring water a pint, lavender-water 2 dr. Apply with a 
sponge 2 or 3 times a day. 

Lemon Cream for Sunburns, Freckles, &c. Sweet cream 
1 oz., new milk 8 oz., juice of lemon, brandy, or eau de 
Cologne 1 oz., alum 1 oz., sugar 1 dr. Boil and skim. 
Buttermilk is used for the same purpose. 

Lemon Embrocation for Freckles, &c. Borax 15 gr., 
lemon-juice 1 oz., sugar candy ^ dr. ; mix the powders with 
the juice, and let them stand in the bottle, shaking occa- 
sionally, till they are dissolved. 

SALVE, &c. 

PoMMADE DE Beaute. Melt together in an earthen vessel 
placed in hot water, white wax ^ dr., spermaceti 2 dr., oil 
of sweet almonds J oz., virgin olive oil J oz., oil of poppies 
J oz. ; beat them with a few drops of balsam of Peru. 


Cucumber Pomatum, for softening and cooling the skin. 
Clarified lard 4 Bb, yeal suet 1 ft), juice of cucumbers 3 ft) ; 
melt the two former together, then beat it up assiduously 
with the juice. Next day pour off the juice that has sepa- 
rated, and add the same quantity of fresh to the melted 
pomade. Repeat this six times, or until the pomade is suffi- 
ciently imbued with the odor of cucumbers. Then melt the 
pomade by a water-bath, and mix with it 3 dr. of powdered 
white starch ; let it settle, and before it is too cold, pour it 
off into small pots, taking care not to disturb the dregs. 

>PoMMADE d'Hebe. Incorporate together the juice of lily- 
bulbs 2 oz., Narbonne honey 2 oz., white wax 1 oz., rose- 
Avater 3 dr. ; melt the wax with a gentle heat, and add the 
other ingredients. To be applied at night, and not wiped 
off till morning. To remove wrinkles. Probably cod-liver 
oilj used externally and internally, would be a more success- 
ful though less agreeable remedy. 

Pate Divine de Venus. Mixed equal parts of washed lard, 
fresh butter, and white honey ; add balsam of Mecca and 
otto of roses, to perfume. 

Pommade de Ninon. Oil of sweet almonds 4oz., washed lard 

3 oz., juice of houseleek 3 oz. ; mix. Softening and cool- 

Pommade en Creme. Melt together 1 dr. each of white 
wax and spermaceti, add oil of sweet almonds 2 oz. ; pour 
it into a warm mortar, and gradually stir in J oz. of rose or 
perfumed water, and 1 dr. of tincture of Tolu. 

Lemon Cream. Melt together 2 dr. of spermaceti and 1 oz. 
of oil of almonds ; and as .it cools stir in 16 drops of essence 
of lemon. 

Cold Cream. 1. Oil of almonds 16 oz., white wax 4 oz., 
melt together in an earthen vessel, and when nearly cold, 
stir in, by little and little, 12 oz. of rose-water. 

2. Melt together white wax 2 oz., oil of almonds 8 oz., 
and stir in 4 oz. of rose-water. Next day add 6 drops of otto 
of roses. 

3. White wax and spermaceti, of each J oz. ; oil of almonds 

4 oz., orange-flower water 2 oz. ; mix s. a. 

4. As No. 3, but without the orange-flower water. 


5. Lard 16 oz., white wax 2 oz., olive oil 1 oz., magistery 
of bismuth 1 oz. 

6. White wax 1 oz., almond or olive oil 1 oz., rose-water 
1 oz., glycerine 2 dr. 

N. B. — Those cold creams are generally preferred for 
present use which contain rose or other water, but they keep 
longer without them. 

Granulated Cold Cream. Melt together 1 oz. each of 
white wax and spermaceti, with 3 oz. of almond oil ; when 
a little cooled, pour the mixture into a large Wedgewood 
mortar, previously warmed, and containing about a pint of 
warm water. Stir briskly until the cream is well divided, 
add sufficient otto of roses to scent it, and pour the whole 
suddenly into a clean vessel containing 8 or 10 pints of cold 
water. Throw the whole on muslin, and shake out as much 
water as possible. — Mr. Owen. Dublin. 

PoMMADB Divine. Put 3 Bb of beef marrow into an earthen 
vessel, and cover it with cold water, changing the water 
daily for a few days, and using rose-water the last day ; 
press out the water and add to the marrow storax calamita, 
benzoin, Chio turpentine, each 4 oz. ; orris powder 1 oz., 
powdered cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, of each ^ oz. Place 
them in a well-tinned vessel in a water-bath, and keep the 
water boiling for 3 hours ; then strain. 

Almond Paste for the Skin. 1. Powdered bitter almonds 
4 oz., white of egg 1 oz., beat them well together to a 
smooth paste, with equal parts of spirits of wine and rose- 

2. Sweet and bitter almonds, blanched, of each 2 oz. ; 
spermaceti 2 dr., oil of almonds ^ oz., Windsor soap J oz., 
rose-water 1 oz., or q. s. ; otto of roses and oil of bergamot, 
of each 12 drops. 

3. (Camphorated.) To either of the above add 2 dr. of 
poAvdered camphor. A few drops of oil of bitter almonds 
may be substituted for the otto and bergamot. 

4. (French.) Blanch 12 oz. of bitter almonds and beat 
them in a mortar with a small quantity of rose or other 
water to a smooth paste ; then add 7 oz. of rice flour, 3 oz. 
of bean flour, 1 oz. of orris powder, and, when perfectly 
mixed, J oz. of carbonate of potash, dissolve in rose-water ; 
again beat together, and add 3 oz. of spirituous essence of 
jessamine, 2 drops of oil of rhodium, and 1 of neroli. 


Almond and Honey Paste. Fine honey may be added to 
either of the preceding ; or mix 16 oz. of clarified honey 
with 16 oz. of bitter almond powder ; and add gradually, in 
alternate portions, 32 oz. of oil of almonds, and the yolks of 
5 eggs. 

Honey Paste. Pdte au Miel. It is sometimes made as the 
last ; or, by mixing clarified honey with cold cream, or some 
' similar compound. 

Camphor Balls, for rubbing on the hands, after washing 
. "them, to prevent chaps, &c. 1. Melt 3 dr. of spermaceti 
and 4 dr. of white wax with 1 oz. of almond oil, and stir in 
3 dr. of powdered camphor. Pour the compound into small 
gallipots, so as to form hemispherical cakes. They may be 
colored with alkanet, &c. 

2. Lard 3 oz., white wax 2 oz., camphor \ oz. 

3. Spermaceti 3 oz., white wax 1 oz., olive oil 4 oz. ; melt 
together, and add 11 oz. of powdered camphor, and stir it 

4. Melt 3 dr. of spermaceti and 4 dr. of white wax 
with 1 oz. of almond oil, and stir in 3 dr. of powdered 

Camphor Ice. Melt 1 dr. of spermaceti with 1 oz. of almond 
oil, and add 1 dr. of powdered camphor. 

Almond Powder. (Cosmetic.) This is prepared by grinding 
the marc or cake left after expressing the oil from sweet or 
bitter almonds. It is sometimes perfumed, and mixed with 
other ingredients. It is used for cleansing the skin, and is 
less irritating than soap. 

Almond Wash Powder. 1. Almond powder (from ex- 
pressed bitter almonds) 16 oz., rice flour 2 oz., powdered 
soap 1 oz., orris powder 1 oz., bergamot, or other scent, 
q. p. 

2. Almond powder (as above) 16 oz., powdered benzoin 
\ oz., oil of bitter almonds 10 drops. For cleaning the 
hands and removing any unpleasant smell. To render it 
more detergent, 4 oz. of fine sand or powdered pumice-stone 
may be added. 

Rose Lip Salve. 1. Oil of almonds 3 oz., alkanet \ oz. ; 
digest with a gentle heat, and filter. Melt \\ oz. white 
wax and \ oz. spermaceti with the filtered oil, stir it until 


it begins to thicken, and add from 12 to 36 drops of otto ' 
of roses, 

2. White wax 1 oz., oil of sweet almonds 2 oz., alkanet 
1 dr. ; digest till colored, strain, and add 6 drops of otto of 

Peruvian Lip Salve. As either of the above, substituting 
20 or 30 drops of Peruvian balsam for the otto ; 8 drops of 
oil of lavender may be added. 

Grape Lip Salve. Pommade au raisin pour Us levres. Put 
into a glazed earthen pipkin ^ ft) of fresh butter, ^ ft) 
fine yellow wax, 1 oz. of alkanet, and 3 bunches of black 
grapes ; boil together, and strain without pressure through 

French Lip Salve. Lard 16 oz., white wax 2 oz. ; nitre and 
alum in fine powder, of each J oz. ; alkanet to color. 

German Lip Salve. Butter of cacao J oz., oil of almonds ^ 
oz. ; melt together with a gentle heat, and add 6 drops of 
essence of lemon. 

Gants Oosmetiques. These are white kid gloves, which 
have been turned inside out, and brushed over with a melted 
compound of wax, oil, lard, balsam, &c. The Peruvian Lip 
Salve, without the alkanet, may answer the purpose. For 
softening the hands. 


Fine Carmine (prepared from cochineal) is used alone, or re^ 
duced with starch, &c. And also the coloring matter of 
safflower and other vegetable colors, in the form of pink 
saucers, &c. 

Rouge is prepared from carmine, and the coloring matter of 
safflower, by mixing them with finely levigated French 
chalk or talc, generally with the addition of a. few drops of 
olive or almond oil. Sometimes fine white starch is used as 
the reducing ingredient. It is used in the form of powder, 
pomade, and crepons — the latter being pieces of crape im- 
bued with the coloring matter. For common purposes ver- 
milion is used ; and it is sometimes prepared for this j)urpose 
by mixing it with a few drops of almond oil and of mucilage 
of tragacanth, placing the mixture in rouge-pots, and drying 
it by a very gentle heat. 


Almond Bloom. Boil 1 oz. of Brazil dust in 3 pints of dis- 
tilled water, and strain ; add 6 dr. of isinglass, 2 dr. of 
cochineal, 1 oz. of alum, and 3 dr. of borax ; boil again, 
and strain through a fine cloth.' — Gray's Supplement. 

Face Whites. One of the most innocent kind is prepared 
from Venetian talc, or French chalk, finely levigated. 
These are sometimes calcined, to increase their whiteness; 
but this diminishes their unctuosity and adhesiveness. 
Digestion with vinegar, and subsequent washing, are prac- 
tised for the same purpose. Flake white (a fine variety of 

. white lead) was formerly much used, but is now generally 
condemned as unsafe ; it is also liable to become brown 
under certain circumstances. Pearl of bismuth white 
(magistery of bismuth*) is less injurious when pure, but is 
subject to the latter inconvenience. M. Thenard recom- 
mends oxide of zinc, with an equal weight of French chalk 
prepared by vinegar. Magnesia is said to be employed by 
the American ladies. White starch is used for the same 


As the retail druggists and perfumers do not generally make 
their own soap in the first instance, it is only necessary to 
mention the means by which the soap, as it comes from the 
manufacturers, is prepared for the toilet. 

Scented Soaps, in general. Cut the best white curd soap 
(or, for some kinds, palm soap) into thin shavings, and place 
it in a copper vessel, with sufficient distilled water, and heat 
it by a water-bath till the whole is uniformly liquified. Let 
it cool to 135° F. ; then add the coloring matter and per- 
fumes. On the large scale, these additions may be mixed 
with the liquid soap at the maker's before it is poured into 
the frames. The quantity of perfume used must depend on 
the price at which it is to be sold. 

Almond Soap. To one hundredweight of the best hard 
white- soap, melted as above, add 20 oz. of essential oil 
of bitter almonds. (-Soap really made from expressed 

* For this purpose, a little muriatic aciS is added, to the solution of the 
metal in nitric acid, and the magistery is precipitated by a small quantity 
of water ; or the nitric solution is mixed with a weak solution of sea salt. 
Dr. lire states that the precipitate thus acquires a more pearly lustre. 


almond oil is, we apprehend, rarely met ■with in com- 

Savon au Bouquet. Melt 60 lb of white curd soap as above, 
and 8 oz. of oil of bergamot, 1^ oz. each of oils of cloves, 
sassafras, and thyme, f oz. of neroli, and 14 oz,, or q. s. 
brown ochre. 

Rose Soap. Put into a copper vessel, placed in boiling 
water, 20 Tb of white curd soap, and 30 ft) of olive oil 
soap, both in thin shavings ; add 5 ft) of soft water, or 
rose-water ; keep the heat below boiling till the soap is 
uniformly liquej&ed, then add 12 oz. of finely sifted ver- 
milion, or enough to produce the required tint. Withdraw 
it from the fire, and when sufiiciently cool add S^ oz. of 
otto of roses, ^ oz. of oil of cloves, ^ oz. oil of cinnamon, 
and 2J oz. of bergamot. For a cheaper article use less 

Windsor Soap. This is said to be made with lard. In 
France they use lard with a portion of olive or bleached 
palm oil. Dr. Pereira states that it is made with one part 
of olive oil to nine of tallow. But a great part of what is 
sold is probably only curd (tallow) soap, scented with oil of 
caraway and bergamot. The brown is probably colored with 
burnt sugar, or umber. 

Honey Soap. White curd soap 1^ ft), brown Windsor soap 
J ft) ; cut them into thin shavings, and liquefy as directed 
above for scented soaps ; ' then add 4 oz. of honey, and 
keep it melted till most of the water is evaporated ; then 
remove from the fire, and when cool enough, add any 
essential oil. According to PiESSE the honey soap usually 
sold consists of fine yellow soap perfumed with oil of 

Floating Soaps. These are made by liquefying, as described 
above, 30 ft) of oil soap with about 5 ft) of water, and 
agitating the mixture, by a suitable wooden apparatus 
turned by a handle, till the froth arises to the top of the 
vessel. It is then put into the frames to cool. They are 
variously perfumed and colored. 

Transparent Soap. Cut fine white curd soap into thin shav- 
ings, and dry them with a gentle heat till they can be re- 
duced to powder. Put 2 ft) of this powder into a water- 
bath with 5 or 6 pints of rectified spirit of wine, and heat it 
gently (taking care that the water does not quite boil) till 


the solution is complete ; add the perfume, and pour into the 
frames. When cold, cut it into squares. They must be 
kept some time in a dry place before they can attain their 
full degree of transparency. By using a still, most of the 
spirit may be recovered for future use. 

Wash Balls. Savonettes. These are made from various 
kinds of soap, usually with the addition of powdered starch, 
or hair powder, or of rice flour, together with perfuming and 
coloring ingredients. They are formed into spherical balls 
by taking a mass of the prepared soap in the left hand, and 
a conical drinkinci-irlass Avith rather thin edges in the right. 
By turning the glass and ball of soap in every direction, the 
rounded form is soon given ; when dry the surface is scraped 
to render it more smooth and even. One or two examples 
of this kind of soap will suffice. 

Common or Lemon Wash Balls. Cut 6 ft) of soap into very 
small pieces ; melt it with a pint of water in which 6 lemons 
have been boiled. When melted withdraw the soap from the 
fire, and add 3 ft) of powdered starch, and a little essence of 
lemon ; knead the whole into a paste and form into balls into 
the desired size. 

Cream Wash Balls. White curd soap 7 ft), powdered starch 
1 ft) ; water or rose-water, q. s. Beat the whole together, 
and form into balls. — Gray's Supplement. 

Camphor Wash Balls. White soap 1 ft), spermaceti 1 oz., 
water q. s. ; melt together and add 1 oz. of powdered cam- 

Mrs. Symond's Soap Paste, for the Hands. Best soft 
soap (from olive oil and potash if procurable) 16 oz., 
spermaceti 4 oz., best olive oil 1 oz., camphor \ oz., rectified 
spirit ^ oz., soft water 1 pint, essence of lemon \ oz., 
M. S. A. With 8 oz. of pumice-stone, powdered and sifted 
through fine book muslin, it forms sand soap paste. 

Powdered Soap. Any of the hard soaps may be pulverized, 
if first cut into thin shavings, and kept at a gentle heat, 
till sufficiently dry. This process renders the soap more mild. 

Shaving Powder. Melt together in a water-bath 1 ft) of 
white soap with 1 oz of powdered spermaceti and \ oz. of 
chlorate of potash dissolved in a little water, or rose-water. 
Pour the liquefied soap into a shallow mould ; when solidified 
shave it fine, and dry as above. 


Shaving Paste. 1. Melt together 1 dr. each of spermaceti, 
white wax, and almond oil ; beat it up with 2 oz. of the best 
white soap, and a little lavender or Cologne water. 

2. Naples soap, beaten up with sufficient powdered soap to 
form a stiff paste. 

3. White soft soap, 4 oz., powdered Castile soap 1 oz., oil 
of olives or almonds ^ oz. 

Shaving Liquid. Essence of soap. 1. White soap 3 oz., 
proof-spirit 8 oz., distilled water 4 oz., carbonate of potash 
1 dr., essence of lemon q. s. Dissolve the soap without heat, 
and add the potash and essence. 

2. (Italian essence of soap.) White curd or Windsor soap 
10 parts, rectified spirit 34 parts, rose or orange-flower-water 
34 pa!rts. Digest with a gentle heat and filter. 

3. Naples soap, or white soft soap, 16 oz., oil of olives |- 
oz., gum benzoin 1 dr., rectified spirit 24 oz. Digest. Rub 
a few drops on the beard, followed bj warm water. 



Hair Powder. The basis of hair powder is finely powdered 
starch. It is variously scented, and was formerly tinted with 
various colors. The plain and violet hair powders are now 
principally used. The Jatter is perfumed with orris powder, 
or essence of violets, usually with the addition of bergamot, 
_&c. Gray gives the following species for scenting hair 

,• powder: Powdered orris 1 ft), essence of bergamot 12 oz., 
oil of neroli 1 dr., musk 1 scruple. Hair powder is also 
perfumed with jessamine, roses, &c., by mixing the flowers 
with plain powder for 2 or 3 days, stirring the mixture twice 
or thrice a day, and then sifting out the powder from the 



Pomades for the Cure of Baldness. 

1. Dupuytren's Pomade. The recipe given by Bate- 
man and Rennie for this celebrated preparation, viz., almond 
oil, lard, suet, and essential oils, is remarkable as entirely 
omitting the active ingredient. It is probable that the pre- 
paration first employed by M. Dupuytren was more simple 
in its form than what he subsequently adopted, but can- 
tharides was always the essential constituent. The first for- 
mulae we met with was: Tincture of Cantharides (made 
according to. the Paris Codex, 1 part of flies to 8 of proof- 
spirit) 1 part, lard 9 parts. The following are said more 
nearly to represent the compound in its improved and more 
elegant form. M. Cap prescribes : Beef marrow 2 oz., spiritu- 
ous extract of cantharides (made by evaporating the above 
tincture) 8 gr., rose oil 1 dr., essence of lemon 50 drops. M. 
Fontaine directs : Beef marrow 4 oz., calomel 2J dr., ex- 
tract of cantharides 18 gr., attar of roses 2 drops. But the 
following, by M. Recluz, is said to have been acknowledged 
by Dupuytren as the true formula : Beef marrow 6 oz,, 
nervine balsam* 2 oz., Peruvian balsam 2 oz., oil of almonds 

*This is made by melting together 4 oz. each of beef marrow and oil of 
mace, and adding 2 dr. of balsam of Tolu, and 1 dr. each of oil of cloves 
and camphor, dissolved in \ oz. of rectified spirit. 


IJ oz., extract of cantharides 16 gr. ; melt the marrow and 
nervine balsam with the oil, strain, add the balsam of Peru, 
and lastly the extract, dissolved in a drachm of rectified 
spirit. M. GuiBOURT says that no better than the follow- 
ing can be used: Beef marrow 1 oz., nervine balsam 1 oz., 
rose oil 1 dr., extract of cantharides (dissolved in spirit) 
6 gr. These pomades should be rubbed on the scalp once 
or twice a day for some weeks. If any soreness is produced, 
it should be less frequently applied. 

2. Pomade Contre l'Alopecie. Fresh lemon-juice 1 dr., 
extract of bark (by cold water) 2 dr., marrow 2 oz., tincture 
of cantharides (as above) 1 dr., oil of lemon 20 drops, oil of 
bergamot 10 drops ; mix. First wash the head with soap 
and water, with a little eau de Cologne, then rub it dry. 
Next morning rub in a small lump of pomade, and repeat it 
daily. In 4 or 5 weeks the cure of baldness is effected. — 
Dr. Schneider. 

3. Cazenave's Remedy for Baldness. Beef marrow 
1 oz., tincture of cantharides (as above) 1 dr., powdered 
cinnamon 1 dr. To be applied night and morning, the head 
being first washed with salt and water. Keep the hair 

4. Dr. Cattell's is the same, substituting 10 drops each 
of oils of origanum and bergamot for cinnamon. 

5. Beef marrow 1 oz., castor oil ^ oz., tincture of can- 
tharides 1 dr., essential oil of bitter almonds and of lemon, 
each 12 drops. 

6. Beef marrow 3 dr., almond oil 1 dr., sulphate of quinine 
15 gr., otto 2 drops. — Soubeiran. 

7. Prepared lard 2 oz., white wax 2 dr. ; melt together, 
remove from the fire, and add 2 dr. balsam of Tolu, 20 drops 
of oil of rosemary; and in chronic cases 1 dr. of tincture of 
cantharides. — Dr. Neligan. 

8. Camphor 1 scruple, citrine ointment 2 -dr., spermaceti 
cerate 6 dr. ; mix. To be applied every night. 

9. Bate's Unguentum Criniscum. Laudanum 6 dr., 
bear's-grease 2 oz., honey ^ oz., powdered southernwood 
3 dr., ashes of reed-root IJ dr., oil of nutmeg 1 dr., balsam of 
Peru 3 dr. ; mix. Let the bald part be first rubbed with an 
onion till it is red, then apply the ointment. It should be 
used daily, or often er, for 5 or 6 weeks. 


10. Box-leaves 2 oz., southernwood 2 oz., lard, marrow, 
or bear's grease 8 oz. ; digest together by the heat of a 
water-bath, and strain. 

11. Bear s-gr ease. The most approved consists of 2 parts 
of prepared bear's fat, with 1 of beef marrow, scented at 
pleasure. We have placed this, on the ground of common 
report, among the preparations which may possess some 

.efficacy, but reserve the compounds usually sold under this 
name for the Pomatus. ' See below. 

12. Pommade Philocome. Powdered cinchona ^ dr., oil 
©f almonds 2 dr., beef marrow 6 dr., oil of bergamot 6 drops, 

" balsam of Peru 20 drops ; mix. — Dourvault. 


1. Dr. Locock's Lotions. Oil of mace (expressed oil of 
nutmeg) ^ oz., olive oil 2 dr., water of ammonia ^ dr., 
spirit of rosemary 1 oz., rose-water 2|- oz. ; mix. (Mr. 
AsTLEY recommends the following modification : Oil of mace 
^ oz., olive oil 2 dr., oil of rosemary 4 drops; incorporate 
them carefully, then add gradually 2>\ oz. of rose-water, 
2 dr. of solution of carbonate of ammonia, and 2 dr. of 
rectified spirit.) 

2. Mr. Erasmus Wilson's. Eau de Cologne 2 oz., tinc- 
ture of cantharides 2 dr., oil of rosemary and oil of lavender, 
of each 10 drops. 

3. Mr. Acton's. Equal parts of rectified spirit, castor 
oil and eau de Cologne. 

4. Mr. Acton's, stronger. Equal parts of honey-water 
and tincture of cantharides. 

5. Tincture of cantharides 3 dr., acetate of copper 3 gr., 
oil of almonds and castor oil, of each a fluid ounce, with any 
essential oil to scent it. A small quantity to be applied to 
the roots of the hair every morning. 

6. Vinegar of cantharides (Lond. Pharm.) ^ oz., eau de 
Cologne 1 oz., rose-water 1 oz. ; mix. 

7. Castor oil, lavender-water, and tincture of cantharides, 
in equal quantities. 

8. American Shampoo Liquor. Rum 3 quarts, spirit of 
wine 1 pint, water 1 pint, tincture of cantharides |- oz., car- 
bonate of ammonia J oz., salt of tartar 1 oz. Rub it on, 
and afterwards wash with water. By omitting the salt of 
tartar, it nearly resembles balm of Columbia. 

po'matums, lotions, etc. 245 

9. Dr. Landeree's. Bay leaves 2 oz., cloves J oz., spirit 
of lavender 4 oz., spirit of thyme 2 oz. ; digest for 6 days, 
filter, and add J oz. of ether. To be rubbed on every 

10. Put into a still 4 ft) of honey, 12 handfuls of the ten- 
drils of vine, and the same of rosemary tops ; distil very 
slowly till the liquor begins to taste sour. 

11. Dr. Cattell's. See Washes eor the Hair, below. 

Note. — The above ointments and liquids require to be used for 
some weeks, in order to produce a decided effect, either in 
curing or preventing baldness. Those which contain canth- 
arides in any form are the most active, and must be used 
with caution. They should be applied once or twice a day, 
according to the effect produced ; but if the scalp becomes 
sore, their use must be omitted for a time, or longer intervals 
allowed, as the case may require. When employed to pre- 
vent the hair falling off, or becoming gray, they need not be 
applied so frequently as for baldness. 

The following require no particular caution, being less active 
than the preceding : 



Pomatums, or Pomades. 

These are composed usually of animal fats, variously perfumed. 
The lard, veal fat, beef and mutton suet, bears' fat, and beef 
marrow, employed for this purpose, require to be prepared 
with great care. The following is, perhaps, the best mode : 
Cut the raw fat into pieces, carefully removing the fleshy 
and bloody portions of membrane, &c., and beat it in a 
marble mortar ; melt it in a well-tinned vessel placed in boil- 
ing water, and strain the melted fat through a hair-sieve 
without pressure (reserving the residue to be heated again 
and pressed for more fat, to be used for commoner purposes). 
Keep the melted fat for some time gently warm, without dis- 
turbing it; remove any scum which may have arisen, and 
pour off the clear fat, taking care that none of the dregs or 
watery liquid which have subsided pass with it. A mixture 
of these fats forms the basis of many varieties of pomades. 
Sometimes a little white wax is added. A greater degree of 


whiteness is said to be given by adding to the liquefied fat a 
few grains of citric acid. The same end is promoted by 
assiduously beating the pomade, while cooling, with a wooden 

To perfume pomatums, various essential oils, &c., are added 
(see Common Pomatum) : but the finer sorts are perfumed 
by infusing fresh flowers in the melted fats for some hours, 
and straining ; or, in other cases, the simple pomade is 

- thinly spread on plates of glass set in frames, and the fresh 
flowers stuck in the scored surface of the fat, changing the 
flowers daily till the pomatum is sufficiently perfumed. 

. " As these compounds can seldom be prepared to advantage by 
the retailer, a few varieties only require to be noticed here. 

Common Pomatum. Mutton suet (prepared as above) 1 ft), 
prepared lard 3 ife ; melt together in a water-bath, pour it 
into an earthen basin, and beat it assiduously with a wooden 
spatula. When sufficiently cool, add 2 oz., or q. s. of essence 
of bergamot, or of lemon, and continue the stirring till nearly 

Rose Pomatum. Prepared lard 16 oz., prepared suet 2 oz. : 
melt with a gentle heat, and add 2 oz. of rose-water, and 6 
drops of otto of roses. Beat them well together, and pour it 
into pots before it is too cold. For making jessamine, violet, 
and orange pomade, put the same quantity of water, and 1 
dr. of the essence. 

Marrow Pomatum. Beef marrow and beef suet, colored 
with a little annotto, may be employed for this and other 
yellow pomatums. For the perfumes employed for these and 
other pomatums, see Essence for scenting Pomatums, under 

Pomade por Beautifying the Hair. Oil of sweet almonds 
a pint, spermaceti IJ oz., purified lard 2 oz. ; melt with a 
gentle heat ; when nearly cold add any agreeable scent, and 
pour it into pots or wide-mouthed bottles. 

Bears' Grease (artificial). Bears' grease is imitated by 
a mixture of prepared veal suet and beef marrow. It may 
b-e scented at pleasure ; oil of lavender, with a very little oil 
of thyme, is sometimes used. The following are some of the 
compounds sold under this name : 

1. Prepared suet 3 oz., lard 1 oz,, olive oil 1 oz., oil of 
cloves 10 drops, compound tincture of benzoin 1 dr. ; mix. 


2. Lard 1 ft), solution of carbonate of potash 2 oz. 

3. Olive oil 4 flasks, white wax 4 oz., spermaceti 2 oz. ; 
scented with otto of roses and oil of bitter almonds. 

Green Bears' Grease. Bears' grease digested with fresh 
walnut leaves, and strained. This is repeated with more 
leaves till the pomade is sufiiciently colored ; it is then 
scented with oil of rosemary, thyme, and bergamot. 

German Pomade, for strengthening the Hair. Take 8 oz. 
of purified marrow, melt it in a glass or stoneware vessel. 
and add 1^ oz. of fresh bay leaves, 1 oz. of orange leaves, 1 
oz. of bitter almonds, J oz. of nutmegs, J oz. of cloves, and 

1 dr. of vanilla, all bruised; cover the vessel, and let the 
whole digest for 24 hours, with a gentle heat ; strain while 
warm through linen, and stir it as it cools. 

Hard or Roll Pomatum. 1. Suet 5 ft), white wax 8 oz., 
spermaceti 2 oz., oil of lavender, and essence of ambergris, 
each ^ oz. 

2. Beef suet 16 oz., white or yellow wax 1 oz., Avith 1 dr. 
of oil of lavender or of bergamot. 

3. Lard melted with one-third or half its weight of white 
wax, and poured into semi-cylindrical paper moulds when 
nearly set. This is sold under the name of cosmetique. It 
is sometimes colored to match the hair. See after Hair 
Dyes, below. 

Colored Pomatums. The coloring matters employed are 
annotto, alkanet, marigold, carmine, indigo, cobalt, blue, 
umber, ivory black, &c. 

Circassian Cream. Two flasks of oil, 3 oz. of white wax, 

2 oz. of spermaceti, ^ oz. of alkanet root. Digest the oil 
with the alkanet till colored, strain, melt the wax and 
spermaceti with the oil, and when sufficiently cool add 
2J dr. of English oil of lavender, and J dr. of essence of 

Crystalline Cream. Oil of almonds 8 oz., spermaceti 1 oz. ; 
melt together ; when a little cooled add |- oz. or less of 
essence of bergamot, or other perfume ; put it into wide- 
mouthed bottles, and. let it stand till cold. 

Camphorated crystalline cream may be made by using 
camphorated oil (Lin. Camphors) instead of oil of almonds. 


Castor Oil Pomade. Castor oil 4 oz., prepared lard 2 oz., 
white Avax 6 dr., essence of ber^amot 2 dr., oil of lavender 
20 drops, eau de Cologne ^ dr. ; stir till cold. 

Crystalline Castor Oil Pomade, Castor oil 16 oz., 
spermaceti If oz. ; melt together, and when a little cool 
add 1 oz. of essence of bergamot, ^ dr. oil of verbena, | dr. 
oil of lavender ; pour it into wide-mouthed bottles, and let 

. it stand till cold. 

Fox's Cream. Marrow pomatum 2 oz., oil of almonds 2 oz. ; 
.melt, and add while cooling, with constant stirring, essence 
- of jessamine or of bergamot 2 dr. — Bateman. 



The basis of these oils is either almond oil, olive oil, or oil 
of ben ; whichever is used should be perfectly fresh, and 
of the finest quality. The perfume is communicated in 
three ways : by infusing the flowers in the oil at a gentle 
heat ; by placing layers of flowers alternately with folded 
cotton soaked in the oil, in proper frames, and pressing 
out the oil when sufiiciently imbued with the odor of the 
flowers ; or simply by adding essential oils, &c., to the 
fixed oil. An example of two of each method will be sufii- 

Oil of Roses, by Infusion. Heat in a water-bath 1 lb of 
virgin oil, and add 1 ft) of picked fresh petals of Provence 
roses. Let these remain together in a water-bath for 
half an hour ; then remove from the bath, and leave them 
together for 24 hours, stirring them twice during the time. 
Strain through a cloth, and express all the oil. To this oil 
add fresh roses, and proceed as before ; repeating this for 5, 
6, or 7 times, till the oil is sufiiciently perfumed. 

Oil of Jessamine, Perfumed with the Flowers. Fold 
pieces of white cotton cloth twice or four times ; moisten 
them with fine olive oil, slightly pressing them, and place 
them in proper frames. Then place on the cloths a rather 
thick layer of freshly-gathered and dry jessamine flowers, 
carefully deprived of all green parts. In 24 hours care- 
fully remove the flowers, and replace them by fresh ones, 
till the oil is sufiiciently perfumed. The oil is then ex- 


pressed. The same metliod is employed in preparing oils 
from other delicate flowers ; as violets, lily of the valley, 


Oil of Roses, Common. Fine olive or almond oil 1 pint, otto 
of roses 16 drops. If required red, color the oil with alka- 
net root, and strain before adding the otto. For common 
sale, essence of bergamot, or of lemon, is often substituted, 
wholly or in part, for the more expensive otto. 

Perfumed Oil of Bergamot, Lemon, Orange, &c. To oil of 
ben, or finest almond or olive oil, add essential oil of berga- 
mot, lemon, &c., q. s. For common purposes, 1 dr. of the 
essential oil may be added to 16 oz. of oil. Some recipes, 
however, direct as much as If oz. or 2 oz. 

Oil of Ambergris and Musk. Ambergris 2 dr., musk f dr. ; 
grind them together in a mortar, then with a small quantity 
of oil ; add more oil to make up a pint, and let them stand 
together for 12 days, stirring them occasionally. Then de- 
cant or filter. Add J a pint of oil to the residue for an oil 
of second quality. 

Common Oil of Musk, Oil of Benzoin, Oil of Storax, 
&c., may be obtained by mixing a strong tincture of these 
drugs with fine oil, agitating them frequently together, and 
after remaining some hours at rest, decanting the clear 

HuiLE CoMOGENE. Mix equal parts of oil and spirit of 
rosemary with a few drops of oil of nutmeg. To be used 

HuiLE DE Phenix, Clarified beef marrow 4 oz., lard 2 oz., oil 
of mace 4 oz. ; melt togeth^ and strain through linen into 
a warm mortar ; stir, and when it begins to cool add the fol- 
lowing solution, and stir constantly till it is quite cold : oil 
of cloves, lavender, mint, rosemary, sage, and thyme, 
of each |^ dr. ; balsam of Tolu 4 dr., camphor 1 dr., recti- 
fied spirit 1 oz. Put the spirit and balsam in a vial, and 
place it in warm water till the solution is complete; then 
add the camphor and essential oils. 

HuiLB Philicome d'Aubril. Triturate together, without 
heat, equal parts of cold-drawn nut oil, almond oil, and 
prepared beef marrow, adding any essential oil as a per- 


HuiLE Verte. . Macerate 1 dr. of guaiacum with 1 ft) of olive 
oil ; strain, and add any essential oil to perfume it. — Gray. 

Marrow Oil. Clarified beef marrow, or marrow pomatum, 
with enough almond or olive oil to bring it to the desired 

Fluide de Java. This consists of beef marrow, Avhite wax, fine 
olive oil, and essential oils at pleasure. 

Macassar Oil. The oil made by the natives in the island is 
obtained by boiling the kernel of the fruit of a tree resem- 

- bling the Avalnut, called in Malay hadeau. The oil is mixed 
with other ingredients, and has a smell approaching to that 
of creasote. But the Macassar oil sold in this country has 
probably no relation to the above, except in name. The fol- 
lowing is given by Gray : Olive oil 1 ft), oil of origanum 1 
dr. ; others add 1^ dr. of oil of rosemary. The following 
French compound is probably named Macassar oil rather to 
denote its properties than from any resemblance either to the 
product of Macassar, or to the oil sold under this name in 
England : 

HuiLE DE Macassar de Naquet. Oil of hen 14 pints, nut oil 
7 pints, spirit of wine 1 quart, essence of bergamot 3 oz., 
tincture of musk, 3 oz., spirit of orange [esprit de Portugal) 
2 oz., otto of roses 2 dr., alkanet to color it. Digest them 
together with a gentle heat for an hour, and shake frequently 
for a week. 


Vegetable Extract for Cleansing and Strengthening 
THE Hair. 1. Southernwood 2 oz., box leaves 6 oz., water 
4 pints. Boil gently in a saucepan for ^ of an hour, strain, 
and to each pint of the liquid add 2 oz. of spirit of rosemary 
and 1^ dr. of salt of tartar (or 1 dr. of Naples soap). 

2. Boil 1 ft) of rosemary in 2 quarts of water, and add to 
the filtered liquor 1 oz. of spirit of lavender, and \ oz. of 
Naples soap, or salt of tartar. 

3. Incinerate 2 oz. each of rosemary, maidenhair, southern- 
wood, myrtle berries, and hazel bark ; make a strong solution 
of the ashes, with which wash the hair at the roots every day. 
Keep the hair short. — Dr. Cattell. 


4. Borax 1 oz., powdered camphor ^ oz., boiling water 1 
quart. When cold, filter for use. Damp the hair with it 

Wash for Removing Scurf and Promoting the Curling 
OF THE Hair. 1. Beat up the yolk of an egg with 1 pint 
of clean rain-water. Apply it warm ; and aftewards wash 
the head with warm water. 

2. Lime water 1 pint, distilled vinegar ^ of a pint ; 


Eau Collante. Dissolve without heat 8 oz. of clear gum in 
2 ft) of distilled or rose water, and filter through coarse fil- 
tering paper. 

Bandoline, or Fixateur. Vegetable mucilage, with sufii- 
cient spirit to preserve it. Mucilage of quince seed is used ; 
mucilage of picked Irish moss, carefully strained, is said to 
answer still better. But the following is employed by some 
London perfumers : Finest picked gum tragacanth, reduced 
to a coarse powder, 1 oz., rose-water 1 pint ; put them into 
a wide-mouthed vessel, and shake them together daily for 2 
or 3 days ; then strain with gentle pressure through fine 
linen or cambric. If required to be colored, infuse cochi- 
neal in the water employed before making the mucilage. 
Another form is : Linseed (not bruised) 1 tablespoonful, 
water J pint ; boil for 5 minutes, and strain. 

PoMMADE Collante, for False Curls. Melt together in an 
earthen pipkin 24 oz. of fine Burgundy pitch and 8 oz. 
of white wax, and add 1 oz. of pomatum ; remove from 
the fire, and add 4 oz. of brandy or other spirit, replace 
it on the fire till it boils slightly, then strain through 
linen, adding bergamot or other perfume, and cast it into 


Orfila's Hair Dye. Take 3 parts of litharge and 2 of 
quicklime, both in an impalpable powder, and mix them 
carefully. When used, a portion of the powder is mixed 
with hot water or milk, and applied to the hair, the part 


being afterwards enveloped in oil-skin, or a cabbage-leaf, 
for 4 or 5 hours. 

2. Litharge 2 parts, slaked lime 1 part, chalk 2 parts, all 
finely powdered, and accurately mixed. When required for 
use, mix the powder with warm water, and dip a brush in 
the mixture, and rub the hair well with it. After 2 hours, 
let the hair be washed. 

3. Litharge 4J oz., quicklime f oz. ; reduce to an im- 
palpable powder, and pass it through a sieve. Keep it in 
a dry, close bottle. Wash the hair first with soap and 
water, then with tepid water ; wipe it dry, and comb with 

. ■ a clean comb. Mix the dye in a saucer with hot water 
to the consistence of cream, and apply it to the hair, 
beginning at the roots. Place over it four folds of brown 
paper, saturated with hot water, and drain till cool ; and 
over this an oil-skin cap and a nightcap. Let it remain 
from 4 to 8 hours, according to the shade required. 
When removed, oil the hair, but do not wet it for 3 or 4 

4. Chevallier's. Mix 5 dr. of fresh slaked hme with 
IJ oz. of water, and strain through silk ; put the milk of 
lime into a 4-oz. bottle. Dissolve 5 gr. of acetate of lead in 
sufiicient water, and add enough slaked lime to saturate the 
acetic acid (a drachm or rather more), let it settle, pour off 
the supernatant liquor, wash the precipitate with water, and 
add it to the milk of lime. 

5. Dr. Hanmann's. Levigated litharge 11 oz., powdered 
quicklime 75 oz., hair powder 37 oz.; mix. When used, a 
portion of the powder is mixed with warm water in a saucer, 
and applied to the hair with the fingers, taking care to cover 
the hair to the roots. Cover the whole with a sheet of 
cotton wadding moistened with water, and this with a folded 
cloth. Let it remain on for three hours ; or better, for the 

6. Warren's. Sifted lime 16 oz., white lead 2 oz., 
litharge in fine powder 1 oz. ; mix well together, and keep 
dry. To dye Mack, mix a little powder with water to the 
consistence of cream. To dye hroivn, use milk instead of 
water. Apply with a small sponge to every hair. 

]EssENCE OP Tyre. Grecian Water. Eau d'Egypt. Eau 
DE China. These are solutions of nitrate of silver; in 
applying them it must be remembered that they stain the 
shin as well as the hair. Hence there is more difiiculty 


in applying than with the preceding ; but they are con- 
sidered to impart a finer color to the hair, with the disad- 
vantage, however, of rendering it dry and crisp. The 
following are some of the most approved formulae : 

1. Dr. Cattell's. Nitrate of silver 11 dr., nitric acid 1 
dr., distilled water 1 pint, sap green 3 dr., gum Arabic 1 dr. ; 

2. Nitric acid 1 dr., nitrate of silver 10 dr., sap green 9 
dr., mucilage 5 dr., distilled water 37J fluid oz. 

3. Silver 2 dr., iron filings ^ dr., nitric acid 1 oz., dis- 
tilled water 8 oz. Digest, and decant the clear solution. 
To be carefully applied with a close brush. 

4. Hydrosulphate of ammonia 1 oz., liquor of potash 3 
dr., distilled water 1 oz. ; mix. Apply this with a tooth- 
brush for 16 or 20 minutes, then brush the hair over with 
the following : Nitrate of silver 1 dr., distilled water 2 oz., 
using a clear comb to separate the hair. 

Pyrugallic Stain. Distil coarsely-powdered nutgalls in a 
retort, dissolve the solid acid which sublimes in a little hot 
water, add the solution to the acid liquid which passes over, 
separate the floating oil, shake the liquid with charcoal, 
filter, and add a little spirit. 

La Forest's Cosmetic Wash for the Hair. Red wine 1 
ft), salt 1 dr., sulphate of iron 2 dr. Boil for a few min- 
utes, and add common verdigris 1 dr. ; leave it on the fire 
2 minutes, withdraw it, and add 2 dr. of powdered nut- 
gall. Rub the hair with the liquid ; in a few minutes dry 
it with a warm cloth, and afterwards wash with water. 


Black Pomatum, in sticks, for the eyebrows, whiskers, &c. 
Prepared lard melted with a third of its weight of wax in 
winter, or half in summer, is colored with levigated ivory- 
black, and strained through tammy, or any material which 
will permit the fine particles of ivory-black to pass through. 
Stir it constantly, and when it begins to thicken pour it into 
paper moulds. 

Brown and Chestnut Pomatums are prepared in the same 
way, but colored with umber, &c. White, as Hard Po- 


Ebony Pomatum, in pots. Melt 4 oz., of white wax with 12 
oz. of any kind of pomatum, and add 2 oz. of levigated 
ivory-black. Proceed as above, and pour into pots. 

Pomade de Jeunesse. Pomatum mixed Avith magisterj of 
bismuth. It is said to turn the hair black. — Gray. 



These require caution, as they are apt to injure the skin. We 
have omitted those which contain sulphuret of arsenic (orpi- 
ment), as there is danger of its being absorbed, and the 
object can be accomplished without its use. The powders 
require to be kept in close bottles or boxes, and no more 
should be mixed with liquid than is required to be used at 

1. Mix lime and water to a thick cream, and pass through 
the mixture 25 or 30 times its volume of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen gas. When the gas escapes, stop the process. The 
pulpy mass is spread on paper, and applied for 12 or 15 
minutes, and then washed off with a sponge and water. 
The only objection to this is its disgusting smell. 

2. Chinese. Quicklime 16 oz., pearlash 2 oz., liver of 
sulphur 2 oz. Reduce to a fine powder, and keep it in a 
close bottle. Use it as No. 4. 

3. Mr. Redwood recommends a strong solution of sul- 
phuret of barium, with sufficient powdered starch to form a 
paste ; to be left on for a few minutes, then scraped off with 
the back of a knife. 

4. Boudet's Depilatory. Crystallized hydrosulphate 
of soda 3 parts, quicklime in powder 10 parts, starch 10 
parts; mix. To be mixed with water, and applied to the 
skin, and scraped off in two or three minutes with a wooden 



Gieneral Directions. — The dry ingredients should be finely pul- 
verized, and the whole well mixed ; which is best effected by 
triturating the powders together, or agitating them in a bot- 
tle, and afterwards passing the whole through a sieve. Some 
ingredients are usually levigated, or ground with water, as 
prepared chalk, coral, &c. The tooth powders which con- 
tain acids and acid salts should not be frequently used. For 
children those only which contain very soft powders should 
be permitted ; the heavy carbonate of magnesia is very suit- 
able for them. 

American Tooth Poavder. Coral, cuttle-fish bone, dragon's 
blood, of each 8 oz., burnt alum and red sanders, of each 4 
oz., orris 8 oz., cloves and cinnamon, of each J oz., vanilla 
2 dr., rose-wood J oz., rose-pink 8 oz. 

Antiseptic Tooth Powder. Prepared or precipitated chalk 
2 oz., dry chloride of lime 10 gr., oil of cassia or of cloves 
5 drops ; mix. It may be colored, if preferred, by a little 
levigated bole. 

Antiscorbutic Tooth Powder. Extract of rhatany i oz.,' 
prepared charcoal 2 oz., cinnamon ^ oz., cloves ^ oz. 

Aromatic Tooth Powder. Calam,us aromaticus 4 dr., char- 
coal 1 dr., soap 1 dr., oil of cloves 12 drops. — Pittschaft. 

Asiatic Tooth Powder. Prepared coral 4 oz., Venetian 
red 3 dr., ochre 5 dr., pumice 5 dr., musk 1 gr. ; mix. 
Or, bole 3 parts, chalk 2, ochre 1, pumice 1, musk to 

Cadet's, or Dr. Coombe's. Sugar 1 oz., charcoal 1 oz., 
Peruvian bark J oz., cream of tartar IJ dr., cinnamon 
24 gr. • . 

Camphorated Chalk. Camphor (pulverized by the aid of 
a few drops of spirit) 1 oz., prepared or precipitated chalk 


3 oz. Some makers put only 1 part of camphor to 7 of 

Compound Camphorated Tooth Powder. Camphor 1 oz , 
precipitated chalk 2 oz., cuttle-fish boiie J oz., myrrh 2 dr., 
borax 2 dr., lake or rose pink 1 dr., or q. s. 

Cartwright's Dentifrice. Prepared chalk 7 oz., orris 1 
oz., Castile soap J dr. 

Carabelli's. Cuttle-fish bone IJ oz,, prepared shells If oz., 
cinnamon, orris, and lime-tree charcoal, of each 3 dr., vanilla 

- 10 gr. 

Charcoal, Prepared. The charcoal made in iron cylinders, 
from willow, is preferred. It should be reduced to an im- 
palpable powder, and kept from the air. Charcoal of areka 
nut is highly commended. That of the shells of cocoa-nuts 
is said to be used for the same purpose. Dr. Heider pre- 
fers the charcoal of the lime-tree. 

Charcoal Tooth Powder (Gray). Prepared charcoal 1 oz., 
powdered chalk 3 oz. 

Charcoal Tooth Powder (French). Prepared charcoal 1 
oz., sugar 1 oz,, oil of cloves 3 drops ; mix. 

Charcoal with Bark. Charcoal 1 oz., red cinchona 1 oz., 
powdered sugar J oz., with a few drops of some essential oil. 
See also Righini's, below. 

Charcoal with Bark (French recipe). Charcoal 1 oz., Peru- 
vian bark, f oz., oil of cinnamon, mint, or other oil, 2 drops, 
essence of ambergris 30 drops. 

Charcoal with Quinine. Charcoal 1 oz., sulphate of qui- 
nine 2 to 4 gr,, magnesia 4 to 8 gr,, otto of rose (or other 
perfume) 2 drops. 

Carbonic Dentifrice (Desforges'), Willow charcoal 4 oz,, 
cinchona bark 4 oz,, cloves J dr. 

Circassian Dentifrice (Dr. Halifax's). Prepared hartshorn 
2 oz., sulphate of potash 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 8 oz., orris 

4 oz,, yellow sandal-wood 1 oz., rose-pink 3 oz., oil of rho- 
dium 30 drops. Mix the dry ingredients, previously reduced 
to a fine powder, and add the oil of rhodium. 

Coral Dentifrice {Poudre Dentifrice of the French Phar- 
macopoeia), Bed coral, bole, cuttle-fish bone, of each 3 
oz,, dragon's blood IJ oz,, cochineal 3 dr., cream of tartar 


4^ oz., cinnamon 6 dr., cloves 1 dr. ; reduce separately, to 
powder, mix and grind on porphyry. 

Beschamp's Alkaline Dentifeice. Venetian talc 4 oz., bi- 
carbonate of soda 1 oz., carmine 4 or 5 gr., oil of mint (or 
other perfume) 15 drops, 

Deschamp's Acid Dentifrice. Venetian talc 4 oz., cream of 
tartar 1 oz., carmine 4 or 5 gr., oil as the last. 

Desforges'. See Carbonic Dentifrice. 

Detergent Tooth Powder. Bicarbonate of soda 1 oz., pow- 
dered Castile soap J oz., sulphate of potash J oz., sugar of 
milk J oz., orris root 4 oz., oil of bitter almonds 4 drops. 
Colored at pleasure. 

Elephant's (Mrs.) Tooth Powder. Bole 1 oz., myrrh, bark 
and orris, each ^ oz. All to be finely powdered, and 

Florentine Dentifrice. Prepared shells 14 dr., orris 6 dr., 
cream of tartar 3 dr., lake to color. 

French Tooth Powder. (See Coral Tooth Powder, above ; 
also Galvanic, Deschamp's, &c.) Peruvian bark, burnt 
crust of bread, and sugar, in equal proportions. 

Galvanic Dentifrice. Triturate 2 leaves of gold-leaf and 3 
of silver with 2 dr. of sulphate of potash and 1 dr. of alum; 
then add white sugar 2 dr., common salt 1 dr., pellitory of 
Spain J dr., prepared hartshorn 1 oz., sulphate of quinine 
10 grains ; mix. Color with finest smalts (powder blue), rose 
pink, or lake. Fozembas' recipe is : 2 leaves of gold, 2 of 
silver, alum 3 dr., salt 1^ dr., white sugar IJ dr., pepper 15 
gr., opium 5 gr., coral 3 dr., Peruvian bark 3 dr. Grind the gold 
and silver with the salt and alum, and add the last. For the 
double galvanic tooth powder, put twice the above quanti- 
ties of gold, silver, alum, salt, pepper, and opium. The 
galvanic action of the metals is thought to stimulate the 

German Tooth Powder. Peruvian bark 6 dr., red sanders 2 
dr., oil of cloves and of bergamot 3 drops. 

Grosvenor's Tooth Powder. Prepared shells and coral, ot 
each 12 oz., orris root 2 oz., oil of rhodium 6 drops. 

Hemet's Dentifrice. It is said to consist of cuttle-fish bone 
6 oz., cream of tartar 1 oz.. orris ^ oz. ; mix. 



Jamet's. Orris' 16 oz., magnesia 4 oz., pumice-stone 8 oz., 
cuttle-fish bone 8 oz., sulphate of quinine 4 oz., cascarilla 1 
oz., sugar of milk 16 oz., oil of mint 1 oz., oil of cinnamon 

2 dr., oil of neroli 1 dr., essence of ambergris 1 dr. 

Kemmerer's. Wood-soot 1| oz., strawberry root ^ oz., and a 
few drops of eau de Cologne. 

Lavender Tooth Powder. Crimson lake 1 dr., Chinese blue 
(or Turnbull's blue) a scruple : mix and add bicarbonate of 
soda J oz., cuttle-fish bone 2 oz., precipitated chalk 6 oz., oil 
. of lavender 8 drops. 

Lardner's Tooth Powder. See Charcoal Tooth Powder 

Lefoulon's Tooth Powder. Scurvy-grass, horseradish, guai- 
acum, cinchona, mint, pellitory root, calamus, rhatany, of 
each equal quantities. Reduce to an impalpable powder. A 
little calcined magnesia is sometimes added. 

Maury's Carbonic Tooth Powder. Charcoal 8 oz., cinchona 
4 oz., sugar 8 oz., oil of mint J oz., oil of cinnamon ^ oz., 
tincture of ambergris J dr. 

Metges' Tooth Powder. Prepared chalk 3J Bb, lake or rose- 
pink 1 fib, orris 2 ft), cream of tartar 12 oz., levigated pumice 
1 oz., sugar 9 oz., oil of cloves 1 dr. 

Mialhe's Rational Dentifrice. Sugar of milk 3 oz., pure 
tannin 3 dr., lake 1 dr., oil of mint 8 drops, oil of aniseed 8 
drops, neroli 4 drops. 

Myrrh Dentifrice. Myrrh 1 oz., cuttle-fish bone 4 oz., orris 

3 oz. ; mix. 

Nichol's Tooth Powder. Cuttle fish-bone, prepared chalk, 
orris, of each 1 oz. ; cassia J oz., myrrh ^ oz. ; mix. 

Palmer's Tooth Powder. Prepared chalk 1 ft), camphor 1 
oz., orris 1 ft), cuttle-fish bone 4 oz. ; rose pink 1 oz. 

Pearl Dentifrice. Precipitated chalk 16 oz., talc 8 oz., 
finest smalts J oz., or q. s. to give it a slight tint. 

Pelletier's Quinine Dentifrice. Sulphate of quinine 4 
gr., prepared red coral 1 oz., myrrh a scruple. For the 
coral may be substituted levigated bole 2 dr., precipitated 
chalk 6 dr. 


Regnaud's Dentifrice. Calcined magnesia | oz,, sulphate 
of quinine 8 gr., carmine (or cochineal) ^ dr., oil of pepper- 
mint 3 drops. 

Rhatany Tooth Powder. Rhatany root 2 oz., cuttle-fish 
bone 4 oz., prepared chalk 8 oz., borax 1 dr. 

Rhigini's Charcoal and Bark. Charcoal 4 parts, yellow 
bark 1 part. 

Rose Dentifrice. Lake J dr., myrrh 2 dr., bicarbonate of 
soda 2 dr., orris 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 2 oz., precipitated 
chalk 6 oz., otto of roses 16 drops ; or it may be colored 
with rose pink to any desired shade. 

RuspiNi's Dentifrice. Cuttle-fish bone 8 oz., prepared harts- 
horn 2 oz., alum 1 oz., cream of tartar 2 oz., orris 1 oz., oil 
of rhodium 6 drops. 

Russian Tooth Powder. Peruvian bark 2 oz., orris root 
1 oz., sal ammoniac ^ oz., catechu 6 dr., myrrh 6 dr., oil of 
cloves 6 or 8 drops. 

Saunders' Dentifrice. Prepared chalk 2 oz., cuttle-fish 
bone 1 oz., orris 1 oz., myrrh J oz., sulphate of quinine 
10 gr. 

Dr. Schoepf's Tooth Powder, against mercurial salivation. 
Alum 2 scruples, cinchona bark 1 oz. 

Violet Tooth Powder. Orris root 2 oz., cuttle-fish bone 
4 oz., precipitated chalk 12 oz., bicarbonate of soda ^ oz., 
essence of violets 1 dr., pure percyanide of iron and crim- 
son lake or rose pink, enough to give it a pale violet 


Any of the above tooth powders may be formed into a paste 
with honey, clarified honey, or honey of roses. A little 
perfumed spirit may be added. A common objection to 
these pastes or electuaries, is their liability to fermentation, 
or effervescence. Some makers keep the paste in the bulk 
for a considerable time, till the efiervescence has completely 
subsided, and then put it up in pots for sale. Others heat 
the honey, stir in the powders, and keep the mixture warm 
till any efiervescence produced by the action of the acidity 

• of the honey on the cretaceous powder has subsided. It 
would perhaps be preferable in all cases to use the prepared 


honey (see Mel Preparatum, Pocket Formulary) for these 
purposes. Electuaries of this kind are termed by the 
French ojnats, although they may contain no opium in any 

Coral Tooth Paste. Opiat Dentifrice. 1. Prepared coral 
5 oz., cream of tartar 3 oz., cuttle-fish bone 3 oz., cochineal 
J dr., Narbonne honey 16 oz. — Desforges. 

2. Opiat Dentifrice Rouge. Prepared coral 8 oz., cochi- 
neal 1 oz., cinnamon 2'oz., alum 3 dr., honey 20 oz., water 
1 oz. ; triturate the cochineal with the alum and water, add 

. ■ the honey, then the coral and cinnamon ; leave the whole 
for 24 hours, or till the effervescence has subsided ; then 
rub it with a few drops of oil of cloves, or other aromatic 
oil, and put it into covered pots for sale. 

Dyon's Charcoal Paste. Triturate ^ dr. of chlorate of 
potash with J oz. of mint-water, and add gradually 1 oz. of 
powdered charcoal. 

Metges' Tooth Paste. Metges' tooth powder (as above) 
48 oz., Narbonne honey 32 oz., syrup 64 oz., cochineal 
1 oz., alum 1 oz., water 4 oz.; triturate the cochineal and 
alum with the water, add the honey and syrup, and lastly 
the powder. 

Pelletier's Odontine. This is said to consist of magnesia 
and butter of cacao, aromatized with some essential oil. 

Rose Tooth Paste. Cuttle-fish bone 3 oz., prepared or pre- 
cipitated chalk 2 oz., orris 1 oz., lake or rose pink to give 
it a pale rose color, otto of roses 16 drops, honey of 
roses q. s. 

Red or Cherry Paste. See Coral Paste, No. 2. 

Rosemary Paste. Levigated bole 4 oz., myrrh 1 oz., oil of 
rosemary 2 dr. (dissolved in 1 oz. rectified spirit), clarified 
honey q. s. 

Saline Tooth Paste. Sulphate of potash 1 oz., bay salt 
^ oz., clarified honey q. s., eau de Cologne 2 dr. (or essence 
of ambergris 30 drops). 

Vanilla Tooth Paste (French). Charcoal 1 oz., white honey 
1 oz., vanilla sugar 1 oz., Peruvian bark ^ oz., and a few 
drops of any essential oil. The vanilla sugar may be made 
by triturating a drachm of saturated tincture of vanilla 


with 1 oz. of pure sugar, and drying the mixture with a 
gentle heat. 

White Tooth Paste. 1 (French). Orris, sal ammoniac, 
cream of tartar, of each 2 oz., tincture of cinnamon and 
tincture of vanilla, of each |- oz., oil of cloves 60 drops, 
clarified honey and syrup to form a paste. 

2. Precipitated chalk 4 oz., sulphate of potash ^ oz., pre- 
- pared honey sufficient to form a paste ; to be flavored with a 
few drops of otto of roses or oil of cinnamon, &c. 



astringent tincture for the teeth and gums. 

1. Borax, alum, bay salt, of each a dr., spirit of camphor, 
tincture of myrrh, of each 1 oz., spirit of scurvy-grass (or of 
horseradish) 4 oz., tincture of rhatany 2 oz. ; mix, and shake 
occasionally for a day or two, then filter. A teaspoonful in 
a wineglassful of water, to rinse the mouth after cleaning 
the teeth, or at any other time. 

2. Tannin 1 dr., rose-water 4 oz., spirit of wine 2 oz., 
spirit of scurvy-grass (or of horseradish) 2 oz., essence of 
bitter almonds a few drops. 

Odoriferous Tincture of Myrrh. 1. Choice Turkey myrrh 
3 oz., eau de Cologne a quart ; digest for 7 days, and 

2. To 18 fluid oz. of tincture of myrrh add 2 oz. of 
essence of Cologne. (See Perfumery, p. 221.) If the 
tincture should not be quite clear, add a few gr. of burnt 
alum, shake frequently, and filter in a day or two. 

BoRATED Tincture of Mrryh. 1. Myrrh 1 ft, eau de 
Cologne 16 ft, borax 1 ft, distilled water 3 ft, syrup 3 ft, 
essence (or tincture) of roses 6 dr., rhatany root 4 oz. ; 
digest for 10 or 12 days, and filter. — Mr. Cockle. 

2. Borax 1 oz., shellac ^ oz., myrrh 2 oz., spirit of 
camphor 2 oz., honey of roses 2 oz., rectified spirit a pint, 
Cologne essence 2 dr., orange-flower or rose-water 4 oz. ; 
digest for a few days in a warm place, shaking occasionally, 
and filter. 

3. Borax 1 oz., shellac J oz., water 8 oz. ; boil together 
to 4 oz., and add spirit of scurvy-grass a pint, camphor J 
oz., myrrh 2 oz. ; digest and filter. 


Antiscorbutic Elixir. Chincliona 3 oz., guaiacum 5 oz., 
pellitory 3 oz., orange-peel 2 dr., cloves 5 dr., saffron J dr., 
benzoin 2 dr., spirit of wine or brandy 32 oz. ; digest and 
filter. — Desforges. 

Desforges' Extract of Pellitory. Pellitory root 5 oz., 
cinchona 1 oz., benzoin IJ dr., essence of peppermint 3 dr., 
brandy 1 quart. 

Elixir of Roses. Cloves 1 dr., cinnamon 3 oz., ginger 2 
oz., spirit of wine 2|- pints, oil of orange-peel 1 dr., otto of 
roses 15 drops, essence of peppermint 1 oz. ; mix, digest for 

. '15 days, and filter. 

Lefandiniere's Elixir. Rasped guaiacum-wood ^ oz., pel- 
litory 1 dr., nutmegs 1 dr., cloves J oz., oil of rosemary 10 
drops, oil of bergamot 4 drops, brandy 1 pint ; macerate for 
a fortnight, and filter. 

Eau DB Bottot. 1. Aniseed 4 oz., cinnamon 1 oz., cloves 1 
oz., cochineal 2 dr., oil of mint 2 dr., spirit of wine or 
brandy 8 ft) ; macerate 8 days, and filter. 

2. Tincture of cedar- wood 1 pint, tincture of myrrh 1 
oz., mixed with the following essential oils: of peppermint 
^ dr., of spearmint J dr., of cloves 10 drops, of roses 10 
drops. — Piesse. 

Eau Dentifrice de Stahl. Spirit of wine or brandy 2 gal- 
lons, rose-water 3 quarts, pellitory 5 oz., cypress root 3 
oz., tormentil 3 oz., balsam of Peru 3 oz., cinnamon 5 dr., 
goats' rue 1 oz., rhatany 1 oz., macerate for 6 days, shaking 
it occasionally ; let it rest for 24 hours, and pour ofi" the 
clear. Add to the clear liquor, oil of mint 1^ dr., cochineal 
4 dr. ; in 3 or 4 days filter. 

Eau du Dr. O'Meara. It is a tincture of pellitory, vetiver, 
cloves, orris, and coriander, with creasote, &c. 

BoRiEs' Odontalgic Elixir. PelHtory root 2 oz., simple 

spirit of lavender 16 oz., muriate of ammonia ^ dr. ; digest 

24 hours, and filter. 
Greenough's Tincture. Bitter almonds 2 oz.. Brazil-wood 

J oz., cinnamon |^ oz., orris root ^ oz., cochineal, alum, salt 

of sorrel, each 1 dr. ; spirit of wine 32 fluid oz., spirit of 

scurvy-grass 1 oz. 
Hudson's Preservative. Tincture of myrrh, tincture of 

bark, cinnamon-water, of each 3 oz. ; arquebusade-water 1 

oz., powdered gum |^ oz. 


Cheltenham Dental Tincture. Camphor 4| oz., myrrh 
2 oz., bark 5 oz., rectified spirit 36 fluid oz., distilled water 
8 oz. 

Lefoulon's Elixir for the Teeth. Fresh roots of horse- 
radish, fresh leaves of scurvy-grass, and of mint, of each 
6 dr. ; guaiacum, cinchona, pellitory, calamus, and rhatany, 
each 5 dr. ; proof spirit 1 quart ; macerate 16 days, and 

Eau de Madame de la Vrilliere pour les Dents. Cinna- 
mon 2 oz., cloves 6 dr., fresh lemon-peel 1^ oz., dried rose- 
petals 1 oz., scurvy-grass 8 oz., spirit 3 ft) ; macerate 24 
hours, and distil in a water-bath. 

RusPiNi's Tincture. Orris 8 oz., cloves 1 oz., spirit 32 fluid 
oz., essence of ambergris 1 oz. (or ambergris 1 scruple) ; 
macerate 14 days, and filter.^ 

French Elixir for the Teeth. Rose-water 16 oz., spirit 
of scurvy-grass 2 oz., tincture of galbanum 1 oz. ; color 
with cochineal. 

Alkaline Lotion, for preventing injury to the teeth from 
acid medicines. Bicarbonate of soda 4 dr., distilled water 
8 oz., eau de Cologne 2 dr., aromatic spirit of ammonia 
1 dr. The mouth to be rinsed out with the lotion immedi- 
ately after swallowing any medicine containing an acid. 

Lotion of Chlorinated Soda, for purifying the breath, 
cleansing the mouth, removing unpleasant odors, &c. 
Liquid chlorinated soda 1 oz., distilled water 19 oz. ; mix. 
A teaspoonful in a glass of water. The same direction 
applies to most of the above. 



These are applied by moistening a little cotton-wool or lint 
with the liquid, and introducing it into the cavity of the 
decayed and aching tooth. Where there is no cavity, 
they are sometimes applied to the gums surrounding the 
affected tooth. Most of them are stated by their several 
inventors or patrons to give " immediate relief." The 
cavity should be dried with lint before applying the 


1. M. Pieste's. Water of ammonia, with half the quan- 
tity of tincture of opium. Applied as above. 

2. Creasote 1 dr., spirit of camphor 2 dr., laudanum 1 
dr. Creasote is also used alone ; so is carvacrol, a liquid of 
similar properties. Laennec prescribes 1 part of creasote 
and 10 of alcohol. See also No. 14. 

3. M. CoTTEREAu's. Ether saturated in the cold with 
camphor, and then a few drops of ammonia added. 

4. Mr. Blake's. Finelj-powdered alum 1 dr., spirit of 
nitric ether 7 dr. 

5. Paraguay-roux, or Compound Tincture of Para Cress. 
■ riowers of Para Cress 4 parts, Italian elecampane [Inula 

hifrons) 1 part, pellitory root 1 part, rectified spirit 8 parts ; 
macerate 14 days, express, and filter. 

6. Mr. Brande's Tincture. Bruised pellitory J oz., 
camphor 3 dr., opium 1 dr., oil of cloves J dr., rectified 
spirit 6 oz. ; digest for 10 days, and strain. 

7. Pellitory, ginger, cloves, camphor, of each 1 oz. ; 
tincture of opium 4 oz., spirit of wine 16 oz. ; macerate for 
8 days, and strain. 

8. Camphor 1 dr., ether 4 dr. ; dissolve. 

9. Camphor 2 dr., chloroform 1 dr., spirit of sal volatile 

1 dr. 

10. Opium 2 oz., mastic 1 oz., balsam of Tolu 1 dr., 
camphor 1 oz., oil of cloves 1 dr., rectified spirit 16 fluid oz., 
oil of bitter almonds 8 drops. 

11. Boerhaave's Odontalgic. Rectified spirit 1 oz., 
camphor ^ oz., opium 1 scruple, oil of cloves 80 drops. 

12. Lemazurier's Odontalgic. Cherry-laurel water 2 
oz., acetate of morphia 1 gr. Wash the mouth with warm 
water, to a glass of which a few drops of this mixture have 
been added. 

13. Oil of rosemary 2 oz., tincture of galbanum 1 oz. ; 
mix. Cotton wet with this is to be introduced into the ear. 

14. RiGHiNi's. Alcohol 4 dr., creasote 6 dr., tincture 
of cochineal 2 dr., oil of peppermint 3 drops. 

15. Mr. Druitt's. Tannin 20 gr., mastic 5 gr., ether 

2 dr. Wash the mouth with warm water containing a little 
carbonate of soda ; lance the gums, and apply the tincture 
to the cavity of the tooth, on cotton. 

16. Mr. Tomes recommends a solution of mastic in chlo- 
roform. The mastic serves to retain the chloroform, but the 
latter may be used alone on cotton or lint. Mr. Beatson 
uses a solution of copal in chloroform. 


17. Chloroform and white of egg, equal parts, digested 
for 4 hours ; then applied on lint. 

Henbane Fumigation for Toothache. A popular remedy 
is to throw henbane seed on hot cinders, inverting a cup 
over them to receive the smoke and empyreumatic oil pro- 
duced. The cup is then filled with hot water, and the steam 
conveyed to the affected side of the mouth. Dr. Downing's 
Aneuralgicon would probably prove a more effective means 
of applying remedies of this kind. 



1. De Handel's. Opium 12 gr., camphor 24 gr., caje- 
put oil 4 drops, tincture of cantharides 4 drops, extract of 
henbane and of belladonna, of each 24 gr. ; distilled water of 
opium q. s. 

2. Vogler's. Powdered opium 1 oz., mastic 2 dr., san- 
darach 2 dr., dragon's blood J dr., oil of rosemary 8 drops, 
spirit to form a paste. To be applied near the affected 

3. Powdered alum 1 dr., powdered mastic ^ dr., spirit of 
nitric ether q. s. to form a paste. 

4. Rust's. Opium 5 gr., oil of cloves 3 drops, extract of 
henbane 5 gr., extract of belladonna 10 gr., powdered pelli- 
tory sufficient to form a paste. 



These are harder than the preceding, and intended to remain 
in the tooth for an indefinite time. In all cases the cavity 
should be previously cleared from all extraneous matters, 
and wiped perfectly dry with a piece of lint or blotting- 

1. Soubeiran's. Powdered mastic and sandarach, of 
each 4 dr. ; dragon's blood 2 dr., opium 15 gr. ; mix with 
sufficient rectified spirit to form a stiff paste. A solution of 
mastic, or of mastic and sandarach, in half the quantity of 
alcohol, is also used, applied with a little cotton or lint. 

2. Sandarach 12 parts, mastic 6 parts, amber in powder 
1 part, ether 6 parts. Applied with cotton. Or simply a 
paste of powdered mastic and ether. Or a saturated ethe- 
real solution of mastic, applied with cotton. 


3. Taveare's Cement is made with mastic and burnt 
alum. Bernoth directs 90 parts of powdered mastic to be 
digested with 40 of ether, and enough powdered alum added 
to form a stiff paste. 

4. Gutta-percha, softened by heat, is recommended. Dr. 
RoLLFS advises melting a piece of caoutchouc at the end of 
a wire, and introducing it while warm. 

5. Gauger's Cement. Put into a quart bottle 2 oz., of 
- mastic and 3 oz of absolute alcohol ; apply a gentle heat by 

a water-bath. When dissolved add 9 oz. of dry balsam of 
Tolu, and again heat gently. A piece of cotton dipped in 
, " this viscid solution becomes hard when introduced into the 
tooth, previously cleansed and dried as above. 

6. Mr. Robinson's. After washing out the mouth with 
warm water, containing a few grains of bicarbonate of soda, 
and cleaning the cavity as above directed, he drops into it a 
drop of collodion, to which a little morphia has been added, 
fills the cavities with asbestos, and saturates with collodion, 
placing over all a pledget of blotting-paper. 

7. Ostermaier's Cement. Mix 12 parts of dry phos- 
phoric acid with 13 of pure and pulverized quicklime. It 
becomes moist in mixing, in which state it is introduced into 
the cavity of the tooth, where it quickly becomes hard. (In 
some hands this has failed, from what cause we are not 
aware.) The acid should be prepared as directed under 
Trade Chemicals (Acid, Phosphoric). 

8. SiLiciA. This name has been given to a mixture of 
Paris plaster, levigated porcelain, iron filings, and dregs of 
tincture of mastic, ground together. 

9. Wirth's Cement. It is said to consist of a viscid 
alcoholic solution of resins, with powdered abestos. 

10. Metallic Cement. Amalgams for the teeth are made 
with gold or silver, and quicksilver, the excess of the latter 
being squeezed out, and the stiff amalgam used warm. In- 
ferior kinds are made Avith quicksilver and tin, or zinc. A 
popular nostrum of this kind is said to consist of 40 gr. of 
quicksilver and 20 of fine zinc filings, mixed at the time of 
using. Mr. Evans states that pure tin, with a small portion 
of cadmium, and sufficient quicksilver, forms the most lasting 
and least objectionable amalgam. The following is the for- 
mula : Melt 2 parts of tin with 1 of cadmium, run it into an 
ingot and reduce it to filings. Form these into a fluid 
amalgam with mercury, and squeeze out the excess of mer- 
cury through leather Work up the solid residue in the 


hand, and press it into the tooth. Or, melt some beeswax 
in a pipkin over the fire, throw in 5 parts of cadmium, and, 
when melted, add 7 or 8 parts of tin in small pieces ; pour 
the melted metals into an iron or wooden box, and shake 
them till cold, so as to obtain the alloy in a powder. This 
is mixed with 2f or 3 times its weight of quicksilver in the 
palm of the hand, and used as above. 

Another cement consists of about 73 parts of silver, 21 
of tin and 6 of zinc, amalgamated with quicksilver. An 
amalgam of copper is said to be sometimes used. But this 
class of stoppings is altogether disapproved of bj other 
authorities. Pure leaf -gold seems the least objectionable. 

11. Marmoratum. Finely-levigated glass, mixed with 
tin amalgam. 

12. PouDRE Metallique. The article sold under this 
name in Paris appeai-s to be an amalgam of silver, mercury, 
and ammonium, with an excess of mercury, which is pressed 
out before using it. 

13. Fusible Metal. Melt together 8 parts of bismuth, 
5 of lead, 3 of tin, and Ih or 1.6 of quicksilver, with as little 
heat as possible. — Chaudet. 

Paste for Destroying the Sensibility of the Dental 
Pulp previous to Stopping. Arsenious acid 30 grains, 
sulphate of morphia 20 grains, creasote q. s. (Unsafe ; it 
is only inserted by way of warning against what may prove 
an unsuspected cause of mischief.) 

Pivots for Artificial Teeth. An alloy of platinum and 

Springs for Artificial Teeth. Equal parts of copper, 
silver, and palladium. — Chaudet. 

[For Cachou Aromatis^, and other compounds for sweet- 
ening the breath, see Perfumery.] 

Earache, Simple Cure for. Take a common tobacco-pipe, 
place a wad of cotton in the bowl, drop upon it 8 or 10 drops 
of chloroform, and cover with another wad of cotton ; place 
the stem to the affected ear, then blow into the bowl, and in 
many cases the pain will cease almost immediately. — Ameri- 
can Journal. 




We have placed here such beverages as are rather employed 
jis a refreshing luxury than either medicinally or as regular 
articles of diet. Wines, spirits, &c., are necessarily ex- 
cluded. The medicinal mineral waters will be found else- 

Ginger Beer. 1. Infuse 3 oz. of bruised ginger in 4 gallons 
of boiling water till cold. Strain through tammy or flannel. 
Dissolve in the liquor 5 ft) of loaf sugar, and add half a pint 
of solid yeast, and 2^ oz. of cream of tartar. In cold 
weather it will be necessary to set the cask near the fire, so 
as to excite brisk fermentation. As soon as this subsides, 
rack off the clear liquor, return it into the cask previously 
washed out, and allow it to work for a day or two longer. 
Then draw it oif and bottle it. — Mr. Donovan. 

2. Ginger sliced 1 oz., dried orange-peel J oz. ; tie them 
in a bag, and boil with 16 ft) of water, and strain ; add f of 
an oz. of tartaric or citric acid, 25 drops essence of lemon, 
and 24 oz. of loaf sugar. When sufficiently cool, add 2 
tablespoonfuls of fresh yeast ; let it work for 12 hours and 
bottle it. 

3. Ginger sliced f oz., essence of lemon (rubbed with 
sugar) ^ dr., lump sugar 12 oz., boiling water 8 ft) ; infuse 
till cold, and strain. Ferment as above, with 3 or 4 spoon- 
fuls of yeast, and bottle. 

4. Boil 2|- oz. of bruised ginger and 3 ft) of sugar in S^ 
gallons of water for 20 minutes ; put into a large pan 1 oz. 
cream of tartar, and the juice and rind of two lemons ; pour 
the boilingliquor over them, and stir the whole well together; 
when milk-warm add ^ pint of good ale yeast, cover it, and 
let it work for 2 or 3 days, skimming it frequently ; then 
strain it through a jelly-bag into a cask, add ^ pint of 
brandy, bung down close, and in 2 or 3 weeks bottle it in the 
usual way. 


5. Boil 22 oz. bruised ginger in 3 gallons of water for 
J an hour ; add 20 Bb of white sugar, 18 oz. of lemon- 
juice, 1 ib of honey, and 15 gallons of water, and strain 
through a cloth. When cold add the white of 1 egg, and ^ 
oz. of essence of lemon ; after standing 4 days, bottle, and 
lay the bottles in a cellar for 3 weeks. 

6. Prepare a clear decoction or infusion of ginger with 
sugar and lemon as above ; but instead of fermenting it with 
yeast, charge it strongly with carbonic acid gas by means of 
a machine. 

7. Imperial Pop. Cream of tartar 3 oz., ginger 1 oz., 
white sugar 24 oz., lemon-juice 1 oz., boiling water a gallon 
and half; when cool, strain, and ferment with 1 oz. of yeast, 
and bottle. 


of ginger with 11 quarts of water ; beat up 4 eggs to a froth, 
and add them with 9 ft) of sugar to the preceding. Take 9 
lemons, peel them carefully, and add the rind and juice to 
the foregoing. Put the whole into a barrel, add 3 spoonfuls 
of yeast, bung down the barrel, and in about 12 days bottle 
it off. In 15 days it will be fit for drinking ; but it improves 
by keeping. 

2. To 10 gallons of water add llj ft) of loaf sugar, and 
the whites of 10 eggs well beaten ; boil till the scum rises, 
and add 6 oz. of bruised ginger ; boil for 20 minutes, then 
pour the hot liquor on the rinds of 12 lemons thinly peeled ; 
when cold, put into a barrel the juice of 12 lemons, 1 oz. of 
isinglass, a gill of brandy, and a spoonful of yeast, and fill 
the barrel with the liquor. In a fortnight it ivill be ready, 
to bottle. 

Ginger Beer Powders. Fine powder of Jamaica ginger 
4 or 5 dr., bicarbonate of soda 3J oz., refined sugar in 
powder 14 oz., essence of lemon 30 drops ; mix, and di- 
vide into 5 dozen powders. (Or 4 to 5 gr. of ginger, 28 
of bicarbonate of soda, 112 of sugar, and J drop of essence 
of lemon, in each powder.) In the other powder put 32 gr. 
of tartaric acid ; or 35 gr. if a more decidedly acidulated 
beverage is required. Or from 30 to 33 gr. of citric acid. 

[Other formulae are also in use. Dr. Pereira gives the 
following : Bicarbonate of soda 30 gr., white sugar 1 dr., 
powdered ginger 5 gr., in each blue paper ; and 25 gr. of 
tartaric acid, in each white paper. This is less agreeable, 
but perhaps more friendly to the stomach, than when the 

270 beverages: 

acid is in slight excess. The following is from the Pharma- 
ceutical Journal: Sugar 2 dr., sesquicarbonate of soda 2 
scruples (misprinted 2 drachms in vol. 3), ginger 4 or 5 gr., 
essence of lemon 1^ or 2 drops, in each blue paper ; with 35 
gr. of tartaric acid.] 

Ginger Beer Powder, in one Bottle. (The soda, acid, and 

sugar must be very carefully dried, separately, and at a 

, temperature not exceeding 120°.) Fine powder of Jamaica 

ginger 4 or 5 dr., bicarbonate of soda 3J oz., double refined 

sugar 14 oz., essence of lemon 30 drops, tartaric acid 4| oz. 

- The acid and soda should not be too finely powdered. 
Mix the powders, recently dried, in a warm mortar, and 
immediately put the mixture into dry bottles, and cork 
securely. A measure holding 3 dr. should accompany each 

Lemon Juice, factitious. Dissolve 4 oz. of citric acid in 3 
pints of water, with 8 drops of essence of lemon (rubbed with 
the acid, or dissolved in a little spirit or tincture of fresh 
lemon-peel). After standing a few days filter it, and keep 
it in well-closed bottles. 

Orange Juice, factitious. Citric acid 1 oz., water 2 pints, 
oil of orange-peel 4 drops, tincture of orange-peel J oz. As 
the last. 

King Cup; or Lemon Drink without Acid. 1. Pour a 
quart of cold water on the thin peel of 1 or 2 lemons ; let 
them infuse 6 or 8 hours ; then strain. — Mr. Brande. 

2. Pour a pint of boiling water on the outer rind of one 
lemon, a small piece of dried orange-peel, and a moderate- 
sized lump of sugar. 

Lemonade, Acidulated (not Aerated). 1. Fresh lemon 
juice 4 oz., fresh lemon-peel (thinly peeled) J oz., white 
sugar 4 oz., boiling water 3 pints. Strain when cold. — 
Mr. Brande. 

2. Imperial. Cream of tartar IJ dr., a slice of thin 
lemon-peel, a lump of sugar ; pour on them a quart of boil- 
ing water. Strain when cold. To be taken as a cooling 

3. Common. Cut 2 lemons into slices, add 2 oz. of sugar, 
and pour on them a quart of boiling water. It is sometimes 
made with cold water. 


4. French, Syrup of citric acid 2 oz., water a quart, spirit 
of lemon-peel a teaspoonful. 

5. Juice and the thin peel of 1 lemon, citric acid 1 dr., 
sugar 3 oz., boiling water a quart. It may be varied by 
substituting for the sugar syrup of raspberries, or of other 

Aerated or Effervescing Lemonade. This may be made 
by putting into each bottle (soda water bottle) 1 oz. or IJ 
oz. of syrup of lemons, and filling it up with simple aerated 
water from the machine. (The syrup is made by dissolving 
30 oz. of lump sugar in 16 oz. of fresh lemon-juice, by a 
gentle heat. It may be aromatized by adding 30 or 40 drops 
of essence of lemon to the sugar ; or by rubbing part of the 
sugar on the peel of 2 lemons ; or by adding to the syrup an 
ounce of a strong tincture of fresh lemon-peel ; or of the dis- 
tilled spirit of the same.) 

Effervescing Lemonade, without a Machine. Put into 
each bottle 2 dr. of sugar, 2 drops of essence of lemon, i dr. 
bicarbonate potash, and water to fill the bottle ; then drop 
in 35 or 40 gr. of citric or tartaric acid in crystals, and cork 
immediately, placing the bottles in a cool place, or prefer- 
ably, in iced water. Mr. Bartlett recommends 2 scruples 
of sesquicarbonate of soda, 2 dr. of sugar, 4 drops of essence 
of lemon, and half a pint of water ; lastly, a dr. of tartaric 
acid in crystals. Care must be taken to avoid accidents 
from the bursting of the bottles. Another form is : Into 
a soda-water bottle nearly filled with water, put 1 oz., of 
sugar, 2 drops of essence of lemon (dropped on the sugar), 
20 gr. of bicarbonate of potash in crystals; and, last'y, 
30 to 40 gr. of citric acid, also in crystals. Cork imme- 

Milk Lemonade. Dissolve 1 J ib of sugar in a quart of boil- 
ing water, add J pint of fresh lemon-juice, and the same of 
sherry ; and, lastly, two-thirds of a pint of cold milk. Stir 
together, and strain. 

Dry Lemonade, or Acidulated Lemonade Powder. Citric 
acid f oz., refined sugar 8 oz., essence of lemon 36 drops. 
Some recipes direct a larger quantity of acid, others a much 
larger proportion of sugar. 

Effervescing Lemonade Powders. Bicarbonate of soda 
3J oz., refined sugar 14 oz., essence of lemon 60 drops. 


(Sometimes 12 or more grains of the powdered yellow 
rind of lemon-juice are added to color it.) Mix, and di- 
vide into 60 powders, or 140 grains in each blue paper. 
In the white papers put from 30 to 32 gr. of citric acid, 
or from 32 to 35 gr. of tartaric acid. Or the mixed alka- 
line powder and the acid may be put into separate bottles, 
furnished with measures holding the proper quantities of 

Effervescing Lemonade Powders in one Bottle. Note. — 
The powders must all be separately and carefully dried, at 
- a moderate temperature, before mixing, and when mixed, be 
carefully secured from the air. 

1. Bicarbonate of soda 1 oz,, refined sugar 3J oz., tartaric 
acid 1^ oz., essence of lemon 30 drops; mix, and put into 
well-corked bottles. 

2. Mix 3^ oz. of bicarbonate of soda, 14 oz. of double re- 
fined sugar, 60 drops of essence of lemon, and 4 oz. to 4|^ oz. 
of tartaric acid. 

3. Lemon Kali. Acidulated Kali. Sesquicarbonated 
soda 8 oz., tartaric acid 8 oz., refined sugar 16 oz., essence 
of lemon 100 drops; mix. — Pharmaceutical Journal. 

Orangeade, OR Sherbet. 1. Juice of 4 oranges, thin peel of 
1 orange, lump sugar 4 oz., boiling water 3 pints. 

2. Juice and peel of 1 large orange, citric acid J dr., 
sugar 3 oz., boiling water a quart. 

Effervescing or Aerated Orangeade, or Sherbet. 1. 
Mix 1 ft) of syrup of orange-peel, a gallon of water, and 1 oz. 
of citric acid, and charge it strongly with carbonic acid gas 
with a machine. 

2. Syrup of orange-juice f oz., aerated water ^ pint. 

3. Simple syrup J fluid oz., tincture of orange-peel J 
dr., citric acid 1 scruple; fill the bottle with aerated 

4. Put into a soda-water bottle ^ oz. to 1 oz. of syrup of 
orange-peel, 30 gr. of bicarbonate of potash, 8 oz. of water, 
and, lastly, 40 gr. of citric acid in crystals, and cork im- 

5.. Put into each bottle 2 or 3 dr. of sugar, 2 drops of oil 
of orange-peel, 30 gr. of bicarbonate of potash, or 25 gr. of 
bicarbonate of soda ; water to fill the bottle, and 40 gr. of 
citric acid, as before. 

Aerated Sherbet, or Orangeade Powders. Powdered 


sugar 14J oz., powdered orange-peel 12 gr., oil of orange- 
peel 60 drops, essence of cedrat 12 drops, bicarbonate of 
soda 3^ oz. ; mix, and put 145 gr. in each blue paper. In 
the Avhite paper put 32 gr. of tartaric (or rather 30 gr. of 
citric) acid. Or the alkaline and acid powders may be put 
into separate bottles, with a measure holding the proper pro- 
portion of each. The orange peel may be omitted. 

Aerated Sherbet Powders in one Bottle. Double-refined 
sugar 14|^ oz. (powdered orange-peel 12 gr.), bicarbonate of 
soda 3| oz., essence of cedrat 12 drops, oil of orange-peel 60 
drops, tartaric acid 4 oz. The powders must be carefully 
dried, mixed quickly, and afterwards kept dry and securely 
corked. A measure holding nearly 3 dr. of the powder 
should accompany each bottle. 

Orangeade Powder, not Aerated. Citric acid | oz., sugar 
8 oz., oil of orange-peel 20 drops. 

Soda Powders. The usual proportions are : SO or 32 gr. of 
bicarbonate of soda in each blue paper ; and 25 or 26 gr. of 
tartaric acid in each white paper. 

Acidulated Effervescing Powders, for making efferves- 
cing drinks with concentrated syrups of lemon, ginger, 
&c. Put into separate papers, distinguished by their dif- 
ferent colors, 20 gr. of bicarbonate of soda, and 28 gr. of 
citric or tartaric acid. One of each powder to be dis- 
solved separately in J of a tumbler of Avater, and a tea- 
spoonful of the syrup added to the acid solution, and the 
liquids mixed. 

The Concentrated Syrups are thus made: 

Concentrated Syo-up of G-inge7\ Simple syrup 7J fluid 
oz., essence of ginger (1 part ginger to 4 of spirit) |- oz. 

Concentrated Syrup of Lemon-peel. Strong tincture of 
lemon-peel* 1 oz., simple syrup 15 fluid oz. 

Concentrated Syrup of Orange-peel. Strong tincture of 
fresh orange-peel* \ oz., simple syrup 1\ fluid oz. 

(S3'rup of raspberries, pine-apples, and other fruit, may 
be used Avith the above powders in the same Avay.) 
For Seidlitz and other Medicated Powders, see Mineral 

* These tinctures are thus made : Fresh lemon-peel, thin, and cut small, 
4 oz, ; rectified spirit 8 oz. ; digest for some days, and strain. Fresh peel 
of Seville oranges 4 oz., spirit 16 oz. 



Waters and .Powders, at the end of Patent Medicines, 

Spruce Beer. Water 10 gallons, treacle or lump sugar (ac- 
cording to the color required) 6 Sb, essence of spruce 4 oz. ; 
add yeast, and ferment as for ginger beer. 

Spruce Beer Powders. In each blue paper put 5 scruples 
of powdered sugar, 28 gr. of bicarbonate of soda, and 10 
gr. essence of spruce. In each white paper 30 gr. tartaric 

Treacle Beer. 1. Brown sugar 1 Bb, treacle 1 To, bruised 
ginger 1 oz., hops ^ oz. ; boil for a few minutes in 3 quarts 
of Avater, strain, and add 5 quarts of cold water : add a 
spoonful of fresh yeast ; let it work all night, and bottle it 
in the morning. 

2. Treacle 14 ft), hops IJ ft), water 36 gallons, yeast 1 ft) ; 
boil the hops Avith the water, add the treacle, and strain. 
Cool to 80°, and ferment with the yeast. In winter J oz. 
of Cayenne pods with the hops is an improvement. — Family 

Capillaire. To 1 pint of boiling water add 3 oz. of fine 
maidenhair ; remove from the fire, cover, and set near the 
fire for 3 hours ; strain, and add ^ pint of orange-flower 
water. Boil 1 gallon of fine syrup till reduced to 7 pints, 
then add the infusion, and boil for 10 minutes ; strain 
through a jelly-bag, and when quite cold bottle the syrup. 
It is used to give a fine flavor to water. 

LiMONiATED Capillaire. Refined sugar 24 oz., water 12 oz. ; 
dissolve by a gentle heat ; and add essence of lemon 30 
drops, neroli 3 drops, citric acid 2 oz., orange-flower water 
4 oz. 

Syrup of Pine-Apple. Expressed juice of pine-apple a pint ; 
loaf sugar 2 ft). Boil gently, and when cold filter. 

Syrup d'Orgeat. See Syrupus Amygdalee, Pocket Formu- 
lary. Another formulae for this excellent syrup is the 
following : take 20 oz. of sweet and 8 of bitter almonds, 
9 ft) of white sugar, and 4 pints of water. Blanch the 
almonds, dry them well, beat them with a portion of the 
sugar, and add gradually two-thirds of the water ; strain 
through linen, wash the almonds on the strainer with the 
rest of the water, and dissolve the sugar in the strained 


liquor by a gentle heat. Pour the syrup into an earthen 
vessel, remove the scum, and when nearly cold add 2 oz. of 
orange-flower water. 

Acidulated Raspberry Syrup. Put 6 Bb of raspberries 
into a china or glass bowl, or an earthen pan not glazed 
with lead, with a quart of water in which has been dissolved 
2^ oz. of tartaric (or preferably citric) acid, and let it 
remain 24 hours ; then strain it, taking care not to bruise 
the fruit. To each pint of clear liquid add 1^ fib of pounded 
loaf sugar, and stir it with a silver spoon till dissolved : 
leave it for a few days, then bottle it close. A little of 
this syrup, or of either of the two following, with water, 
forms a refreshing drink in warm weather, and in some 
febrile disorders. 

Acidulated Strawberry Syrup. As Raspberry Syrup, 
using 2 oz. of citric acid, instead of 2J oz. of tartaric acid. 

Raspberry Vinegar. Put a pint and a half of best wine 
vinegar to 3 fib of fruit in a glass or porcelain vessel ; leave 
them together for a fortnight, then strain without pressure. 
Or put an equivalent quantity of strong acetic acid (4 oz. 
of the usual strength) to the fruit, in the same way. Or it 
may be made as directed above for Acidulated Raspberry 

Whey Powder. Sugar of milk in fine powder 2 oz., pow- 
dered white sugar 7 oz., gum Arabic J oz. ; mix. An 
ounce dissolved in a quart of water as a substitute for whey. 

Whey may be made by adding a little infusion of rennet- 
(prepared calf's stomach) to milk, and gently heating it till 
curdled. It is also made by heating a quart of milk nearly 
to boiling, and adding either a little lemon-juice, orange- 
juice, solution of citric acid, vinegar, or white wine, or cream 
of tartar sufficient to turn it. It is then strained. If re- 
quired brigJit, beat up the white of an egg with a portion of 
the whey, mix with the rest, boil for a momentj and run it 
through a jelly-bag. 

One or two recipes in Confectionery may be introduced 

Orange Marmalade. 1. Procure some large Seville oranges 
with clear skins, peel them, squeeze out the pulp and juice, 
taking care to remove all the pips. Boil the peel, divided 


into quarters, till tliey are sufficiently tender ; scrape clean 
all the inside from them, lay them in iPolds, and cut them into 
very thin slices about an inch long. Weigh the juice, pulp, 
and boiled peel ; then add broken lump sugar equal in weight 
to the whole, and boil for half an hour, carefully removing 
, the scum. Then put it into pots, and when quite cold cover 
them over. 

2. Instead of using all Seville oranges, let only half or a 
third of them be bitter, and the rest common sweet oranges. 
Proceed in the same Avay. Some add honey. 

"Currant Jelly. Pick the currants, put them in an earthen 
jar, and place it in boiling water till the juice is extracted. 
Strain through a sieve without pressing them, and boil the 
juice in an enamelled saucepan with its weight of loaf 
sugar, removing the scum as it rises. When it will jelly 
on the back of a cold spoon, it is sufficiently done. A little 
of the jelly dissolved in warm water forms an agreeable 


As the ingredients of some of the following compounds are 
usually sold by druggists, who may be expected to furnish 
information as to the manner of using them, and as they may 
all be regarded as auxiliaries to medical treatment, some 
notice of them here seems desirable, though it must neces- 
sarily be brief and incomplete. 

Arrow-root. (West Indian arrow-root is the fecula of the 
tubers of the Maranta arundinacea ; East Indian arrow-root 
is obtained from the Curcuma angustifolia ; South Sea or 
Tahiti arrow-root from the Tacca pinnatifida. They have 
all the same properties, and are used in the same manner.) 
Mix a dessert-spoonful of arrow-root with sufficient cold 
water to form a soft paste ; rub it till quite smooth, and 
add half a pint of boiling water, stirring it briskly. Boil it 
for a minute or two, and when removed from the fire add a 
teaspoonful of sherry or other white wine (where wine is 
.admissible), with a little grated nutmeg or lemon-peel, and 
sugar to the taste. For young children milk should be used 
instead of water, and the wine omitted: it is also more 
nourishing in this form for those invalids with whom milk 


Tous LES Mois. (The fecula of a species of Canna.) It is 
used in the same way as arrow-root ; but rather less is re- 
quired. It forms a more tenacious, but less transparent 


Sago. (The granulated fecula of the pith of one or more 
species of the Sago Palm.) Wash an ounce of pearl sago in 
cold water ; then boil it very gently in a pint of fresh water, 
stirring it frequently till dissolved. It may be flavored with 
wine, spices, and sugar, as directed for arrowroot. For 
children, and for consumptive and debilitated patients, it 
may be made with milk instead of water. The common 
sago, being in larger grains, requires more time to dissolve : 
and is usually steeped for some hours before boiling it. 

Tapioca. (Obtained from the tuberous roots of the Cassava, 
Jatropha manihot. It is usually sold in small lumps formed 
by drying the fecula on hot plates.) It is used in the same 
way as sago ; but requires to be previously steeped for some 
hours, or to be simmered for a longer time. It forms a clear 
jelly, which may be flavored with wines, spices, and sugar, 
as directed for arrowroot ; but is more nourishing when 
made with milk. 

Sago Posset, for invalids. Macerate a tablespoonful of sago 
in a pint of water for 2 hours on the hob of a stove, then 
boil for 15 minutes, assiduously stirring. Add sugar with 
an aromatic, as ginger or nutmeg, and a tablespoonful or 
more of white wine. If the wine be not permitted, flavor 
with lemon-juice. 

Sago oe Tapioca Milk, for invalids. Take an ounce of 
either of these feculse, and soak it in a pint of cold water 
for an hour ; then pour off this water, and adding 1^ pint of 
good milk, boil slowly until well incorporated. — Dr. A. T. 

Tapioca Pudding, for invalids. Beat up | ounce of sugar with 
the yolks of 2 eggs, and stir the mixture into a pint of 
tapioca milk. — Dr. Thomson. 

Arrow-root milk and pudding may be made like the corres- 
ponding preparations of tapioca. 

Panada, for invalids. Place in a saucepan some very thin 
slices of bread crumbs, and add rather more water than will 
cover them. Boil now until the bread becomes pulpy, 
strain off the superfluous water, and beat up the remainder 


into the consistence of gruel. Sweeten with white sugar, 
and add, if permitted, a little sherry wine. 

Barley Water. See Decoctum Hordei, and Decoctum 
HoRDEi CoMPOSiTUM. Robinson's Patent Barley is a con- 
■ venient preparation ; printed directions accompany it. 

Asses' Milk, artificial. Eringo root, pearl barley, sago, 
rice, of each 1 oz. Wash them with cold water, then boil 
them with 3 pints of water to 1^ pint, and strain. Put a 
teaspoonful to a cup of boiling milk, and sweeten to the 
taste. [Bonbons de lait d'dnesse are made with sugar of 
milk, white sugar, gum, and starch or arrow-root.) 

Linseed Tea. Take 1^ oz. of clean linseed, and ^ an oz. of 
bruised liquorice root ; put them into a warm teapot or jug, 
and pour on them 2 pints of boiling water ; let them stand, 
covered, near the fire, for 3 or 4 hours, stirring them occa- 
sionally ; then strain. To save time, the ingredients may 
be boiled for 15 or 20 minutes, instead of infusing them ; 
but the tea so made is less agreeable. 

Iceland Moss. Infuse an ounce of picked Iceland Moss 
for 15 minutes in half a pint of hot water ; strain off the 
water and boil the moss in a quart of fresh water till re- 
duced to a pint and a half. Half an ounce of liquorice root 
may be added, towards the end of the boiling, if agreeable : 
or milk may be used instead of water. 

Jelly of Iceland Moss. See Gelatina Lichenis, Pocket 
Formulary. Another form is the following : Infuse 2 Sb of 
the moss for half an hour in sufficient boiling water to cover 
it ; drain the moss, and boil it in 2^ gallons of water for an 
hour, and strain. Boil the moss with fresh water, adding an 
oz. of isinglass ; strain : mix the product of the two boil- 
ings, and let it stand till clear. Evaporate the clear 
liquid to the consistence of a stiff jelly, adding towards the 
end, 6 ft) of fine lump sugar, 2 oz. of French brandy, and 
half an ounce of orange-flower water. It may be taken, 
almost at pleasure, dissolved in water or milk. 

Iceland Moss Chocolate. See Chocolate Lichenis, Pocket 

Irish Moss, or Carrageen. Steep a |- of an ounce of the 
moss in cold water for a few minutes ; then withdraw it, 
shaking the water from each sprig, and boil it in a quart 


of railk till it attains the consistence of jelly, and sweeten 
to the taste. A decoction of the same quantity of moss 
in a quart of water is also used as a demulcent in coughs, 
&c. Blanc-Mange may be made by washing | oz. of the 
moss as above, and boiling it in 1^ pint of new milk to 
such a consistence that it will retain its form when cold, 
sweetening and flavoring it to the taste. An agreeable jelly 
may be made by boiling it with water instead of milk, and 
adding lemon or orange juice or peel, wine, &c. 

Ceylon Moss. Boil | oz. of the prepared moss in a quart 
of water for 25 minutes ; or till a teaspoonful taken out 
forms a firm jelly in 2 or 3 minutes: then flavor with 
wine, cinnamon, or with lemon or orange juice or peel ; 
and sweeten to the taste. Boil for five minutes longer, 
and press through a jelly-bag, or double muslin. Pour 
it into earthen moulds, and leave it undisturbed till it 
has set. If the jelly is required bright it must be clarified 
with white of egg, as directed for gelatine jelly. For 
Blanc-Mange add 1 oz. of prepared moss to a quart of 
boiling water, and boil gently till reduced to a third ; add 
the milk and flavoring ingredients, and pour into earthen 

Australian Moss. This has been introduced for the same 
use as Irish and Ceylon mosses, but has not been very gene- 
rally adopted. Soak i oz. of the moss in water for an hour or 
two, pour away the water, and boil the moss in a quart of 
fresh water till dissolved. Strain through a hair sieve, and 
sweeten and flarvor to the taste. 

Salep. (The dried root of some species of orchis.) Boil ^ 
oz. of salep powder in a pint of water till dissolved ; strain, 
and sweeten and flavor to the taste. 

Hartshorn Jelly. Boil 4 oz. of true hartshorn shavings 
(previously washed in warm water) in a quart of water till 
reduced to a pint; strain, and sweeten and -flavor to the 
taste. For children and consumptive patients the simple 
jelly may be mixed with milk and a little sugar. To make 
a bright jelly for the table, boil 4 oz. of washed hartshorn 
shavings in 1|- pint of water, till reduced to f of a pint, and 
add 2 oz. of sugar, and a tablespoonful of lemon or orange 
juice. Strain Avith pressure ; beat up the white of an egg 
with a little cold water, mix this thoroughly with the jelly, 
and evaporate the liquid till a little taken out solidifies on 


cooling. Add a little fresh lemon-peel, and strain through a 

Gelatine Jelly. Steep 1 oz. of Nelson's or other puri- 
fied gelatine in half a pint of cold water for ten minutes ; 
then add the same quantity of boiling water, and stir 
till it is dissolved, applying heat if required ; add the 
juice and peel of two lemons, sugar, and wine sufficient 

- to make up the whole to a pint and a half. If required 
bright, have ready the white and shell of an egg well 
beaten together, stir them briskly into the jelly, boil for 

. ' 2 or 3 minutes without stirring, and pass through a jelly- 
bao-. As a nourishing; diet for children and invalids, a 
little of the gelatine simply dissolved in water may be 
mixed with milk, or the dry gelatine dissolved in milk by 

Isinglass Jelly. Isinglass is used in the same way as gela- 
tine, but as it is not wholly soluble in water, it requires strain- 
ing. To make a bright jelly it requires more eggs for its 
clarification than gelatine. A very pleasant jelly is made 
with the acidulated Raspberry or Strawberry Syrup (p. 
275) thus : Dissolve IJ oz. of isinglass in a very little 
water, put this to a quart of the syrup, warm it and stir it 
well ; then strain it into a mould. In warm weather put 2 
oz. of isinglass. 

Arrow-koot Blanc-Mange. Beat up 2 oz. of genuine arrow- 
root with a little cold milk to the consistence of cream ; 
pour on it IJ pint of boiling milk, stirring it all the time. 
Flavor and sweeten to the taste, boil for 10 minutes, stir- 
ring it constantly, pour into moulds, and leave it until next 

Blanc-Mange. This may be made with either isinglass or 
gelatine. Boil J oz. in 16 fluid oz. (the old wine pint) of 
new milk ; stir it constantly till it boils, let it simmer for a 
few minutes till the isinglass is dissolved : strain, add sugar 
to the taste, and a few drops of almond flavor, or other 
flavoring ingredients, and pour into moulds. 

Chocolate. This is prepared from the finest cocoa-nuts 
(seeds of Theobroma cacao) after roasting, winnowing, &c., 
by grinding them on a hot stone or plate, or beating them 
in a hot mortar to a smooth paste. Sugar is generally 
added, and vanilla, or other flavoring ingredients. 


Chocolates, Medicated. See Chocolata, Pocket Formularj. 

White Chocolate. White sugar 3 Bb, rice flour 27| oz., 
English or Indian arrow-root 8 oz., tincture of vanilla J oz,, 
butter of cacao 8 oz., powdered gum arabic 4 oz. ; form a 
paste with boiling water, and put it into moulds. 

Cocoa. This should also be prepared from the seeds of Theo- 
broma cacao ; and the rock, roll, and flake cocoas often 
consist of this alone. But most of the paste cocoa, and 
soluble cocoa powder, is mixed with saccharine and 
farinaceous matters. This is the case with much of the 
'■'"Homoeopathic ' Oocoa, which professes to be unadulte- 
rated, but generally contains potato-starch. A common 
proportion for soluble cocoa appears to be f of pure cocoa, 
and ^ of sugar and farina ; the latter being one or more 
of the following : Wheat flour, sago meal, potato flour, 
arrow-root, &c. The Paste Cocoa often contains only 
about half its weight of cocoa, the rest being sugar and 
water, with sometimes the addition of sago meal or other 

Broma. This consists of about 8 oz. of pure cocoa, 3J Of 
sugar, and 4|- of sago meal, arrow-root, &c. 

Wacaka des Indes. Roasted cacao beans (chocolate) in 
powder 2 oz., sugar 6 oz., cinnamon ^ oz., vanilla (powdered 
with part of the sugar) ^ dr., ambergris 3 gr., musk 1|^ gr. 
Sometimes 1 dr. of prepared annotto is added, and the 
ambergris and musk omitted. 

Racahout des Arabes. This is professedly a preparation of 
acorns (perhaps those of the Quercus ballotta, which are 
naturally sweet, or of other kinds deprived of their bitter- 
ness by being buried in the earth) ; but it is imitated by the 
following: 1. Chocolate in powder 1 oz., rice flour 3 oz., 
sugar 9 oz., potato arrow-root 3 oz., vanilla (pulverized with 
part of the sugar) 1 dr. ; mix. 

2. Chocolate in powder 4 oz., salep 1 oz. (or powdered 
tragacanth 1 oz.), potato arrow-root 5 oz., sugar (flavored 
with vanilla) 8 oz. — Cadet. 

DiCTAMiA. Sugar 7 oz., potato arrow-root 4 oz., flour of brent 
barley (Triticum monococcum) 3 oz., Trinidad and Granada 
chocolate, each 1 oz. ; vanilla 15 gr. 

Palamoud. Chocolate 1 oz., rice flour 4 oz., potato arrow- 


root 4 oz., red sanders, in fine powder, 1 dr. ; mix. (In 
the above, by chocolate is meant the cacao beans roasted 
and pulverized without addition. Indian arrow-root or 
tous les mois may be substituted for the potato arrow-root.) 

Ferculum Saxonia. Barley flour 21 oz., sugar 7 oz., cinna- 
mon 1 dr. ; mix, and bake them in an oven, enveloped in 
a paste of wheat flour, and placed in an earthen vessel. 
' When sufficiently baked, remove the crust, and when the 
contents are cool, reduce them to powder. About | oz. 
to 1 oz. is boiled with broth, &c., as a nourishing diet. 

, It is often medicated with the addition of sarsaparilla, 
bark, &c. 

FARiisrACEOUS Food, &c. The following compounds are accom- 
panied with full directions for use : 

Baster's Soojee and Compound Farina. Wheat flour, 
with sugar. 

Bright 's Nutritious Farina. The basis is said to be 

Bright's Breakfast Powder. A combination of choco- 
late with his nutritious farina. 

Braden's Farinaceous Food. Chiefly wheat flour, care- 
fully baked. 

Bullock's Semola. Wheat flour, from which a portion 
of the starch has been removed, so as to leave a definite pro- 
portion of gluten. 

Denham's Farinaceous Food. As Braden's, with per- 
haps a mixture of barley flour. 

Gardiner's Alimentary Preparation. Very finely ground 
rice flour. 

Hard's Farinaceous Food. Carefully-baked wheat 

Hunt's Breakfast Powder. Rye, carefully roasted as 
cofi"ee. (For Dandelion Coffee, see p. 179.) 

Leath's Alimentary Farina. Baked wheat flour, with 
sugar, potato flour, and a small quantity of Indian corn 
meal, and tapioca. 

Maidman's Nutritious Farina. Potato flour, tinged with 
some pink coloring matter. 

Palmer's Vitarohorant. See Ervalenta, below. 

Plumbe's Farinaceous Food. South Sea arrow-root, com- 
bined with pea flour. 

Prince of Wales's Food. Potato flour. 


Semolina. A hard kind of wheat, containing much gluten, 
ground into coarse grains. But some articles sold under 
this name appear to be compounds of gluten, artificially 
granulated, resembling Bullock's Semola. 

Ervalenta, Revalenta Arabica, Lentil Powder, &c. 
These consist chiefly either of the European or Egyptian 

Ervalenta. Warton's consists of the French or German 
lentil, with either Indian corn, or, more probably, a species 
of corn called Durra^ used by the Arabs. But Dr. Schenk 
states that what is sold at Paris consists of the flour of 
French beans and Indian corn. 

Revalenta Arabica. A mixture of the red (Egyptian or 
Arabian) lentil with barley flour. Some samples contain 
sugar, others salt and a flavoring ingredient. 

Lentil Poivders. Some consist entirely of lentil flour 
(French or German), or Egyptian, or both kinds mixed. 
Others contain barley flour in addition. Nevill's consists 
of 1 oz. of curry powder to 4 Bb of lentil flour. The Lancet 
gives the following recipes for lentil powder : 1. Arabian 
lentil flour 2 lb, barley flour 1 Bb, salt 3 oz. 

2. Pea flour 2 ft), Indian corn flour 1 ft), salt 3 oz. 

Gruel is made either from oatmeal or from groats or grits 
(oats deprived of their cuticle), either whole or crushed 
(Embden groats). Dr. Thomson directs 3 oz. of groats, previ- 
ously washed, to be boiled slowly in 4 pints of water, till 
reduced to 2 pints, then strained through a sieve. The 
Embden groats require less boiling. Dr. Kitchener directs 
1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of oatmeal (according as the gruel is 
preferred thin or thick) to be well mixed with 3 spoonfuls of 
cold water gradually added, 1 pint of boiling water poured 
on it, and the whole boiled for five minutes, constantly stir- 
ring it ; it is then skimmed, and strained through a hair 
sieve ; a little butter is usually added, and sometimes milk, 
with salt, or otherwise sugar and spices to the taste. 
Thorough trituration of the oatmeal and cold water, and 
constant stirring of the gruel while on the fire, render long- 
boiling unnecessary. 

Boiled Wheat. Steep the wheat in water for 10 or 12 hours, 
then boil it for J an hour. (As a substitute for vegetables, 
and to obviate constipation. — Mr. L. Bullock.) 


Beef Tea. Professor Liebig directs 1 ft) of beef, free from 
fat, to be minced very; small, mixed with an equal weight of 
cold water, and heated slowly to boiling ; when it has boiled 
for a minute or two, strain through a cloth. It may be 
colored with roasted onion or burnt sugar, and salted to the 
taste. Dr. Seymour directs 2| ft) of lean beef cut small to 
be put into 3 pints of cold water, and simmered slowly, 
without boiling, till reduced to a pint and a half; then care- 
fully strained. 

Extract of Meat. Cut the lean of fresh-killed meat very 

small, put it into 8 times its weight of cold water, and heat 

"it gradually to the boiling-point. When it has boiled for a 

few minutes, strain it through a cloth, and evaporate the 

liquor gently by water-bath to a soft mass. 2 ft) of meat 

. yield 1 oz. of extract. Fat must be carefully excluded, or 
it will not keep. — Liebig. 

Liebig's Food for Infants. Malt flour, to which is added a 
small quantity of bicarbonate of potash or soda. 

Liebig's Soup for Children. Mix ^ oz. wheat flour, J oz. 
malt flour, 7^ gr. bicarbonate potash ; add 1 oz. of water, 
and 5 oz. of milk. Heat with constant stirring over a 
gentle fire till it begins to thicken. Removfe from fire and 
stir for 5 minutes. Heat once more, and again remove and stir. 
Heat again to ebullition. Separate the bran from the soup 
by a fine sieve. 

Trophazome. Mince 16 oz. of meat, free from fat very fine, 
pour on it 8 oz. of cold or lukewarm water (not exceeding 
100°) ; mix well, and let it stand for an hour, stirring it 3 
or 4 times. Press out the liquid (about 6 oz.); mix 8 oz. 
more of water with the meat, stir it occasionally, and in half 
an hour strain with pressure. Repeat this with 8 oz. more 
water. Break up the pressed meat, and put it into a small 
tin vessel ; place this in a water-bath of cold water, heat 
gradually to the boiling-point, and keep it boiling for 20 
minutes. Mix the fluid which exudes with the others, add 
salt, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, and boil for 20 
minutes in a covered vessel. It may be thickened with 1 oz. 
of semola. — Mr. Bullock. 

Meat Biscuits. A thick extract of meat (made by boiling 
fresh-killed beef or other meat, and evaporating the strained 
liquid) is kneaded with wheaten flour, and the dough rolled 


out and divided into biscuits, •which are dried or baked in an 
oven. They are kept in the form of biscuits, or coarsely 
ground ; 1 ounce makes a pint of rich soup, which may be 
salted or flavored to the taste. 

Bread, Aerated. Dauglish's patent. This is prepared 
without yeast, to the saving, it is said, of 10 per cent, 
of the weight of the flour. Aerated water is forced by 
machinery into the mass of flour inclosed in an iron vessel. 
The dough is then kneaded by machinery inside the vessel. 
The pressure being now removed, the dough instantly rises. 
The whole process occupies no more than half an hour, 
instead of eight or ten hours, as when yeast is used. 

Bread, Uneermented. Mix carefully J oz. of bicarbonate 
of soda and ^ oz. of salt with 4 Sb of flour ; mix this with a 
quart (or rather 41 or 42 fluid oz.) of very cold water, pre- 
viously mixed with J a fluid oz. and 20 minims of muriatic 
acid of 1.16 specific gravity, into a thin dough, with as little 
kneading as possible, and let it be immediately placed in the 
oven ; it requires rather more time than fermented bread. 
By mixing 26 measures of the acid with 46 of water, a 
diluted acid is obtained, of which a fluid ounce and a half 
may be taken for every ^ oz. packet of soda. 

A pamphlet on the subject directs for Broivn Breads 3 lb 
of wheat, meal and 10 dr. (apoth. weight) of bicarbonate of 
soda to be well mixed, and made into dough with 25 oz. of 
cold water, previously mixed with 12J fluid dr. of muriatic 

The proportions used first by Dr. Whiting, and subse- 
quently by Mr. Dodson, in the preparation of unfermented 
bread and biscuits, were : 7 Sb of wheaten flour, 350 to 
500 gr. of carbonate of soda, 2f pints of water, with muriatic 
acid 420 to 560 gr., or as much as may be sufiicient. The 
soda, dissolved in a small quantity of water, is first carefully 
kneaded with the dough, and the acid being afterwards 
rapidly mixed in, the bread is baked without delay. 

A third formula is that of Mr. J. Savory, and is recom- 
mended as excellent by Dr. Pereira. Intimately mix with 
1 lb of flour, sesquicarbonate of soda 40 grains, and pow- 
dered white sugar a teaspoonful, in a large basin with a 
wooden spoon. Then gradually add cold water about ^ a 
pint, previously mixed with 50 drops of common muriatic 


acid, and stir constantly, so as to form very speedily an 
intimate mixture. Divide into 2 loaves, and put into a 
quick oven immediately. 

Another form of unfermented bread is as follows : Mix 1 
oz. of bicarbonate of soda, f oz. of tartaric acid, and ^ oz. 
of salt, with 7 ft) (half a peck) of flour ; mix the whole 
thoroughly, taking care that all the ingredients are perfectly 
dry ; add, in two or three portions, 4 pints of cold water, and 
incorporate quickly; place it in tins, and send it to the 
oven immediately. If not baked in tins, less water must be 

Jones's Patent Flour contains all the ingredients ready 
mixed, and may thus be kneaded with water, and baked at 
once, without further additions. To 1 cwt. of perfectly dry 
wheat flour, 10|^ oz. (avoir.) of dry, finely powdered tartaric 
acid are added. Mix well, pass through a flour-dressing 
machine, and allow it to remain for 2 or 3 days. Then add, 
all in fine powder and dry, 12 oz. of bicarbonate of soda, 
24 oz. of common salt, and 8 oz. of loaf sugar. Mix all 
thoroughly together, and pass through a flour-dressing 
machine, when it is ready for use. 1 ft) made into 
bread will require 10 oz. of water, or, for biscuits 6 oz., 
and the dough must be baked at once in a well-heated 

(Biscuits and cakes made without yeast, and containing no 
butter, are prescribed in some dyspeptic cases ; of such the 
following are examples :) 

Abernethy Biscuits. Make into a stifl' biscuit paste, 1 
quart of milk, 6 eggs, 8 oz. of loaf sugar, and J oz., of 
caraway seeds, with flour sufficient to bring the whole to the 
required consistence. Make the biscuits thin, dock them 
with holes to prevent them from swelling up, and bake in an 
oven at a moderate heat. 

Sponge Biscuits. Beat the yolks of 12 eggs for ^ an hour, 
then put in 1^ ft) of finely-powdered sugar, and whisk it 
briskly until it rises in bubbles ; beat the whites to a strong 
froth, and whisk them well with the sugar and yolks ; then 
work in 14 oz. of flour, with the rinds of 2 lemons grated. 
Bake in tin moulds buttered, for 1 hour in a quick oven, 
sifting over them a little fine sugar. 

Rice Cake. Beat the yolks of 15 eggs for nearly half an 


hour with a Avhisk, mix. well with them 10 oz. of finely- 
sifted white sugar ; put in |^ ft) of ground rice, a little 
orange-flower water or brandy, and the rinds of 2 lemons 
grated ; then add the whites of 7 eggs, well beaten up, and 
stir the whole for ^ of an hour ; put into a hoop, and bake 
for ^ an hour in a quick oven, 

(Bread and biscuits made with ginger as an ingredient may 
also be useful in assisting a weak digestion. The two fol- 
lowing recipes are by M. Soyer :) 

Common GmGERBREAD. Put on a slab or table 1 ft) of flour ; 
make a ring of it ; put |- pint of treacle in, mix well together, 
working it so as to form a stiff paste. Put some flour into 
a basin, to w^hich add this dough, which will keep thus for 7 
or 8 weeks. When wanted, put in any quantity of ground 
ginger, according to taste or desire. Mix well, roll thin, 
and cut into pieces about the size of a crown ; put them on 
a baking sheet, and bake for a few minutes, till crisp. iCo 
every pound of paste, an ounce of butter may be used, if 
preferred. These cakes will keep a long while in an air- 
tight case. 

Ginger Cake. Take J ft) of sugar, | ft) butter, 1^ oz, of 
ground ginger, 6 eggs, beat well, stir in IJ ft) of flour, and 
add as much milk, a little warm, as will make a stiff dough 
for bread. Bake in a pan for 2 hours. 

Gluten Bread (for diabetic patients). It is made with the 
gluten of flour, a small portion only of the starch being 

Dr. Aldridge recommends, for preparing the gluten, 
second best flour. This must be made into a stiff paste with 
cold water, and then kneaded with the hands under a current 
of Avater, on a slanting board placed in a two-gallon jar, 
until starch can no longer be detected by tincture of iodine 
in small portions taken from the mass. A stone of flour 
yields from 3J to 4J ft) of gluten. The gluten pay also be 
obtained from starch manufactories. 

To prepare the bread, the following materials should be 
mixed : Fresh moist gluten 24 oz., bicarbonate of ammonia 
3J dr., common salt IJ dr., powdered caraway 48 gr., 
wheaten flour 4^ oz., powdered bran IJ oz., salt butter 4 oz. 
These quantities yield 24 oz. of bread, when baked. It may 
be baked in small and flat circular tin pans, placed on a 
moderately heated hot-hearth. It is difficult to bake this 


bread properly with yeast, as prescribed by Bouchardat ; 
and if made without butter, or with the total exclusion of 
starch, it becomes extremely unpalatable. 

Dr. Percy proposes the following method : Take the mat- 
ter left after removing the starch from 16 Bb of rasped 
potatoes, I ft) of mutton suet, 12 eggs, J ftj of butter, and 
J oz. of carbonate of soda; mix, and add 2 oz. of diluted 
hydrochloric acid ; divide into 8 cakes, and bake immediately 
in a quick oven. 

(Various alimentary preparations have lately been intro- 
duced, the basis of which is the gluten which remains in ex- 
- tracting the starch from wheat flour by the mechanical pro- 
cess. Mr. Gentil's gluten flour is a mixture of this with 
wheat flour. It contains 42 per cent, of gluten, and yields 
a nutritious and digestible gluten biscuit, gluten bread, and, 
with cocoa, gluten eliocolate. Mr. Bullock's semola and 
Mr. Veeon's granulated gluten are of the same nature. 30 
^parts of white flour, 10 of fresh gluten, and 7 of water, 
form a paste resembling Italian macaroni, vermicelli, &c.) 

Baking Powder. See page 169. 

Custard Powder. Rub up together gum tragacanth 2 oz., 
potato starch 1 ft), powdered turmeric 2^ dr., with oil of 
bitter almonds ^ dr., and essence of lemons 1 dr. Put up 
into 1-ounce packets. (From 1 pint of new milk take 2 
tablespoonfuls to work up with the powder ; boil the remain- 
ing milk with 2 oz. of lump sugar, and pour it, while boiling, 
into the basin, stirring quickly until thoroughly mixed. 
Bake as a custard.) — Mr. Scholefield. 

Without the coloring, this forms Blanc-mange Powder. 

Rennet Wine (for dyspeptic persons). Take the fresh ren- 
net bag of a calf, cut ofi" and throw away 3 inches of the 
upper or cardiac extremity, slit the rest longitudinally, 
wiping gently with a dry napkin, but not removing the clean 
mucus, cut it into small pieces, and put into a common 
wine-bottle filled up with good sheriy. Let it remain 
corked for three weeks. One teaspoonful in a wineglassful 
of water, taken after meals, assists digestion. — Mr. Geo. 



These are designed for such invalids as are likely to derive 
benefit from cod-liver oil, but are unable to overcome their 
disgust for that useful medicine. In such, cases the fresh 
liver itself may be found of equal service. The following 
methods of cooking it are adapted from M. Soyer. 

Potatoes and Cod-liver. Take 1 Bb of fresh cod-liver ; peel 
and steam 2 lb of floury potatoes. Cut the liver in 4 pieces, 
place it over the potatoes, then again steam them, letting the 
oil from the liver fall on them. . When done make some in- 
cisions in the liver with a knife, to extract the oil remaining. 
Afterwards, the liver may be eaten with some anchovy 
sauce, — and the potatoes, mixed with the oil, with a little 
salt and pepper. (Simple cod-oil, as tasteless as can be pro- 
cured, may be made in the same manner to yield a palatable 
dish with potatoes.) 

Rice and Cod-liver. Boil | ib of rice in 2 quarts of water. 
When nearly done, remove 3 parts of the Avater, then put 
over the rice 1 ib of cod-liver, cut in large dice. Put the 
saucepan in a slow oven for about 30 minutes, by which 
time it will be well cooked. Take the liver out, which serve 
as above. Stir up the rice with a fork, and stir it with salt 
and pepper. If no oven, care must be taken to cook over a 
slow fire, or else it will burn. 

Tapioca and Cod-liver. Boil ^ lb of tapioca till soft in 2 
quarts of water, drain in a cullender, then put it back in the 
pan ; season with salt and pepper, add ^ pint of milk, put 
over 1 Bb of fresh cod-liver, cut in 8 pieces. Set the pan 
near the fire to simmer slowly for half an hour, or a little 
more, till the liver is quite cooked. Press on it with a spoon 
to squeeze out the oil. Take away the liver, and mix the 
tapioca. If too thick, add a little milk, boil for a few min- 
utes, add a little more salt and pepper, and serve. Here 
again a slow oven is better than a fire. 

Cod-roe and Cod-liver. Take a cod's roe, cut open the skin 
which surrounds it ; put the eggs in a basin, pour water over 
them, mashing with the hand, to separate them ; throw away 
the water. Add |- ib of salt and a teaspoonful of pepper. 
Let them soak all night. Wash well 2 or 3 times, leaving 
about a gill at the bottom. Put over it now 2 lb of the 




liver, in 6 or 8 pieces ; put the stew-pan on a very slow fire 
or in an oven for an hour ; then take out the liver, which 
serve as usual. Add about a gill of melted butter to the 
roe, when it will be ready. 

Cod-Liver Sauce. ^ ft of cod-liver, previously boiled, and 
cut in large dice, may be added to a little anchovy sauce, 
and J pint of melted butter. (This may be eaten with pota- 
toes or fish. Cod-liver may be used as a sauce in the same 
way, disguising its taste in the butter by pepper, vinegar, or 
anchovies, and gradually increasing its amount as the patient 
becomes habituated to it.) 


Curry Powder. The recipes for " true Indian Curry Pow- 
der" are numerous, and vary much in the number and pro- 
portion of the ingredients. The total quantity of powder in 
each of the following recipes being nearly equal, the rela- 
tive proportion of the different coloring, heating and flavor- 
ing ingredients, will at once be seen. Dr. Kitchener com- 
plains that the proportion of cayenne is generally so large, 
that a proper quantity of the powder cannot be used to 
obtain the benefit of the other ingredients ; and the Editor 
of the Pharmaceutical Journal justly observes that many 
recipes contain too large a proportion of turmeric. All 
the ingredients should be of fine quantity and recently 


























Coriander seed, .... 












Mustard, scorched, . . . 























Pepper, black or long, >■ 


















. — 






























Ginger, . 













Mace, . . 























Cumin, . 












The addition of 1 oz. of garlic, or 2 oz, of shallots, to 2 ft) of 
either of the above will be approved by some palates. 

The true Indian curry is said to be thus made : Coriander 
seed 6 dr., turmeric 5 scruples, fresh ginger 4 J dr., cumin 
seeds 18 gr., black pepper 54 gr., poppy seed 94 gr., garlic 
2 heads, cinnamon a scruple, cardamom 5 seeds, 8 cloves, 1 

• or 2 chillies, half a cocoa-nut grated ; all but the last to be 
ground on a stone. 

Bengal Chitni. Chillies 1^ ft), unripe mangoes (or apples) 1 
ft), red tamarinds 2 ft), sugar candy 1 ft), fresh ginger root 
1|^ ft), garlic f to IJ ft, sultana raisins IJ ft, fine salt 1 ft), 
and 5 bottles of the best vinegar ; soak the chillies for an 
hour in the vinegar, then grind all with a stone and muller 
to a paste. 

Italian Tamaea. Coriander seed, cloves, and cinnamon of 
each 8 oz. ; anise and fennel seeds, of each 4 ft ; mix. 

Mixed Spices and Savoey Heebs. I. Kidder s Siveet Spice. 
Equal weights of cloves, mace, nutmegs, cinnamon, and 

2. Kidder s Savory Spice. Equal weights of salt, pepper, 
cloves, nutmegs, and mace. 

3. Ragout. Salt 16 oz., pepper 8 oz., nutmeg, ginger, 
and allspice, each \ oz. ; lemon-peel 8 oz., mustard flour 8 
oz., cayenne 2 oz. ; mix. 

4. Sausage. Pepper 5 ft, cloves IJ ft), nutmegs 1|- ft, 
- ginger 2J ft, aniseed |- ft, coriander seed |- ft) ; mix. 

5. Dr. Kitchenee's Savory Ragout. Salt 2 oz., mustard, 
black pepper, and grated lemon-peel, of each 1 oz,, allspice, 
ginger and nutmeg of each ^ oz., cayenne \ oz. 

6. Soup Herb and Savory Powder. Mix 3 parts of No. 
7 with 1 part of No. 5. 

7. Dr. Kitchenee's Soup Herh Powder, or Vegetable 
Relish. Dried parsley, winter savory, sweet marjoram, 
lemon thyme, of each 2 oz., dried lemon-peel, and sweet 
basil, of each 1 oz. : mix. They should be carefully dried 
in a Dutch oven, powdered, passed through a hair sieve, and 
kept in closely-covered bottles. For sauces, soups, &c. 

8. Pease Powder. Pound together in a marble mortar 2 
oz. each of dried mint and sage, \ oz. each of celery seed 
and black pepper, and rub them through a hair sieve. 

Hoeseeadish Powdee. Take up the roots in November or 
December, dry them carefully with a gentle heat, and reduce 
to powder. 


Soluble Cayenne. To 1 ft» of the best cayenne pepper, add 
as much rectified spirit as will form it into a paste. Cover 
this up for 2 hours ; then place it in a percolator, and grad- 
ually pour on it more spirit till a pint of liquid is procured. 
A little water cautiously poured on the pepper will displace 
most of the remaining spirit. Distil off most of the spirit 
for future use, and add to the residue 3 lb of fine salt, and 
evaporate the mixture to dryness by the heat of a water- 
bath. It is usually .colored, but is better without it. 


Almond Flavor. Essential oil of bitter almonds 1 part, rec- 
tified spirit 7 parts. Some put 1 part of oil to 15 of spirit ; 
others 1 part to 3. It should not be sold without a caution 
as to the quantity to be used ; or rather, the oil should be 
first purified from its hydrocyanic acid, by mixing it with a 
solution of chloride of iron and cream of lime, with a little 
peroxide of mercury, and, after a few days' contact, care- 
fully redistilling the oil. 

Flavoring Essence. Purified oil of bitter almonds 8 drops, 
essence of lemon 12 drops, oil of cinnamon 8 drops, oil of 
nutmeg 4 drops, highly-rectified spirit 1 oz. A few drops to 
be added to puddings, custards, &c. 

Lemon Flavor. Fresh lemon-peel cut thin, 3 dr., essence of 
lemon 1 dr., alcohol 3 oz. (Another method is to rub a 
lump of sugar on clean, dry lemons, till the yellow rind is 
taken up by the sugar ; then scrape off the saturated part of 
the sugar, and keep it in a closely-covered pot for use.) 

Tincture of Cinnamon (Kitchener's). Bruised cinnamon 
3 oz., 1 bottle of Cognac brandy ; digest for a fortnight, and 
strain. (Tincture of Allspice, Nutmeg, Cloves, in the same 

Essence op Cinnamon. Bruised cinnamon 2 dr., oil of cin- 
namon 1 dr., highly-rectified spirit 3 oz. ; digest, and strain. 

Essences of Nutmeg, Mace, Cloves, Allspice, &c. These 
are made from the spices and their essential oils, as Essence 
OF Cinnamon. 


Essence of Celery. Celery seed | oz. to 1 oz., brandy 4 
oz. ; digest for 8 or 10 days, and filter. 

Essence of Caraway. Bruised caraway seed 1 oz., rectified 
spirit 8 oz., oil of caraway ^ oz., brown sugar J oz. ; digest 
for 8 or 10 days, and filter. 

Aromatic Essence of Ginger. Fresh-grated ginger 3 oz., 
fresh, thin lemon-peel 2 oz., brandy 1 J pint ; macerate for 
10 days. — Dr. Kitchener. 

Essence of Pear and Essence of Pineapple. See Trade 

Essence of Cayenne (Kitchener's). Put | oz. of cayenne 
pepper into J a pint of brandy ; let it steep for a fortnight, 
then pour ofi" the clear liquor. (A much stronger essence is 
sometimes kept, prepared by percolation, as directed for 
Soluble Cayenne.) 

Spirit of Savory Spices (Kitchener's). Black pepper 1 
oz., allspice ^ oz., nutmeg ^ oz. (all pounded) ; infuse in 16 
fluid oz. of brandy for 10 days. 

Spirit of Soup Herbs (Kitchener's). Lemon thyme, winter 
savory, sweet marjoram, sweet basil, each 1 oz., grated 
lemon-peel and shallots, each ^ oz., celery seed 1 dr. ; infuse 
in 1 pint of brandy for 10 days. 

Spirit of Savory Spices. Infuse half the Savory Ragout 
Powder (see Mixed Spices, &c.. No. 5, as above) in 1 quart 
of brandy for 10 days. 

Kitchener's Soup Herb and Savory Spice Spirit. A mix- 
ture of equal measures of the last two. 


Tarragon Vinegar. Put fresh tarragon leaves into a stone 
jar, and pour on them a sufficient quantity of the best wine 
vinegar to cover them. Set the jar in a warm place for 14 
days ; then strain through a jelly-bag. (In the same way 
may be made elder-flower, basil, green mint, and Burnet 
vinegars. Cress and Celery Vinegars are made with \ oz. 
of the bruised seed to a quart of vinegar. Horseradish 
Vinegar, with 3 oz. of the scraped root, 1 oz. of minced 
shallots, 1 dr. of cayenne, to 1 quart of vinegar. Cfarlic 
Vinegar is made with 2 oz. of minced garlic to 1 quart 


of wine vinegar. Shallot Vinegar in the same proportion. 
Qhili Vinegar^ with 50 English chillies, cut or bruised 
(or \ oz. cayenne pepper), to 1 pint of the best vinegar ; 
digest for 14 days. 

Camp Vinegar. Take 12 chopped anchovies, 2 cloves of 
garlic minced, 1 dr. of cayenne, 2 oz. of soy, 4 oz. of wal- 
nut catsup, and 1 pint of the best vinegar ; digest for 1 
month, and strain. 

2. Vinegar 1 quart, walnut catsup 1 pint, mushroom 
catsup 3 tablespoonfuls, gai"lic 4 heads, cayenne ^ oz., soy 
2 tablespoonfuls, port wine 2 glasses, 3 anchovies, and 1 
tablespoonful of salt ; put them into a bottle, shake daily 
for a month, and decant. 

Curry Vinegar. Infuse 3 oz, of curry powder in 1 quart 
of vinegar, near the fire, for 3 days. 

Raspberry Vinegar. Macerate 2 ib of fresh raspberries 
with 1 pint of the best vinegar for 14 days, and strain ; or, 
to 1 quart of the juice add 2 oz. of strong acetic acid, or 
enough to render it sufficiently acid. 

Eschalot Wine. Bruised shallots 3 oz., sherry wine 1 pint ; 
infuse for 10 days: 1 oz. of scraped horseradish and 1 dr. 
of thin lemon-peel may be added. (" The most elegant 
preparation of the onion tribe." — Dr. Kitchener.) Wines 
of several herbs may be made in the same proportion as the 

French Mustard. This is sold with a great variety of flavors. 
A good substitute may be made by mixing good flour of 
mustard with the liquor of walnut and other pickles ; or 
with the flavored vinegars above. The following is one of 
the published recipes : Salt 12 oz., scraped horseradish 8 oz., 
1 clove of garlic, J oz. of sugar, 1 gallon of French vinegar 
(hot, but not boiling). Macerate for 24 hours, and strain. 
Mix with flour of mustard, q. s. 

Mustard for the Table. Mix 8 spoonfuls of flour of mus- 
tard with 2 of salt, and 9 of water. Mix to a smooth paste, 
add. 6 spoonfuls more of water, and mix. 

Essence of. Anchovies. Beat 1 ft of anchovies in a Wedge- 
wood mortar, and put them into a pipkin with 4 oz. of 
vinegar ; boil for a few minutes, and rub the pulp through 
a hair-sieve. Boil the bones in IJ ft) of water, strain, and 
add 2 oz. of salt, and 2 oz. of flour of starch, and the 


pulped anchovies ; let it boil, and pass it through a hair- 
sieve. It is usually colored with powdered bole, or with 
annotto. Gum tragacanth is sometimes used to stiffen it 
instead of flour. Another method is, to simmer anchovies 
in their own w^eight of water for 2 or 3 hours, removing any 
scum that may rise, strain with pressure through a strong 
canvas bag, and filter through flannel. This has the pure 
flavor of the fish ; but a little cayenne and salt may be 
added, to preserve it. 

Anchovy Paste. Pound the fish in a mortar, and rub the 
pulp through a fine sieve. Put it into pots, and cover with 
clarified butter. 

Mushroom Catsup, Press the mushrooms in a tincture press, 
and boil the juice Avith J oz. black pepper-corns, 1 oz. 
pimento, J oz. of ginger, ^ oz. cloves, IJ oz. shallots, and 8 
oz. of salt to each gallon. Some add 4 oz. of brandy. 
Or spinkle the mushrooms with salt (1 Bb to 2 pecks), 
stj^r occasionally for 2 days, then squeeze them gently 
in a hair-sieve, and boil the liquor with pepper and other 

Walnut Catsup. 1. Mix 6 half-sieves of green walnut 
shells with 2 or 3 Bb of salt in a wooden vessel ; let them 
stand 6 days, beating them frequently till they become 
pulpy ; then drain off the juice, and boil it up with 4 oz. 
of ginger and allspice, and 2 oz. of long pepper and 

2. Juice of walnuts 1 gallon, anchovies 2 ib, shallots 1 
ft), cloves, mace, and black pepper, of each 1 oz., and 1 
clove of garlic. Boil for a short time, and bottle it. 

Lemon Pickle. Slice 6 lemons, rub them with salt, lay them 
in a stone jar, with 2 oz. each of allspice and white pepper ; 
add ^ oz. each of mace, cloves, and cayenne, and 2 oz. each 
of horseradish and mustard seed ; pour over them 2 quarts 
of hot distilled vinegar ; and, after standing for a few days, 
strain. Some add garlic or shallots. 

QuiN Sauce. Mushroom catsup J pint, walnut pickle ^ pint, 
port wine ^ pint, 6 anchovies and 6 shallots (both pounded); 
soy 1 tablespoonful, cayenne ^ dr. ; simmer together gently 
for 10 minutes, strain, and bottle. 

Waterloo Sauce. Vinegar 4 pints, port wine 1 pint, cayenne 
1 oz., walnut catsup | pint, mushroom catsup ^ pint, 


essence of anchovies 4 oz., powdered cochineal 1 oz., garlic, 
12 cloves. 

Epicurean Sauce. Indian soy 2 oz., walnut catsup, mush- 
room catsup, each 8 oz. ; port wine 2 oz., bruised white pep- 
per ^ oz., shallots 3 oz., cayenne ^ oz., cloves ^ oz. Mace- 
rate for 14 days in a warm place, strain, and add white wine 
vinegar to make up a pint. 

Sauce Superlative (Br. Kitchener's). Port wine, and 
mushroom catsup, of each a pint : walnut or other pickle 

- liquor ^ pint, pounded anchovies 4 oz. ; fresh lemon-peel cut 
thin, sliced shallots, and scraped horseradish, of each 1 oz., 
allspice and black pepper, of each ^ oz. ; cayenne 1 dr. ; 
curry powder 3 dr. ; celery seed 1 dr. ; put them into a 
wide-mouthed bottle, stop it close, shake daily for a fort- 
night, and strain : a ^ pint of soy may be added. 

(A variety of sauces may be made by mixing, in different pro- 
portions, the ingredients of the last 4 sauces.) 

Cassareep. The expressed juice of the roots of the bitter 
cassava ; used as a condiment in the West Indies. 

Soy. Boil a gallon of the seeds of Dolichos soja till soft, add 
a gallon of bruised wheat, keep them in a warm place for 24 
hours ; add a gallon of salt, and 2 gallons of water, and 
after keeping them bunged up in a stone jar for 2 or 3 
months, press out the liquor. 


A few recipes are here given as illustrations of the methods em- 
ployed in preparing these condiments. For full particulars 
the reader is referred to the popular treatises on Cookery. 
The best vinegar (pickling, or No. 24 vinegar) should be 
employed. Some prefer the crystal or white vinegar (dis- 
tilled vinegar or rather pure diluted wood-vinegar), especially 
for white pickles ; but the best wine vinegar is more agree- 
able. Stoneware jars, not glazed with lead should be used 
to keep the pickles in ; or otherwise green glass jars. 

Spiced Vinegar, for Pickles generally. Bruise in a 
mortar 2 oz. of black pepper, 1 oz. of ginger, ^ oz. of 
allspice, and 1 oz. of salt. If a hotter pickle is desired, 
add J dr. of cayenne, or a few capsicums. For walnuts 


add also 1 oz. of shallots. Put these into a stone jar, with 
a quart of vinegar, and cover them with a bladder wetted 
with the pickle, and over this a piece of leather. Set the 
jar on a trivet near the fire for 3 days, shaking it 3 times a 
day, then pour it on the walnuts or other vegetables. 
For walnuts it is used hot, but for cabbage, &c., cold. 
But to save time, it is usual to simmer the vinegar gently 
with the spices ; which is best done in an enamelled 

Beet Root. Boil the roots till 3 parts done (from 1^ to 2^ 
hours) ; then take them out, peel them, and cut them in thin 
slices. Put them into ajar, and pour on them sufficient cold 
spiced vinegar (as above) to cover them. 

Cabbage, White. Cut it into thin slices, put them into an 
earthen pan, sprinkle them with salt, and let them lie for 2 
days ; then drain them, and spread them out before the fire 
for some hours ; put them into a stone jar, and add sufficient 
white vinegar, or pale white vinegar, to cover them, and a 
little mace and white pepper-corns. 

Cabbage, Red. Remove the outer leaves and stalks, and cut 
the cabbage in quarters, then shred them into a cullender, 
and sprinkle them with salt ; next day drain them, put 
them into a jar, and pour on them sufficient cold spiced 
vinegar to cover them. Others hang up the cabbage for a 
few days to dry, then shred the leaves, and put them in 
layers in a jar with a little salt, pepper, and ginger, and 
fill up with cold vinegar. Others use vinegar without 

Cauliflower and Broccoli. These should be sliced, and 
salted for 2 or 3 days, then drained, and spread upon a dry 
cloth before the fire for 24 hours ; then put into a jar, and 
covered with spiced vinegar. Dr. Kitchener says, that if 
vegetables are put into cold salt and water (a :^ Ife of salt to 
a quart of water) and gradually heated to a boiling heat, it 
answers the same purpose as letting them lie some days in 

Cucumbers. Gherkins. Small cucumbers, but not too young, 
are wiped clean with a dry cloth, put into ajar, and boiling 
vinegar, with a handful of salt, poured on them. Boil up 
the vinegar every 3 days, and pour it on them till they be- 
come green ; then add ginger and pepper, and tie them up 


close for use. ' Or cover them with salt and water (as above) 
in a stone jar, cover this, and set them on the hearth before 
the fire for 2 or 3 days, till they turn yellow ; then put away 
the water, and cover them with hot vinegar, set them near 
the fire, and keep them hot for 8 or 10 days, till they be- 
come green ; then pour off the vinegar, cover them with hot 
spiced vinegar, and keep them close. 

Mangoes. Large cucumbers, or small melons, are split so 
that a marrow-spoon may be introduced, and the seeds 
scooped out ; they are then parboiled in brine strong enough 

^ to float an egg, dried on a cloth before the fire, filled with 
mustard-seed and a clove of garlic, and then covered with 
spiced vinegar. True mangoes the same. 

Mushrooms. Clean them with water and flannel, throw them 
into boiling salt and water in a stewpan, and let them boil 
for a few minutes. Drain them in a cullender, and lay them 
on a linen cloth, covering them with another. Put them 
into bottles with a blade or two of mace, and fill up with 
white vinegar, pouring some melted mutton fat on the top, 
if intended to be kept long. 

Nasturtiums, French Beans, and other small green vege- 
tables are pickled in the same way as Gherkins. 

Onions. 1. Let them lie in strong salt and water for a fort- 
night ; then take them out and peel them ; put them in fresh 
salt and water for another fortnight ; take them out, wash 
them clean, and let them lie in fresh water all night. Next 
day put them on a cloth to drain ; then put them in a jar, 
and pour over them hot spiced vinegar. If you wish them 
of a nice color, use white vinegar. 

2. Peel small silver button onions, and throw them into a 
stewpan of boiling water ; as soon as they look clear take 
them out with a perforated spoon, and lay them on a folded 
cloth, covered with another, and when quite dry, put them 
into a jar, and cover them with hot spiced vinegar. When 
quite cold, bung them down, and cover with bladder wetted 
with the pickle, and leather. 

Walnuts. Take 100 young .walnuts, lay them in salt and 
water for 2 or 3 days, changing the water every day. (If 
required to be soon ready for use, pierce each walnut with a 
larding pin, that the pickle may penetrate.) Wipe them 


with a soft cloth, and lay them on a folded cloth for some 
hours. Then put them in a jar, and pour on them sufficient 
of the above spiced vinegar, hot, to cover them. Or they 
may be allowed to simmer gently in strong vinegar, then put 
into a jar with a handful of mustard seed, 1 oz. ginger, ^ oz. 
mace, 1 oz. allspice, 2 heads of garlic, and 2 split nutmegs, 
and pour on them sufficient boiling vinegar to cover them. 
Dr. Kitchener recommends the walnuts to be gently sim- 
mered with the brine, then laid on a cloth for a day or two, 
till they turn black, put into a jar, and hot spiced vinegar 
poured on them. 

Tomatoes. As Gherkins. See Cucumbers. 

Piccalilli, Indian, or Mixed Pickle. 1. To each gallon of 
strong vinegar put 4 oz. of curry powder, 4 oz. of good flour 
of mustard, 3 oz. of bruised ginger, 2 oz. of turmeric, 8 oz. 
of skinned shallots, and 2 oz. of garlic (the last two slightly 
baked in a Dutch oven), J lb of salt and 2 dr. of cayenne 
pepper. Digest these near the fire, as directed above for 
spiced vinegar. Put into a jar gherkins, sliced cucumbers, 
sliced onions, button onions, cauliflower, celery, broccoli, 
French beans, nasturtiums, capsicums, large cucumbers, and 
small melons. All, except the capsicums, to be parboiled in 
salt and water, drained, and dried on a cloth before the fire. 
The melons and large cucumbers to be prepared as directed 
above for mangoes. Pour on them the above pickle. 

2. Take 1 ft of ginger-root, and J ft of garlic (both pre- 
viously salted and dried), 2 gallons of vinegar, ^ oz. of tur- 
meric, ^ ft of long pepper. Digest for 2 or 3 days near the 
fire in a stone jar ; or gently simmer them in a pipkin or 
enamelled saucepan. Then put in the above vegetables, or 
almost any except red cabbage and walnuts, all previously 
salted and dried. 

Brine, or Pickle, for Pork, &c. Brown sugar, bay salt, 
common salt, of each 2 ft, saltpetre ^ ft, water a gallon. 
Boil gently, and remove the scum. Another meat pickle is 
made with 12 ft salt, 2 ft of sugar or treacle, |^ ft of nitre, 
and sufficient water to dissolve it. To cure Hams, mix 5 oz. 
of nitre, with 8 oz. of coarse sugar; rub it on the ham, and 
in 24 hours rub in 2 ft of salt, and in a fortnight 2 ft more. 
The above is for a ham of 20 ft ; it should lie in the salt a 
month or 5 weeks. 


Westphalian Essence. — Cambrian Essence of Wood Smoke. 
These appear to be crude pjroligneous acid or wood vine- 
gars, and are used to give to hams, &c., the smoked flavor. 
The following has been published as the recipe for Essence 
of Smoke, but we apprehend it is far from being correct : 
Macerate for several weeks J dr. of Barbadoes tar, 1 dr. of 
liquid burnt sugar, 5 dr. each of port wine and vinegar, 2 
dr. of salt, and 7 oz. of water. 


MENT, &c. 

This division of the work comprises those chemical compounds 
which are employed for other purposes than those of medi- 
cine, and which have not been noticed in the former parts of 
this volume. It includes a variety of miscellaneous articles 
which are sometimes sold by the retail druggists, or the 
materials of which he is expected to furnish, or with the 
composition of which it is desirable he should be acquainted. 
The limits of the work do not admit of a minute description 
of the processes and manipulations employed in the manu- 
facture of such chemicals as are only made on the large 
scale, and never by the retailer ; nor of those chemical arts 
which have no immediate connection with the trade. 

Acetates. Such as are employed in medicine will be found 
in the Pocket Formulary. The only Acetates requiring 
notice here are the following : 

Acetate of Alumina. This is made, for the use of dyers 
and calico printers, by decomposing acetate of lime Avith 
alum. It may be conveniently made by adding to a boiling 
solution of 5 parts of alum, a solution of 6 parts of sugar of 
lead. When the mixture is cold, the clear liquid is poured 
off; from which the dry salt may be obtained by careful 
evaporation. It contains, besides acetate of alumina, some 
sulphate of potash. 

Acetate of Iron, or Iron Liquor. Usually obtained, for 
the use of dyers, by digesting scraps of iron in redistilled 
wood-vinegar. (See Mordants^ Iron Liquors.) 


Acetate of Lime. Impure acetate (or pyrolignite) of lime, 
is made by neutralizing pyroligenous acid with cream of lime 
or chalk, and evaporating to dryness. By using pure acetic 
acid a purer acetate is obtained. 

Acetate of Soda. By mixing the above impure acetate of 
lime, in solution, with a solution of sulphate of soda, filtering 
and evaporating the clear liquid, an impure acetate of soda is 
obtained ; which by repeated crystallization is rendered color- 
less, and fit for yielding pure concentrated acetic acid by 
.distillation with sulphuric acid. 

AcETiMETRY. The strength of vinegar is estimated for the duty 
by an instrument named an acetimeter, which determines the 
quantity of acetic acid present by the specific gravity of the 
vinegar after neutralization by slaked lime. Dr. Ure's 
plan is to add to a given weight of vinegar bicarbonate of 
potash till exactly neutralized ; every 2 gr. of the bicarbonate 
indicate 1 grain of real acetic acid. In this and the follow- 
ing operations it is convenient to use a tube graduated into 
100 equal divisions^ numbered from the top downwards 
(see Alkalimetry, below). The quantity of test solution 
used is then seen at once. In the present case the 200 gr. 
of the alkaline carbonate being dissolved in suflicient water 
to fill the graduated portion of the measure, each of the 
divisions used in neutralizing 100 gr. of vinegar is equivalent 
to 1 per cent, of absolute acetic acid. 

Acid, Acetic. See Vinegar. For the methods of procuring 
this concentrated acetic acid, see Acidum Aceticum, Pocket 
Formulary. The process of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia 
yields a stronger acid than that of the London Pharma- 
copoeia. A strong acid, very suitable for making aromatic 
spirit of vinegar, is procured by distilling crystallized verdi- 
gris in an earthen retort coated with clay, into a series of 3 
globes, connected by opposite tubulures, and kept constantly 
cool, the last being furnished with a Welter's safety tube. 
The acid which comes over is usually colored, and requires 
to be rectified by a slow and careful redistillation in a glass 
retort. Acetic acid of moderate strength may be rendered 
stronger by redistilling it. over acetate of potash, rejecting 
the first portions that come over, and taking care that the 
temperature does not rise above 572° F. By redistilling it, 



rejecting the first and last portions, glacial acetic acid is 
procured. The same acetate of potash may be used repeat- 
. edly. The process of the Dublin Pharmacopoeia yields a 
good product of glacial acetic acid. 

Acid, Chloric. Dissolve 7 parts of crystallized carbonate 
of soda, and 7J of tartaric acid in 24 of boiling water; add 
to the boiling solution 6 parts of chlorate of potash in 16 of 
water, at 212°, agitating the mixture. When quite cold 
filter, and add a solution of 6 parts of oxalic acid in 18 of 
water, heated not above 134°. Agitate well, and place the 
vessel in a freezing mixture of muriatic acid and sulphate 
of magnesia, and filter. (Not absolutely pure, but suffi- 
ciently so for technical purposes. It may be obtained pure 
by decomposing chlorate of barytes by sulphuric acid.) 

Acid, Chromic. It may be obtained pure by mixing bi- 
chromate of potash with nitrate of silver in solution, wash- 
ing the precipitate, and decomposing it with an equivalent 
quantity of muriatic acid. In a few minutes the clear solu- 
tion may be poured off. A cheaper method, where great 
purity is not required, is to add from 120 to 150 volumes 
of strong sulphuric acid to 100 volumes of a cold saturated 
solution of bichromate of potash. Dry the acid which sepa- 
rates on porous tiles. Or add 2 parts of concentrated 
sulphuric acid to 1 part of dry chromate of lead, leave the 
paste for 12 hours, then treat it with water; decant the 
clear red liquid, and evaporate it in a retort. Keep it 
boiling for some time, then allow it to cool. Most of the 
acid separates in crystals ; more may be obtained by evapo- 
rating the solution till its density is 1.55. 

Acid, Cinnamic. It is most readily procured by distilling 
genuine balsam of Tolu by a gentle heat. The white crys- 
talline mass which condenses on the neck of the retort is 
purified by pressing it between blotting-paper, dissolving in 
boiling water, and crystallizing. 

Acid, Fluoric. The anhydrous acid is made by distilling 
powdered fluor spar with twice its weight of oil of vitriol 
in a leaden, or better, a silver alembic, the pipe of which fits 
into a bottle of the same material, surrounded with ice. 
But as it is usually required in a diluted state, water equal 
in weight to the spar may be put into the receiver. Great 


care must be taken, as the acid, both in its gaseous and 
liquid form, is very destructive. 

Acid, Hippuric. Mix the urine of the horse with milk of 
lime, boil for some minutes, and strain. Boil down the 
clear liquid to ^ of its bulk, avoiding burning; add hydro- 
chloric acid, press the impure acid, boil it with fresh 
milk of lime, and again precipitate with hydrochloric 

Acid, Iodic. Mr. A. Connell's Method. Put 50 gr. of 
iodine into a large, tall flask : add 1 oz. of fuming nitric 
acid, boil, and as the iodine sublimes and condenses on the 
sides of the flask, continually wash it back again with the 
acid. Continue this until none of the iodine remains un- 
changed. Then pour the whole into a shallow evaporating 
dish, and evaporate to dryness. Redissolve, and again 
evaporate till all the nitrous acid is got rid of. 

Acid, Muriatic, or Hydrochloric. Commercial muriatic 
acid is largely produced by the action of sulphuric acid 
on common salt, in the manufacture of sulphate of soda 
for the purpose of making soda ash and washing soda by 
the decomposition of that salt. From the impurity of 
the ingredients it is apt to be contaminated with arsenic 
and sulphurous acid ; as well as sulphuric acid and iron. 
It may be purified from arsenic by redistilling it over strips 
of bright copper. Dr. GtREGORy's method of procuring 
pure muriatic acid is as follows : Put into a matrass 6 parts, 
by weight, of purified salt, and 10 oz. of oil of vitriol pre- 
viously diluted with 4 of water, and cooled. Fix in the 
matrass a tube twice bent at right angles and having a bulb 
blown on the descending limb. Into a bottle surrounded 
with ice and water introduce distilled water equal in weight 
to the salt employed, and let the bent tube dip ^ of an inch 
into the water. Apply a gentle heat of a sand-bath to the 
matrass as long as acid comes over. In about 2 hours the 
operation will be finished. The water is increased f in bulk, 
and converted into hydrochloric acid of 1.14 or 1.15 sp. gr. 
To procure it of 1.21 sp. gr. employ part of this acid during 
the first half of a similar operation, and it will be speedily 
saturated. See also Acidum Hydrochloricum Purum, Pocket 
Formulary. Mr. Phillips says a perfectly colorless acid 
may be obtained from the commercial sulphuric acid and 
common salt. 


Acid, Nitric, and Fuming Nitrous Acid. Put into an iron 
or stoneware pot, nitre or nitrate of soda, add rather more 
than half its weight of strong sulphuric acid, and lute on a 
stoneware head. The vapor is conducted into a series of 
two-necked stone-ware vessels, containing each ^th of their 
capacity of water. The acid is usually obtained of the 
density of about 1.45. It is colored with nitrous acid 
gas, forming what is commonly, but improperly, termed 
nitrous acid. By gently heating the colored acid in a 
retort, the nitrous acid is driven oif, and the acid remains 
nearly colorless, usually of the density of 1.38 to 1.42. 
This is weaker than the Pharmacopoeia directs, but suffi- 
ciently strong for most purposes. (See Acidum Nitricum, 
Pocket Formulary.) Its strength may be increased by mix- 
ing it with its volume of strong oil of vitriol, and slowly 
distilling off fds of the nitric acid. This yields an acid 
of 1.5 sp. gr., such as is required for the preparation 
of gun-cotton, as well as in some pharmaceutical processes. 

Acid, Nitro-Muriatic. Aqua Regia. This is used in the 
arts, chiefly as a solvent for gold. By the mutual action of 
nitric and muriatic acids a compound of chlorine, nitrogen, 
and oxygen is formed. The best proportions and strength 
of the acids are variously stated. Colorless nitric acid must 
be used. Mr. Elkington employs 21 parts of nitric acid, 
sp. gr. 1.45 ; 17 parts of muriatic acid, 1.15 sp. gr. ; and 
14 parts of water. This dissolves 5 parts of gold. For the 
nitro-muriatic acid employed by dyers as a solvent for tin, 
see Dyes, &c., below. 

Acid, Oxalic. Digest by the aid of heat 1 part of treacle, 
or of potato starch, in 5 parts of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1 42, 
diluted with 10 parts of water, so long as gaseous pro- 
ducts are evolved. By evaporation the acid is obtained 
in crystals, and must be recrystallized till sufficiently pure. 
Mr. Lewis Thompson directs 28 oz. of sugar, and 184 
oz. of nitric acid of 1.245 sp. gr., to be digested at 125° 
F. It yields 30 or 31 oz. of acid. M. Schlesinger directs 
4 parts of dry sugar, and 33 of nitric acid of 1.38 sp. gr. to 
be boiled to one-sixth of the original volume, and allowed 
to crystallize. This is the best method of operating on a 
small scale, when the amount of product is not the principal 

Acid, Phosphoric. See Pocket Formulary. Dry phosphoric 



acid is tlius obtained : On a flat plate place a large bell 
glass, and under it a small porcelain cup or crucible. Intro- 
duce into the latter a piece of phosphorus, dried Avith blot- 
ting-paper, and set it on fire by a heated wire. Let the bell 
glass be raised on one side to admit sufficient air to maintain 
combustion ; and as the phosphorus is consumed introduce 
successive pieces, taking care that the glass does not become 
too hot. When the quantity of acid is considerable, knock 
it from the plate with, an iron spoon, and put it into stop- 
pered bottles. Several glasses may be used at once. It is 
used as a dissecting body, having the strongest attraction for 
water of any known substance. Also in making a stopping 
for teeth — see Teeth Cements. 

Acid, Pyrogallic. Heat powdered nutgalls in a dish covered 
with thin filtering paper pasted to its edges, and sur- 
mounted with a bell-formed receiver, kept cool. A solution 
of the condensed acid, decolorized by animal charcoal, 
and mixed with spirit, is used to stain the hair (and skin) 

Acid, Sulphuric. This is only made on a large scale ; but 
the commercial acid requires purification for many chemical 
as well as pharmaceutical purposes, as it is usually contami- 
nated with tin and lead, and frequently with arsenic, or 
selenium, and compounds of nitrogen. The purification of 
oil of vitriol by distillation is attended with some difficulty. 
No luting must be employed ; and to prevent the violent 
jumpings which attend the ebullition, strips of platina, or 
fragments of rock crystal should be introduced into the 
retort. The receiver should be large, and the whole defended 
from currents of cold air. The first portions which come 
over should be rejected till the indigo test proves it to be 
free from nitric acid. By boiling a portion of the acid with 
a few drops of solution of sulphate of indigo, the latter is 
discolored if nitric acid is present. The Edinburgh Phar- 
macopoeia directs the nitrous acid to be got rid of by heating 
8 fluid ounces of commercial oil of vitriol to near the boiling- 
point with from 10 to 15 gr. of sugar. When sulphuric acid 
is diluted with water, the metallic impurities may be removed 
by a little solution of sulphuret of barium, and allowiiag the 
precipitates to subside, when the pure diluted acid may be 
decanted for use. 


Dry or Anhydrous Sulphuric Acid. Into a retort, placed 
in a freezing mixture, and having a receiver attached, 
put some dry phosphoric acid (see above), and add f of 
its weight of strong sulphuric acid. Remove the retort 
from the freezing mixture, and place the receiver attached 
to it there ; a gentle heat being now applied to the retort, 
the anhydrous acid is obtained in silky crystals. 

Acid, Sulphurous. For the mode of obtaining an aqueous 
solution of this acid, see Acidum Sulphurosum, Pocket 
Formulary. The following are cheaper methods of obtain- 
ing it for bleaching purposes, &c. Berthier directs a mix- 
ture of 100 parts of black oxide of manganese, and 12 or 14 
of sulphur, to be heated in a glass retort, and the gas re- 
ceived into water kept very cold. Mr. Redwood directs |- 
oz. of powdered charcoal to be acted on by 4 fluid oz. of oil 
of vitriol. Treacle is sometimes used instead of charcoal; 
as also is linseed oil. 

Acid, Tannic. Tannin. Place coarsely-powdered Aleppo 
galls in a -damp cellar for 3 or 4 days, then mix them with 
sufficient sulphuric ether to form a soft paste. Place this in. 
a close vessel for 24 hours, then wrap it in linen ticking, and 
submit it to the action of a powerful press. Scrape off the 
tannin from the surface of the ticking, remove the cake 
from within it, rub this into powder, form it into a paste 
with a mixture of 100 parts of ether and six of water, 
well shaken together before pouring it on the galls, 
and proceed as before. Let the syrupy liquid thus ob- 
tained be thinly spread on plates, and dried in 113°. 

Acids, Mixed, for Galvanic Batteries. 1. For troughs, for 
general purposes, medical galvanism, &c. : Nitric acid 1 fluid 
oz., sulphuric acid 1\ fluid oz., water 4 pints. 

2. Dr. Faraday. Oil of vitriol 2 fluid oz., nitric acid 1 
fluid oz., water 5 pints. It should be tried by dipping into 
it a piece of sheet zinc. A continuous succession of small 
bubbles should be produced. 

3. For Mr. Smee's Battery. One measure of sulphuric 
acid to 7 of water. The intensity of its action is in- 
creased by the addition of a few drops of nitric acid, but 
this tends to destroy the plates. In electro-metallurgy 
the water should only contain a sixteenth of sulphuric 


4. For Mr. Grove's Battery. For the outer vessel 1 
part sulphuric acid to 7 of water ; for the inner, concentrated 
nitric acid. 

6. For Daniell's Battery. For the porous tube containing 
the zinc, 1 part of sulphuric acid with 10 of water. For the 
outer cylinder, a saturated solution of sulphate of copper, 
with a tenth part of sulphuric acid. 

6. Nitro-sulphuric acid, for Dr. T. Wright's Batteries. 
Nitric acid 1 part, sulphuric acid 5 parts. The zinc plate 
is immersed in a solution of muriate of ammonia or of salt, 
the platinized zinc in the above acid. The platinizing re- 
quires to be repeated every time the plate is washed. 

AciDiMETRY. Acids generally are estimated by the quantity 
of alkalies or carbonated alkalies required to neutralize them. 
Weigh 100 gr. of the acid and dilute it with a few times its 
weight in water. Then add sufficient dry or crystallized 
carbonate of soda, or carbonate of potash, to exactly neu- 
tralize the acid. The Alkalimeter tube may be used for the 
solution of the alkali. By a reference to the table of chemical 
equivalents, the quantity of real acid of any kind repre- 
sented by the quantity of alkali required to neutralize it 
may be estimated. 

Acidulated Kali. See Beverages. 

Albuminous Size. Beat up the white of an egg with twice 
its bulk of cold water, until well incorporated. Used as a 
varnish for leather binding and kid gloves ; also to size 
drawing paper. 

Alcohol. There is, perhaps, no better method of obtaining 
absolute alcohol, then that of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. 
See Alcohol, Pocket Formulary^ 

Alkalimetry. The quantity of real alkali contained in 
the commercial alkalies (common soda, soda ash, potashes, 
pearlash, salt of tartar, &c.) is ascertained by the quantity 
of an acid solution of a known strength required to neu- 
tralize it. For this purpose a tube, termed an Alkali- 
meter, is used, which will hold 1000 grains of water. The 
tube may be three-fourths of an inch internal diameter, and 
9 J inches in length ; or five-eighth inches diameter, and 14 
inches in height; and should be graduated into 100 equal 
divisions numbered from the top downwards. The quantity 
of test acid used is then at once seen. This consists of sul- 
phuric acid diluted with water so that each measure (10 


grains) is equivalent to one grain of pure soda. To use it, 
dissolve 100 grains of the impure soda in 3 oz. of hot water, 
filter, and wash the filter. Then add to the solution the test 
acid until the litmus or cabbage-paper ceases to show an 
alkaline reaction. The same acid will serve for potash, if 
the number be multiplied by 3 and divided by 4. — 
Parnell. There are several other methods of performing 
the process. 

Alloys and Amalgams. A few only of these metallic com- 
pounds require notice here : 

Fusible Metal. 1. Tin 8 parts, lead 4, bismuth 3 : melt to- 
gether, removing the scum. Used as a metal-bath. 

2. Darcet's, for the same purpose ; Bismuth 8 parts, 
lead 5, tin 3. 

3. Lead 3 parts, tin 2, bismuth 5. This melts at 197° 

4. For -anatomical injections: Melt together with a gentle 
heat 174 parts of tin, 312 of lead, 514 of bismuth, with a 
little charcoal ; remove from the fire, and add 100 parts of 
mercury previously heated. It is fluid at 173° ; solid at 140° . 

Bronze. 1. For medals and small castings : Copper 95, tin 

2. Copper 89, tin 8, zinc 3. 

3. Ancient. Copper 100, tin 7, lead 7. 

4. Kelly's. Copper 91, zinc 6, tin 2, lead 1. 

5. For gilding. Copper 14, zinc 6, tin 4. 

6. Bell-Metal. Copper 78, tin 22. 

G-erman Silver. 1. Copper 40J, nickel 31|^, zinc 25^, iron 

2. Pure copper 55, nickel 23, zinc 17, iron 3, tin 2. 

Grold, Factitious. Platina 7, copper 16, zinc 1 ; fuse together. 
See AuRUM Musivum. 

Oommon Gf-old. Copper 16, silver 1, gold 2. 

Or-molu Copper 45 to 48, zinc 52 to 55. 

White Brass. Porel. Melt zinc with 10 per cent, each of 
copper and iron. This alloy has the fracture and appear- 
ance of zinc, but is tougher than cast iron. It does not rust, 
nor adhere to metal moulds. 


Solders. 1. For Gold : Pure gold 12 parts, silver 2, cop- 
per 4. 

2. Soft Solder. Tin 2 parts, lead 1. 

3. For brass: Brass 2 parts, zinc 1. 

Alloys for Electrotype. Cliehee Moulds. Bismuth 8 parts, 
tin 4, lead 5, regulus of antimony, 1 ; melt repeatedly to- 
gether, and pour out in drops, till perfectly mixed. 

Amalgam for Electrical Machines. 1. Fuse 1 oz. of zinc 

with \ oz. of tin, at as low a temperature as possible ; then 

- add 1|^ oz. of quicksilver, previously made hot ; mix, pour 

out, and when cold reduce it to a poAvder, and triturate it 

with sufficient quicksilver to bring it to a proper consistence. 

2. Zinc 1 part, tin 1, quicksilver 2 ; melt together. 

3. Zinc 2, tin 1, mercury 5. 

4. La Beaume's. Pour into a chalked wooden box 
6 oz. of quicksilver; pour into an iron ladle ^ oz. bees- 
wax, with 2 oz. purified zinc, and 1 oz. of grain tin; set 
it over a brisk fire, and when the metals are melted, pour 
them into the box, avoiding the dross. When cold, re- 
duce it to a powder, and mix it with lard. Keep it in a 
box, covered with tallow, and spread it on leather for 

Liquid Amalgam, for Silvering Grlohes, ^c. Pure lead 1 oz., 
grain tin 1 oz. ; melt in a clean ladle, and immediately add 
1 oz. of bismuth. Skim off the dross, remove the ladle from 
the fire, and, before the metal sets, add 10 oz. of quicksilver. 
Stir together, avoiding the fumes. 

Amalgam for Varnishing Figures. Melt 2 oz. of tin with J 
oz. of bismuth, and add ^ oz. of quicksilver. When cold, 
grind it with white of egg, and apply to the figure. 

Alum. It is prepared by lixiviating calcined albuminous 
schist, and concentrating the solution to 1.4 or 1.5 density, 
and adding the requisite quantity of muriate of potash, 
soap-boilers' ash, or kelp, to supply the alkali. By re- 
crystallization it is obtained colorless. In some manu- 
factories sulphate of ammonia, from gas-liquor, is added 
to the lixivium, instead of muriate of potash. Roman or 
cubic alum is crystallized from a solution, the temperature 
of which is not allowed to exceed 104° F. It differs from 
common alum in containing a large quantity of base, a 
portion of which separates if the solution be heated to 120°. 


Another kind of alum, sometimes used as a mordant, con- 
sists almost entirely of sulphate of alumina, and is probably 
made by boiling fine clay, free from iron, with sulphuric 
acid, and cooling the solution so as to obtain a solid mass. 
See Dyes, &c. 

Aluminum, to Frost. The metal is plunged into a solution 
of caustic potash. The surface, becoming frosted, does not 
tarnish on exposure of the air. — Macadam. 

Aluminum Bronze. 10 parts of aluminum are melted with 
90 parts of copper. It is said to be as tenacious as steel. 

Amadou. Prepared from Boletus igniarius, B. fomentarius, and 
some other allied species of fungi. The fungus is cut into 
thin slices, the hard external parts removed, and the rest 
beaten with a mallet till soft. This forms surgeons' agaric. 
If intended for Gferman tinder, it is soaked in a solution of 
nitre, and sometimes sprinkled with gunpowder, and care- 
fully dried. 

Amalgams. See Alloys, above. 

Ammonia, Sulphate and Carbonate of. An impure sul- 
phate of ammonia, suitable for agricultural purposes, is ob- 
tained by neutralizing the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works 
with sulphuric acid. By recrystallization it may be obtained 
in a state of greater purity. The carbonate (hydrated ses- 
quicarbonate) is obtained by mixing either this sulphate, or 
sal-ammoniac, with chalk, and subliming it in iron retorts 
into leaden receivers. It is further purified by resubliming. 
it with a gentle heat. A sketch of the apparatus employed 
will be found in Dr. Pereira's " Elements," Vol 1. 

Anatomical Injections. 1. Tallow, resin, and wax, equal 
parts ; melt over a slow fire ; and add red lead or vermilion 
sufiicient to color. For coarse preparations. 

2. A strong solution of isinglass, colored as required. 
For decicate preparations. 

3. Amalgam Injection. Melt together 1 oz. each of 
bismuth, lead, and zinc, and, when melted, add 2 oz. of 
quicksilver. Also for delicate parts. 

Anatomical Subjects, and Animal Substances, to Pre- 
serve. 1. M. Gannal's Solution. Common salt 2 ib, 
alum 2 S), nitre 1 fib, water 4 gallons. M. Gannal injects 


into the carotid artery a solution of sulphate of alumina, of 
density 1.286, From 5 to 7 pints are required in summer, 
but less will suffice in winter. 

2. Dr. Babington injects pyroxylic spirit into the aorta, 
and a little into the cavity of the peritoneum and the rectum. 

3. Mr. GoADBY, for insects, and for preparations of their 
organs. Bay salt 4 oz., alum 2 oz., corrosive sublimate 
from 2 to 4 grains, wa':er 1 to 2 quarts. The weaker pro- 

' portions should always be employed in the first instance. 
Let the insect or its organs be covered with the fluid, which 
should be changed frequently. 

4. For Mollusca. Bay salt | oz., arsenic J dr., subli- 
inate 2 gr., water a quart : dissolve. 

5. Mr. PiGNE, for preserving pathological specimens. 
Creasote 3 to 6 drops, water a pint. 

6. Carbolid acid, often sold for creasote, may be used in 
the same manner. 

7. Pure Glycerine. Found especially useful in preserv- 
ing the fresh tints of fishes, &c., intended for exhibition in 

8. Dr. StapyltOjST, for pathological specimens. In a 
quart of saturated solution of alum dissolve ^ dr. of nitre. 
A recent preparation immersed in this liquid become dis- 
colored ; but within a few days the color returns. It is 
then put in a saturated and filtered solution of alum. M. 
K.EBOULET proposes : Water 16 parts, chloride of lime 4, 
alum 2, nitre 1. 

9. Chloride of tin 4 (or corrosive sublimate 5) parts, in 
100 of water, with 2 of muriatic acid. — Mr. Cooley. 

10. For preserving Animals. Alum 32 oz., nux vomica 
3 oz., water 5 pints ; boil to 4| pints. When cold, filter, or 
decant. This serves for injection. The residue, mixed with 
yolk of egg, is used for anointing the interior of the skin 
and fleshy parts left in skinning animals. 

11. For preserving Feathers. Strychnine 16 gr., rectified 
spirit a pint (dangerous). See Stuffing Birds, &c. 

Annotto, Purified. To a boiling solution of pearlash add 
as much annotto as it will dissolve. When cold, decant the 
clear solution, and neutralize with diluted sulphuric acid, 
avoiding any excess. Wash the precipitate with a little 
cold water, and dry it. 

Annotto, Solution of. Boil equal weights of annotto and 
pearlash with water, and dilute to the required color. 


Antiattrition", and Axle . G-rease. 1. One part of fine 
black-lead, ground perfectly smooth, with 4 parts of lard. 
Some recipes add a little camphor. 

2. Booth's Axle Grease. (Expired Patent.) Dissolve 
|- ft) common soda in 1 gallon of water, and 3 ft) of tallow, 
and 6 ft) palm oil (or 10 ft) palm oil only) ; heat them to- 
gether to 200 or 210° F. ; mix, and keep the mixture con- 
stantly stirred till the composition is cooled down to 60 or 
70°. A thinner composition is made with |- ft) of soda, a 
gallon of water, a gallon of rape oil, and ^ % of tallow or 
palm oil. (See also Lubricating Compounds.) 

Antieerment. Sulphite of lime ; or equal parts of sulphite 
of lime and ground black mustard seed. Used to check the 
fermentation of cider, &c. 

Aqua Fortis. Double aqua fortis is nitric acid of 1.36 speci- 
fic gravity; single aqua fortis, about 1.22. — Dr. Pereira. 
A compound acid was formerly used under this name by 
dyers, and for cleaning brass, consisting of strong spirit of 
nitre 20 ft), oil of vitriol 7 ft), water 30 ft). — Elaboratory 
Laid Open. 

Aqua Regia. See Nitro-muriatic Acid, above. 

Aquarium, Marine, Salts eor, &c. Artificial sea-water 
may be used instead of the natural. A rough imitation is 
formed by mixing 100 oz. of fresh water with 3 oz. common 
salt, 1 oz. of Epsom salts, 200 gr. of chloride of magnesium, 
and 40 gr. of chloride of potassium. 

Or, more precisely, the real constitution of sea-water may 
be imitated in the followina; manner : Mix with 970,000 . 
grains of rain-water 27,000 of chloride of sodium, 3600 of 
chloride of magnesium, 750 of chloride of potassium, 29 of 
bromide of magnesium, 2300 of sulphate of magnesia, 1400 
of sulphate of lime, 35 of carbonate of lime, 5 of iodide of 
sodium. These all being finely powdered and mixed first, 
are to be stirred into the water, through which a stream of 
air may be caused to pass from the bottom until the whole 
is dissolved. On no account is the water to be boiled, or 
even heated. 

Into this water, when clear, the rocks and seaweed may 
be introduced. As soon as the latter are in a flourishing 
state, the animals may follow. Care must be taken not to 
have too many of these, and to remove immediately any that 
die. The loss by evaporation is to be made up by adding 


clean rain-water. The aquarium, whether of fresh or of 
salt water, will require occasionally artificial aeration. This 
may be done by simply blowing through a glass tube which 
reaches to near the bottom, or, better still, in the following 
way: Take a glass syringe which can be easily worked. 
Having filled it with water, hold it with the nozzle about 2 
inches from the surface of the water in the aquarium, into 
which the contents are to be discharged quickly, and with a 
' sort of jerk. By this, means a multitude of small bubbles 
are forced down into the fluid. This operation should be re- 
peated for a considerable number of times. 

Arabine. Gum arabic dissolved in water, and precipitated by 

Argentum Musivum. Fuse | oz. each of grain tin and bis- 
muth in a crucible, and add | oz. of mercury. 

Arbor Dian^. See Trees, Metallic. 

Aromatic Pastils. See Perfumery. 

AuRUM Musivum. Mosaic gold, or bisulphuret of tin. See 
Stanni Sulphuretum, Pocket Formularly. 1. Dr. Ure 
directs 12 oz. of tin to be melted, and 3 oz. of mercury 
added. This amalgam is triturated with 7 oz. of sulphur 
and 3 of sal ammoniac, and the powder put into a matrass, 
which is bedded deep in sand, and kept iPor several hours at 
a gentle heat. The heat is then raised, and continued for 
several hours, taking care not to raise it so high as to blacken 
the mass. 

2. Melt together in a crucible, over a clear fire, equal 
parts of sulphur and the white oxide of tin ; keep it continu- 
ally stirred with a glass rod, until the compound appears as 
'a yellow flaky powder. (This is used as a cheap bronze 
powder, &c.) 

Baldwin's Phosphorus. Heat nitrate of lime till it melts ; 
keep it fused for 10 minutes, and pour it into a heated iron 
ladle. When cool, break it into pieces, and keep it in a 
closely-stoppered bottle. After exposure to the sun's rays, 
it emits a white light in the dark. 

Balls for Horses. See Veterinary Formulary. 

Balls, Ash. The ashes of fern, or other kinds of wood ashes, 
made into balls. 

Balls, Heel. 1. Melt together 4 oz. of mutton suet, 1 oz. 


of beeswax, 1 oz. of sweet oil, | oz. oil of turpentine, and 
stir in 1 oz, of povydered gum arabic, and ^ oz. of fine lamp- 

2. Beeswax 8 oz., tallow 1 oz., powdered gum 1 oz., lamp- 
black q. s. These are used not merely by the shoemaker, 
but to copy inscriptions, raised patterns, &c., by rubbing the 
ball on paper laid over the article to be copied. Ulla- 
THORNe's Balls answer the purpose very well. For copying 
ancient monumental brasses, a similar compound, colored 
with bronze-powder instead of lamp-black is sometimes em- 

Balls for Scouring — Breeches Balls, Clothes Balls. 1. 
Bath-brick 4 parts, pipe-clay 8 parts, pumice' 1, soft-soap 
1 ; ochre, umber, or other color to bring it to the desired 
shade, q. s. ; ox-gall to form a paste. Make it into balls, 
and dry them. 

2. Pipe-clay 4 oz., fuller's earth J oz., whiting ^ oz. 
white pepper ^ oz., ox-gall sufficient to form it into a paste. 

3. Pipe-clay 3 oz., white pepper 1 dr., starch 1 dr., orris 
powder IJ dr. It may be kept in powder, or formed into 
balls, as above. 

Balls, Blacking. See Blacking, below. 

Balls, Furniture. See Furniture Paste. 

Barium, Peroxide of. Heat pure barytes to low redness in 
a platinum crucible ; then gradually add chlorate of potash 
in the proportion of 1 part of the latter to 4 of the former. 
Cold water removes the chloride of potassium, and the per- 
oxide remains as a hydrate. 

Barytes, Chlorate. See Chlorate of Barytes. 

Beetle Poison. Put a drachm of phosphorus in a flask with 
2 oz. of water ; plunge the flask into hot water, and when 
the phosphorus is melted, pour the contents into a mortar 
with 2 or 3 oz. of lard. Triturate briskly, adding water, 
and J ft) of flour, with 1 or 2 oz. of brown sugai". — Pharma- 
ceutical Journal. Plaster of Paris, with oat-meal, is said to 
destroy cockroaches. 

Beetle Wafers. These are made with flour, sugar, and red 
lead, heated in wafer irons. 

Benzole. A volatile liquid, procured by distilling light coal 
naphtha at a temperate not exceeding 200° F., by the 


method patented by Mi\ Mansfield. It is a solvent for 
gutta percba ; and, also, with heat and long digestion, of 

Beverages, ani> Powders for Preparing them. See above 
page 268. 

Bird Lime. Boil the middle bark of the boll j 7 or 8 hours in 
water ; drain it, and lay it in heaps in the ground, covered 

- with stones, for 2 or 3 weeks, till reduced to a mucilage. 
Beat this in a mortar, wash it in rain-water, and knead 
it till free from extraneous matters. Put it into earthen 
pots, and in 4 or 5 days it will be fit for use. An inferior 
kind is m*de by boiling linseed oil for some hours, until it 
becomes a viscid paste. 

Bisulphuret of Carbon. This is used in the arts, as a 
solvent for India-rubber, gutta percha, &c. To procure it, 
Mulder recommends the following process as the most 
convenient. Provide an iron bottle (a quicksilver bottle 
answers very well), and make a second opening into it. 
To one opening adapt a copper tube bent twice at right 
angles ; and to the other a straight tube dipping into the 
bottle. Having nearly filled the bottle with pieces of 
charcoal (recently heated to redness), and having screwed 
on the bent and straight tubes, place the bottle in a fur- 
nace, closing the mouth of the latter with a stone or clay 
cover in two pieces, hollowed in the centre so as to fit the 
upper part of the bottle, and defend it from the action of 
the fire. Connect the curved tube with a Woolfe's bottle 
half-filled with water, and placed in a freezing mixture ; 
and when the iron bottle is suflSciently heated, introduce by 
the straight tube fragments of sulphur, and immediately 
close the mouth of the tube with a plug. The bisulphu- 
ret, as it comes over, falls to the bottom of the water. 
Separate it from the water, and distil over dry muriate of 

Blacking, Liquid, for Shoes, &c. [Note. — By ivory-black, 
5o?ie-black, which is usually sold under this name, is in- 
tended. True ivory-black has a more intense color, but is 
too dear for general use.] 1. Ivory-black 3 oz., treacle 2 
oz., sweet oil J oz. ; mix to form a paste ; add gradually J 
oz. of oil of vitriol, and then half a pint of vinegar, and If 
pint of water or sour beer. Some prefer mixing the oil of 
vitriol with the sweet oil. 


2. Ivory-black 2 ft), treacle 2 ft), sweet oil J ft) ; mix and 
add I ft) oil of vitriol, and beer or vinegar to make up a 

. gallon. 

3. Ivory-black 3 ft), treacle 4 ft), vinegar a pint, oil of 
vitriol 8 oz., water a gallon. 

4. Ivory-black 2 %, neat's-foot oil 4 oz. ; mix, and add 
3 quarts of sour beer, or vinegar, and a spoonful of any 
kind of spirits ; stir till smooth, and add 2 oz. of oil of 
vitriol, and sprinkle on it J drachm of powdered resin. 
Then boil together 3 pints of sour ale with a little log- 
wood, and ^ oz. of Prussian blue, 3 oz. of honey, and 
8 oz. of treacle. Mix, but do not bottle it for 2 or 3 days. 

5. Ivory-black 8 oz., brown sugar or treacle 8 oz., sweet 
oil 1 oz., oil of vitriol ^ oz., vinegar 2 quarts. Mix the oil 
with the treacle, then add the oil of vitriol and vinegar, and 
lastly, the ivory-black. 

Blacking foe, Dress Boots. 1. Gum 8 oz., treacle 2 oz., 
ink a pint, vinegar 2 oz., spirit of wine 2 oz. Dissolve the 
gum and treacle in the ink and vinegar, strain, and add the 

2. To the above add 1 oz. of sweet oil, and ^ oz. lamp- . 
black. [These are applied with a sponge, and allowed to 
dry out of the dust. They will not bear the wet.] 

3. Beat together the whites of 2 eggs, a tablespoonful 
of spirit of wine, a lump of sugar, and a little finely 
powdered ivory -black to thicken. 

Blacking without Polishing. Treacle 4 oz., lamp-black | 
oz., yeast a tablespoonful, 2 eggs, olive oil a teaspoonful, oil 
of turpentine a teaspoonful. Mix well, To be applied with 
a sponge, without brushing. 

Blacking, India-rubber (Patent). Ivory-black 60 ft, trea- 
cle 45 ft, vinegar (No. 24) 20 gallons, powdered gum 1 ftj, 
India-rubber oil 9 ft). (The latter is made by dissolving by 
heat 18 oz. of India-rubber in 9 ft of rape oil.) Grind the 
whole smooth in a paint mill, then add, by small quantities 
at a time, 12 ft of oil of vitriol, stirring it strongly for half 
an hour a day for a fortnight. 

Blacking, Paste. 1. These may be made with the ingredi- 
ents of liquid blacking, using sufficient vinegar, in which a 
little gum has been dissolved, to form a paste. Make it into 
cakes, and dry it. 

2. Crerman Blacking. Powdered bone-black is mixed 


witli half its weight of raoLisses and one-eighth of its weight 
of olive oil ; and to this is added afterwards one-eighth 
of its weight of Hydrochloric acid, and one-fourth of its 
weight of strong sulphuric acid. The whole is to be then 
mixed up with water into a sort of unctuous paste. — 


3. Bailey's Blacking Balls. Bruised gum tragacanth 
1 oz,, water 4 oz. ; mix, and add 2 oz. of neat's-foot oil, 2 
oz. of fine ivory-black,. 2 oz. of Prussian blue, 4 oz. of sugar- 
candy ; mix, and evaporate to a proper consistence. 

For Heel Balls, see Balls, above. 

Blacking for Harness. 1. Isinglass or gelatine J oz., 
powdered indigo \ oz., soft soap 4 oz., logwood 4 oz., glue 
5 oz. Boil together in 2 pints of vinegar till the glue is 
dissolved ; then strain through a cloth, and bottle for use. 
This appears an unchemical composition ; but is inserted (as 
are many similar ones) because it is in actual use. The 
next is of a different character. 

2. Melt 8 oz. of beeswax in an earthen pipkin, and stir 
into it 2 oz. of ivory-black, 1 oz. of Prussian blue ground in 
oil, 1 oz. of oil of tui'pentine, and \ oz. of copal varnish- 
Make it into balls. To be applied with a brush and 
polished with an old handkerchief. 

3. Treacle ^ ib, lamp-black 1 oz., yeast a spoonful, sugar- 
candy, olive oil, gum tragacanth, isinglass, each 1 oz., a 
cow's gall. Mix all together with two pints of stale beer, 
and let it stand before the fire for an hour. 

Black Keviver. 1. Bruised nutgalls 1 ft), logwood 1 ft), 
water 5 quarts ; boil to 4 quarts, and add sulphate of iron 
4 oz. ; dissolve and strain. When cold, add 8 oz. of ox 

2. Galls 3 oz., logwood 1 oz., copperas, iron filings, 
and sumach, of each 1 oz., vinegar 2 pints. — Gray's Sup- 

Black Japan. True asphaltum 1^ oz., boiled linseed oil 4 
pints, burnt umber 4 oz. Heat together till the whole is 
incorporated, remove from the fire, and when sufiiciently 
cool, add as much oil of turpentine as will bring it to a 
proper consistence. 

Bleaching Liquid. Solution of chloride of lime, and chloride 
of soda, are sold for this purpose, with directions for use. 
The following is also used : Mix 3 ft) of common salt and 


1 Sb of black oxide of maganese with as mucli water as will 
form a paste. Put the mixture into a retort, and add 2 ft) 
of oil of vitriol previously diluted with 4 ft) of water. Pass 
the gas into a solution of 1 ft) of common pearlash, or 11 
oz. of caustic potash, in 6 ft) of water. The retort may be 
placed, after a short period, in hot water to extricate the 
remaining gas. In bleaching cotton by chloride of lime, 1 
ft) is dissolved in 3 gallons of water for each pound of cloth ; 
it is afterwards passed through diluted muriatic or sulphuric 
acid (1 part of acid to 30 of water), and then washed. 

Blights, Remedies for. 

Apple-tree Canker. Having brushed off the white down and 
the red stain underneath it, anoint the places with a mix- 
ture of train oil and Scotch snuff- 

White Blight of Apple-tree. Apply a decoction of foxglove 
mixed with fresh cow-dung into a paste. 

Fly in Turnips. Steep the seed before sowing in train oil ; or 
distribute slaked lime over the field as soon as the plants 
have appeared: or contrive, if possible to fumigate the field 
with brimstone. 

Mildew of Wheat. 1. To prevent it. Dissolve in 3J gallons 
of cold water 3J oz., of sulphate of copper for every 8 
bushels of sowing grain. Throw this quantity of wheat 
into another vessel, and pour over it the prepared liquid, 
until it rises 5 or 6 inches above the corn. Stir thoroughly, 
and remove all the grains that swim. Throw the mixture 
into a basket, so as to drain off the liquid ; wash it well in 
soft water, and dry before sowing. 

2. To remove it. A solution of 1 ft) of salt to the gallon 
of water, sprinkled with a flat brush over the growing corn. 

Smut in Wheat. To prevent it. Boil 3 gallons of water, and 
slake in it about 36 ft) of quick lime ; add 3 gallons more of 
cold water, and pour the hot mixture on 4J bushels of the 
grain placed in a tub, stirring incessantly. Turn over the 
mixture now and then for 24 hours. Allow the liquid to 
drain off, and sow the limed wheat as soon as it is suffi- 
ciently dry. See Wheat, steep for. 

Blight in Vines. A solution of pentasulphuret of calcium 
may be painted over the branches and twigs until they ac- 
quire a continuous coating of sulphur mixed with carbonate 


of lime. M. Merceuril raises the earth round the stems of 
the vine to about a foot deep, then places in each excavation 
a good handful of flowers of sulphur, heaping it round the 
stems. The earth is then replaced. This is done at the 
bewinnino; of August. 

For Lice, Aphides, and Red Spiders. See Washes for Ver- 

Blue for Linen. The ordinary kinds of cake blue consists 
of indigo and starch. Liefchild's patent blue is thus made : 
Mix 4 parts of Chinese blue, 1 of Turnbull's, and 1 of 
oxalic acid ; gradually add boiling water until the whole is 
dissolved, and lastly 4 parts of sulphate of indigo. The 
latter is made with 1 part of indigo, and 4 of sulphuric acid, 
neutralized with carbonate of ammonia. 

Boilers, to prevent Incrustation in. M. Duclos proposes 
to mix the water with which the boiler is to be supplied with 
the folloTving solution, in the proportion of IJ per cent. 
Chloride of barium 125 parts, hydrochloric acid (s. g. 1.20) 
25 parts, water 450. The water must then be allowed to 
clear in large reservoirs, where both the sulphate and carbo- 
nate of lime become decomposed, with formation of chloride 
of calcium. Any excess of acid must be neutralized before 
using, which may be done by placing pieces of limestone in 
the pipes. 

Bones, Sulphated. To a bushel of ground bones add from 
10 to 14 lb of oil of vitriol, previously mixed with half its 
bulk of water. [It is sometimes mixed with an equal weight 
of salt and a sufficient quantity of bran. Turnip seed may 
be mixed with this compound, and sown together.] 

Boot-top liquid. 1. Solution of muriate of tin 3 dr. ; French 
chalk, or Venetian talc, in powder, 1 oz. ; salt of sorrel ^ oz. 
flake white 1 oz., burnt alum J oz., powdered cuttle-fish bone 
1 oz., white arsenic 1 oz. boiling water a quart. Probably 
sulphate of barytes might be substituted for arsenic, the use 
of which it is desirable to discourage. 

2. Sour milk 3 pints, cream of tartar 2 oz., oxalic acid 1 
o-z.,- alum 1 oz. — Mr. Bedwood. 

3. Wash the tops with soap and water, and scrape them 
with the back of a knife. Then apply the following with a 
barefoot brush. — Oxalic acid 1 oz., water a pint. Use the 
back of a knife as before; then polish with the following: 


Powdered gum Arabic | oz., red spirits of lavender 2 oz., 
powdered turmeric J oz. ; pencil this over the top, let it half 
dry, then polish by rubbing it, one way only, Avith a flannel 
till it shines. 

4. Sour milk, 3 pints, butter of antimony 2 oz., cream of 
tartar 2 oz., citric acid, alum, burnt alum, of each 1 oz. — 
Gray's Supplement. 

5. White Top. One ounce of magnesia, alum, cream 
of tartar, and oxalic acid ; ^ oz. salt of sorrel, and J oz. of 
sugar of lead ; dissolve in a quart of water, and apply with 
a sponge. 

6. Brown Top. Oxalic acid, alum, annotto, of each 1 
oz. ; isinglass ^ oz., sugar of lead ^ oz., salt of sorrel ^ oz., 
boil together in a quart of water for 10 minutes. Apply 
with a sponge. 

Bookbinders' Stains, for Leather. Black. A solution of 
1 part of sulphate of iron in 6 of water. Blue. A solution 
of indigo. (See Chemic Blue.) Brown. A solution of 
pearlash, or of common soda. 

Boot Powder. Finely powdered French chalk, or Yenitian 

Bread, Unfermented. See Dietetic Articles, p. 285. 

Bronze Powder. The best methods of preparing these pow- 
ders are probably kept secret. The following are. some of 
the published recipes : 

1. Gold leaf, or alloys of gold, reduced to powder by 
grinding them with sulphate of potash, or with honey, and 
washing away the extraneous matter with hot water, and 
drying the metallic powder. 

2. Dutch metal, and other similar alloys, treated in the 
same way. 

3. Verdigris 4 oz., tutty 2 oz., sublimate 1 dr., borax 1 
dr., nitre 1 dr., mix them into a paste with oil, and fuse the 
mixture in a crucible. This has failed in some hands — per- 
haps from the tutty being factitious. 

4. Mix together 100 parts of sulphate of copper, and 50 
of crystallized carbonate of soda ; apply heat till they unite. 
Powder the mass when cold, and add 15 parts of copper fil- 
ings ; mix well, and keep it at a white heat for 20 minutes. 
Wash and dry the product. 

See also Aurum Musivum, and Argentum Musivum, 


322 trade chemicals. 

Bronzing Liquids, for Bronzing Copper Medals, Figures, 
Instruments, &c. 1. Sal ammoniac 1 dr., oxalic acid 15 
gr., vinegar a pint: after well cleaning the article to be 
bronzed, warm it gently, and brush it over with the liquid, 
using only a small quantity at a time. When rubbed dry, 
. repeat the application till the desired tint is obtained. (For 
copper medals, electrotype casts, &c.) 

2. Bronze for Plaster Figures. Dissolve palm soap in 
water, and add a mixed solution of sulphate of copper and 
sulphate of iron until no further precipitate occurs. Dry 
the precipitate, and mix it with oil of turpentine, or linseed 
oil. Sulphate of copper alone produces too bright a green. 
Palmite of iron is yellow. These may be precipitated sep- 
arately, and mixed to the desired shade after being titurated 
with the oil. Ten ounces of soap will require 3 ounces of 
sulphate of copper. 

. 3. Sal ammoniac 1 oz., cream of tartar 3 oz., salt 6 oz. ; 
dissolve in a pint of hot water, add 2 oz. of nitre, and 2 oz. 
of nitrate of copper dissolved in ^ pint of water. 
• 4. Salt of sorrel 1 oz., sal ammoniac 2 oz., white vinegar 
14 oz. (To give an antique appearance to bronze figures, 

o. A diluted solution of muriate of platina. (For copper 
binding screws, and other small articles.) 

6. A weak solution of hydrosulphuret of ammonia, or of 
sulphuret of potassium. (For electrotype medals.) 

7. Immediately on removing the electrotype cast from the 
solution, brush it over with good black lead ; then heat it 
moderately, and brush it over with a painting brush, the 
slightest moisture being used. 

8. Boil 2 oz. of carbonate of ammonia and 1 oz. of ace- 
tate of copper in ^ pint of vinegar, until nearly all the vine- 
gar is evaporated. Pour into this a solution of 62 grains of 
sal ammoniac, and 15J grains of oxalic acid, in |- pint of 
vinegar ; boil the whole and filter. Apply it to the medal 
(which should be perfectly bright, and previously warmed) 
with a camel-hair pencil for half a minute ; then pour boil- 
ing water on it ; wipe it with soft cotton very slightly mois- 
tened with linseed oil, and rub it with clean cotton. For 
electrotype copper medals. (They may also be bronzed by 
applying oxide of iron (jewellers' rouge, or crocus) in the 
same manner as directed above, for plumbago ; or a mixture 
of these may be used.) 

9. Tin Castings. Wash them over, after being well 


cleaned and wiped, with a solution of 1 part of sulphate of 
iron, and 1 ojp sulphate of copper, in 20 parts of water : 
afterwards with a solution of 4 parts of verdigris in 11 of 
distilled vinegar ; leave for an hour to dry, then polish with 
a soft brush and colcothar. 

Bronzing Ball. See Ball (Heel). 

Bronzing Pastes, Parisian. 1. Plumbago 1 oz., sienna 2 
oz., rouge |^ oz. Add a few drops of hydrosulphate of am- 
monia, and water. 

2. Chrome lead 2 oz., Prussian blue 2 oz., plumbago J ft), 
sienna powder and lake carmine, each ^ fib. Add sufficient 
water to make a paste. 

Brosse de Corail. The roots of lucerne (Medicago sativa), 
cleaned, dried, and hammered at the end. Used as a tooth- 

Browning, or Bronzing Liquids, for Gun Barrels. 1. 
Aquafortis J oz., sweet spirit of nitre ^ oz., spirit of wine 1 
oz., sulphate of copper 2 oz., water 30 oz., tincture of muri- 
ate of iron 1 oz. : mix. 

2. Sulphate of copper 1 oz., sweet spirit of nitre 1 oz., 
water a pint ; mix. In a few days it will be fit for use. 

3. Sweet spirit of nitre 3 oz., gum benzoin 1^ oz., tinc- 
ture of muriate of iron J oz., sulphate of copper 2 dr., spirit 
of wine J oz., mix, and add 2 ft) of soft water. 

4. Tincture of muriate of iron ^ oz., spirit of nitric ether 
|- oz., sulphate of copper 2 scruples, rain-water ^ pint. The 
above are applied with a sponge, after cleaning the barrel 
with lime and water. When dry, they are polished with a 
stifi" brush or iron scratch brush. 

Brunswick Black. Melt asphaltum, and add to it half its 
weight of boiled linseed oil ; mix, and when sufficiently cool, 
add enough oil of turpentine to bring it to the proper con- 

Bug Poison. 1. Spirit of wine 8 oz., spirit of turpentine 8 
oz., camphor ^ oz. : mix. 

2. Distilled vinegar, or diluted wood vinegar, a pint ; 
camphor J oz. ; dissolve. 

3. Corrosive sublimate 3 oz., muriatic acid 3 oz., oil of 
turpentine 12 oz., water 6 pints. Or, 1 oz. of sublimate, 2 
oz. of muriatic acid, a pint of oil of turpentine, and a pint 
of decoction of tobacco. 


4. Strong "mercurial ointment 1 oz., soft soap 1 oz., oil 
of turpentine a pint. 

5. White arsenic 2 oz., lard 13 oz., corrosive sublimate 
^ oz,, Venetian red J oz. 

6. Scotch snuff mixed with soft soap. 

7. For Flooi'S. Corrosive sublimate 1 ib, sal ammoniac 
1 ft), hot water 8 gallons. (It is said that if a branch of 
narrow-leaved dittany or pepperwort (Lepidium ruderale) 
be suspended in a room, all the bugs will settle in it, and 
may be taken. Fumigating the rooms with sulphur is a 
troublesome and disagreeable process, and not always suc- 

Burnett's (Sir W.) Disinfecting Fluid. See Disinfecting 

Butter, to Preserve. Powder finely, and mix together, 2 
parts of the best salt, 1 of loaf sugar, and 1 of nitre. To 
each pound of butter, well cleansed from the milk, add 1 oz. 
of this compound. It should not be used under a month. 
(Butter that has an unpleasant flavor, is said to be improved 
by the addition of 2 J dr. of bicarbonate of soda to 3 ft) 
of butter. A turnipy flavor may be prevented by only 
feeding the cows with turnips immediately after milking 

Butter of Antimony. The liquid chloride of antimony, com- 
mercially known by this name, is usually made by dissolving 
crude or roasted black antimony in muriatic acid with the 
addition of a little nitric acid. It usually contains perni- 
trate of iron. 

Butyric Ether. Saponify butter with a strong solution 
of potash, dissolve the soap in the smallest quantity of 
alcohol by the aid of heat, add a mixture of alcohol and 
sulphuric acid till the solution is acid, and distil as long 
as the product has a fruity odor. Redistil the product 
from chloride of calcium. It is sold as essence of pine- 

Camphene. Highly rectified oil of turpentine. English's 
patent camphene is made by passing the vapor of oil of tur- 
pentine through caustic solutions of potash, soda, or lime ; 
or through sulphuric acid. 

Camphor, Artificial. This is formed by passing muriatic 
acid gas into oil of turpentine. 


Camphor Balls. See Skin Cosmetics, after Perfumery. 
Candies. These belono; rather to the confectioner than the 

. druggist. The green stalks of angelica, the peels of orange, 
lemon, and citron, green roots of ginger, &g., are first boiled 
in water till soft, then in syrup till they are transparent, 
and dried in a stove, at a heat not exceeding 104° F. 
Candied horehound is made by boiling lump sugar with a 
little strong decoction or infusion of dried horehound till a 
portion taken out and cooled becomes solid. It is then 
poured on to a slab, or into paper or tin moulds dusted with 
powdered sugar. 

Canton's Phosphorus. Put calcined oyster shells in layers, 
alternately with sulphur, and heat strongly in a covered 
crucible for an hour. 

Caoutchouc, Solvents for. See Solvents. 

Capsules, Gelatinous. These are used to contain copaiva 
and other nauseous liquids which do not dissolve gelatine, 
so that they may be swallowed without inconvenience. They 
are made by '' dipping the bulbous extremity of an iron rod 
into a concentrated solution of gelatine. When the rod is 
withdrawn, it is to be rotated, in order to diffuse the gelatine 
equally over the bulb." When sufficiently hardened, they 
are removed, placed on pins to dry, and when dry filled with 
the balsam or oil, and the orifice closed with liquid gelatine. 
They are usually of an olive form, and contain 10 gr. of 
balsam in each. See Dr. Pereira's " Elements," article 
Copaiva. M. Giraud recommends the following composi- 
tion for capsules : Transparent gelatine 12 parts, syrup of 
gum 2 parts, syrap 2 parts, water 10 parts. Melt it in a 
water-bath, remove the scum, and dip the mould, previously 
oiled, into the compound. 

Carbon. See Charcoal. 

Carbonic Acid. See Gases. 

Carmine. See Pigments. 

Case-hardening Powder. This is merely ferroprussiate of 
potash, dried, and finely powdered. By sprinkling it on 
iron heated to bright redness, the metal becomes case- 
hardened, or superficially converted into steel. The iron 
should be plunged into cold water as soon as the powder 
has acted on it. The following compound is used for the 


same purpose: Sal ammoniac 2 oz., burnt bone-dust 2 oz., 
Kenwood's composition |- oz. Used as the former. 

Cassolettes. See Perfumery. 

Cayenne, Soluble. See Condiments, p. 292. 

Cements and Lutes, various. 

Shellac Oement. Fine orange sliellac, bruised, 4 oz., highly 
rectified spirit 3 oz. Digest in a warm place, frequently 
shaking, till the shellac is dissolved. Rectified wood 
naphtha may be substituted for spirit of wine, where the 

" smell is not objectionable. A most useful cement for 
securely joining almost any material. See Liquid Glue. 

Shellac Oement without Spirit. Boil 1 oz. of borax in 16 oz. 
water, add 2 oz. powdered shellac, and boil in a covered 
vessel till the lac is dissolved. Cheaper than the above, and 
for many purposes answers very well. Both are useful 
in fixing paper labels to tin, and to glass when exposed 
to damp. 

Armenian Cement for Grlass, China, ^c. 1. Keller's. 
Soak 2 dr. of cut isinglass in 2 oz. of water for 24 hours ; 
boil to 1 oz., add 1 oz. spirit of wine and strain through 
linen. Mix this, while hot, with a solution of 1 dr. of mastic 
in 1 oz. of rectified spirit^ and triturate with ^ dr. powdered 
gum ammoniac, till perfectly homogeneous. 

2. Dr. Ure's Diamond Cement. Isinglass 1 oz. distilled 
water 6 oz., boil to 3 oz., and add \\ oz. of rectified spirit. 
Boil for a minute or two, strain, and add while hot, first 
|- oz. of a milky emulsion of ammoniac, and then 5 dr., of 
tincture of mastic. (There are various kinds of this cement 
sold, and some of the improvements introduced by peculiar 
makers have not been made public.) 

Cement used in the East for uniting jewels, glass, and metals. 
Dissolve 5 or 6 pieces of gum mastic, each about the size 
of a large pea, in just as much spirit as will render it liquid. 
Soften some isinglass by steeping it in water ; having dried 
it, dissolve as much of it in good brandy as will make a two- 
ounce vial of strong glue, to which must be added two small 
bits of gum ammoniacum, rubbing until they are dissolved. 
Mix the two solutions ; keep in a close vial ; and when 
it is to be used, set the vial in boiling-water. — Mr. 


Hcenle's Cement for Gflass or Earthenvjare. Shellac 2 parts, 
Venice turpentine 1 part, fuse together, and form into sticks. 

(Jheese Oement for Earthemvare, ^c. Mix together white of 
egg beaten to a froth, quicklime, and grated cheese, and beat 
them to a paste. See Glue, Caseine. 

Qurd Oement. Add ^ pint of vinegar to J pint of skimmed 
milk ; mix the curd with the whites of 5 eggs well beaten, 
and sufficient powdered quicklime to form a paste. It re- 
sists water and a moderate degree of heat. 

G-lass Flux, for mending hroTcen Ohina, ^c. Mix 3 parts of 
red lead, 2 of fine white sand, and 3 of crystallized boracic 
acid, fuse the mixture, levigate it, and apply it with thin 
mucilage of tragacanth. Heat the repaired article gently, 
so as partially to fuse the cement. 

Cement for joining Spar and Marhle Ornaments, ^"c. Melt 
together 8 parts of resin, 1 of wax, and stir in 4 parts, or as 
much as may be required, of Paris plaster. The pieces to 
be made hot. 

Hensler's Cement. Grind 3 parts of litharge, 2 of recently 
burnt lime, and 1 of white bole, with linseed oil varnish. 
(Very tenacious, but long in drying.) 

Singer's Oement, for Electrical Machines and Gf-alvanic 
Troughs. Melt together 5 ft) of resin, and 1 ft) of beeswax, 
and stir in 1 ft) of red ochre (highly dried, and still warm), 
and 4 oz. Paris plaster, continuing the heat a little above 
212°, and stirring constantly till all frothing ceases. Or 
(for troughs), resin 6 ft), dried red ochre 1 ft), calcined , 
plaster of Paris J ft), linseed oil J ft). 

Botany Bay Oement. Botany Bay gum, melted and mixed 
with an equal quantity of brickdust. 

Cap Cement. As Singer's ; but 1 ft) of dried Venetian red 
may be substituted for the red ochre and Paris plaster. 

Bottle Cement. Resin 15 parts, tallow 4 (or wax 3) parts, 
highly dried red ochre 6 parts, or ivory-black q. s. The 
common kinds of sealing-wax are also used. 

Turner s Cement. Beeswax 1 oz., resin ^ oz., pitch |- oz. 
Melt, and stir in fine brickdust q. s. 

CojjpersmitK s Oement. Powdered quicklime, mixed with 
bullock's blood, and applied immediately. 


Eyigineer s Cement. Equal weights of red and white lead, 
Avith drying oil, spread on tow, or canvas. For metallic 
joints, or to unite large stones, in cisterns, &c. 

Cement for Steam Pipes. Grood linseed oil varnish ground 
with equal weights of white lead, oxide of manganese, and 

Iron Cement, for closing the joints of iron pipes. Iron borings, 
' coarsely powdered, 5 Bb, powdered sal ammoniac 2 oz., sul- 
phur 1 oz., water sufl5cient to moisten it. It quickly 
hardens ; but if time can be allowed, it sets more firmly with- 
, out the sulphur. It must be used as soon as mixed, and 
rammed tightly into the joints. 

GtAd's Hydraulic Cement. Powdered clay 3 ft), oxide of iron 
1 ft), boiled oil to form a stiff paste. 

Cements for masonry of Chambers of Chlorine, ^c. Equal 
parts of pitch, resin, and plaster of Paris. 

Roman Cement. A mixture of clay, lime, and oxide of iron, 
separately calcined, and finely powdered. It must be kept 
in close vessels, and mixed with water when used. 

Oxychloride of Zinc Cement. In liquid chloride of zinc mark- 
ing from 50° to 60° of Baum^'s areometer, dissolve 3 per 
cent, of borax or sal ammoniac ; add oxide of zinc which has 
been heated to redness, until the mass is of a proper con- 
sistence. The cement, when hard, becomes as firm as mar- 
ble. It may be cast in moulds, like plaster of Paris, or 
used in the construction of mosaic works, &c. — M. Sorel. 

Marine Cement. See Glue, Marine. 

Maissiatt's Cement, as an air-tight covering for bottles, ^c. 
Melt India-rubber (to which 15 per cent, of wax or tallow 
may be added), and gradually add finely-powdered quicklime 
till a change of odor shows that a combination has taken 
place and a proper consistence is obtained. 

Cement for attaching Metal Letters to Plate Grlass. Copal 
varnish 15 parts, drying oil 5 parts, turpentine 3 parts, oil 
of turpentine 2 parts, liquefied glue 5 parts ; melted in a 
water-bath, and 10 parts of slaked lime added. 

Cement to fasten Leather to Metal. A hot solution of gelatine. 
With this wash the metal; and the leather, previously 


steeped in a hot infusion of gallnuts, is to be pressed tightly 
on the surface and allowed to cool, when it will adhere very 

Japanese Cement. Mix rice flour intimately with cold water, 
and boil gently. 

French Cement. Mix thick mucilage of gum arabic with 
powdered starch. 

Common Paste. To a dessert-spoonful of flour add gradually 
half a pint of cold water, and mix till quite smooth ; add a 
pinch of powdered alum (some add also as much powdered 
resin as will lie on a sixpence), and boil for a few moments, 
stirring constantly. The addition of a little brown sugar, 
and a few grains of corrosive sublimate, is said to preserve 
it for years. 

Transparent Cement. Dissolve 75 parts *of caoutchouc in 6 
parts of chloroform, and add to the solution 15 parts of 
mastic. — Lenher. 

Soft Cement. Melt yellow wax with half its weight of common 
turpentine, and stir in a little Venetian red, previously well 
dried, and finely powdered. (As a temporary stopping 
for joints and openings in glass and other apparatus, 
where the heat and pressure are not great.) See the 

Lutes or Cements for closing the joints of Apparatus. 1. 
Mix Paris plaster with water to a soft paste, and apply 
it immediately. It bears nearly a red heat. It may be 
rendered impervious by rubbing it over with wax and 

2. Slaked lime, made into a paste with white of egg, or 
a solution of gelatine. 

3. Fat Lute. Finely-powdered clay moistened with 
water, and beaten up with boiled linseed oil. Roll it 
into cylinders, and press it on the joints of the vessels, 
which must be perfectly dry. It is rendered more secure 
by binding it with strips of linen moistened with white of egg. 

4. Linseed meal beaten to a paste with water. 

5. Slips of moistened bladder, smeared with white of egg. 

Luting for Acids. Dissolve 1 part of India-rubber in 2 parts 
of linseed oil, by heat, and work into a stiff paste with 3 
parts, or as much as sufficient, of white clay. 


Lutes for Coating Retorts. 1. Dissolve 1 oz. of Borax in J 
pint of water, and add slaked lime to form a thin paste. 
Brush this over the retort, and let it dry gradually. 
Then apply a coating of slaked lime and linseed oil 
beaten together. Let it dry a day or two before use, and 
fill up any cracks which may appear with lime and lin- 
seed oil. 

2. For bearing a stronger heat : Stourbridge clay, 

- mixed with a little sand to prevent it splitting off: a little 
cut tow, or horse-dung, or asbestos, is usually added, to 
increase its coherence. It should be beaten to a stiff paste, 

. " and rolled out before application. The glass should be first 
rubbed over with a little of the lute mixed with water, then 
placed in the centre of the paste, rolled to about ^th or 
^d of an inch in thickness, and the edges of the latter 
raised and moulded to the glass, taking care to press out all 
the air. 

Mohr's Lute. Mix equal parts of brickdust and litharge, 
and beat them into a paste with linseed oil. Apply this 
with a stiff brush, and dust it over with coarse sand ; dry it 
in a warm place. 

For Cements for plugging teeth, see Teeth Cosmetics, 
page 265. 

Charcoal. Wood charcoal is made by burning wood with 
only a partial access of air. For chemical purposes, that 
made in iron cylinders, in the manufacture of wood vinegar, 
is preferred. 

Charcoal, Animal. The most common form is that of bone- 
black (commonly called ivory-black), made by distilling 
bones, from which the grease has been removed by boiling, 
in iron or earthen retorts, the ammoniacal liquor, &c., being- 
collected in proper receivers. The residue is bone-black. 
When used for the purpose of decolorization, further treat- 
ment is required : either the bone-earth may be entirely re- 
moved by muriatic acid, as directed in the Pharmacopoeia; 
or more commonly, in the refining of sugar, and for other 
manufacturing purposes, this is only partially effected, in 
some such way as the following : Mix 8 ft) of the bone- 
black, coarsely powdered, with sufiicient water to form a 
paste, and add 1 Ife of muriatic acid. In an hour pour boil- 
ing water on the mass, let it settle, pour off the liquid, add 
more water, and repeat this till the water comes off free 


from taste. Drain and press the black in a cloth, and dry 
it. Its power is increased by mixing it with a little potash, 
heating it to dull redness in a colored crucible, and again 
washing it. 

Chaecoal, Aluminized. This is recommended by Dr. Sten- 
HOUSE as a cheap and very efficient decolorizing agent. Dis- 
solve in water 54 parts of the sulphate of alumina of com- 
merce, and mix with 92|- parts of finely powdered wood 
charcoal. When the charcoal is saturated, evaporate to 
dryness, and heat to redness in covered Hessian crucibles 
till the water and acid are dissipated. The charcoal contains 
just 7| per cent, of anhydrous alumina. 

Chaecoal feom Coal-tar. Heat gently in an iron pot till it 
melts 1 ft) by weight of coal-tar pitch. Add 2 ft) of fluid 
coal-tar, and mix. Stir in 7 ft) of hydrate of lime in very 
fine powder. The thick mass is now roasted, stirring all the 
time, till it is reduced to a fine powder. It is then ignited 
in a covered crucible till all the vegetable matter is car- 
bonized. The charcoal when cold is digested with dilute 
hydrochloric acid, and finally washed with water in a filter, 
and dried. Dr. Stenhouse recommends this as an admir- 
able form for decolorization. For such liquids as decoc- 
tion of logwood it is four times as efficient as animal charcoal. 

Chameleon Mineeal. Mix equal weights of black oxide of 
manganese and pure potash, and heat them in a crucible. 
Keep the compound in closely-stopped bottles. A solution 
of it in water passes through various shades of color from 
green to red. 

Chemique, oe Chemic Blue. — Sulphate of Indigo. To 7 
or 8 parts of oil of vitriol, in a glass or earthen vessel, 
placed in cold water, add gradually 1 part of fine indigo in 
powder, stirring the mixture at each addition with a glass 
rod, or piece of tobacco-pipe. Cover the vessel for £4 hours, 
then dilute with an equal weight of water. Sometimes it is 
sold without diluting. The German fuming acid answers best, 
4 or 5 parts of it being sufficient for 1 of indigo. For 
dyeing silk, &c., carbonate of potash, soda, or ammonia, is 
added, to neutralize the acid, taking care not to add it in 

Chlorate of Barytes. Saturate solution of chloric acid, 
prepared as directed in page 303, with fresh precipitated 
carbonate of barytes, filter, and crystallize. 


Chlokate of Potash. Slack 7 oz. of quicklime, add it to 
a pint of solution of caustic potash of 1.110 sp. gr. ; heat 
the mixture slightly, and pass through it a rapid current of 
chlorine gas until no more is absorbed. Evaporate merely 
to dryness, redissolve in boiling water, filter, and evaporate 
the filtering solution, and the washings of the filter, for 
crystallization. — Mr. Calvert. Or dissolve chloride of 
lime in water, add solution of muriate of potash, and boil 
to dryness. Dissolve .the mass in hot water, and filter 
if necessary : on cooling, a large quantity of chlorate of 
potash is deposited. — Liebig. For another process, see Po- 

. tassae Chloras, P. F. 

Chloride of Lime, or Chlorinated Lime. Bleaching Pow- 
der. Chlorine gas (slowly evolved from a mixture of 10 
parts of common salt and 10 to 14 parts of oxide of 
manganese, placed in an alembic of lead, and heated by 
steam, and with 12 to 14 parts of oil of vitriol previously 
diluted with a fourth of its weight of water, added) is 
conveyed into a chamber where sifted slake lime is thinly 
spread on shelves. It is so cheaply made by the large 
manufacturers for bleaching purposes, that it is seldom 
prepared by druggists. The liquid chloride of lime may 
be made either by triturating the dry chloride with a 
little cold water till perfectly smooth, then adding more 
water, and filtering the solution ; or by passing chlorine 
gas into a mixture of lime and water. The Dub. Pharm. 
directs a solution of 1.035 sp. gr. The Paris Codex directs 
1 part of dry bleaching powder to be diffused in 45 of 
water. Soubeiran directs 1 part to 50 ; but prefers passing 
the gas from 1 part of oxide of manganese and 4 of muriatic 
acid, into a mixture of 1 part of lime and 50 of water. 

Chloride or Hypochlorite of Potash. Eau de Javelle. 
Pass chlorine gas as above into a solution of 1 ft of car- 
bonate of potash in a gallon of water. Or mix 8 oz. of dry 
chloride of lime with six pints of water, and dissolve 16 oz. 
of carbonate of potash in a quart of water. Mix the liquids 
and filter. 

Chloride of Soda, or Chlojiinated Soda. See Soda Chlo- 
rinata, and Liquor Sodae Chlorinatse, in the Pocket For- 
mulary. A more ready way of preparing it, for other 
purposes than dispensing prescriptions, is the following : 
Diffuse 1 ft of chloride of lime in 30 ft of water. Dis- 


solve 2 ft) of crystallized carbonate of soda in 15 ft) of 
water. Mix the solutions, let the mixture settle, pour off 
the clear liquid, and filter it. 

Chlorine. See Gases. 

Chloroform. Into a copper still placed in a water-bath put 
7 gallons of water; heat to 100° F. ; add 10 ft of lime 
slacked in a solution of 20 ft of chloride of lime. Add 3 ft 
of rectified spirit ; mix them well, lute on the head immedi- 
ately, and raise the heat rapidly to 212°. When the ex- 
tremity of the neck of the still becomes hot, damp the fire, 
and the distillation will continue regularly. When it ceases, 
add to what remains in the still 11^ pints of water, raise the 
heat to 100°, add 8 ft) of lime, and 20 ft of chloride of lime, 
stir carefully, add the distilled liquor from Avhich the chloro- 
form has been separated, with If pint of spirit ; stir, and 
proceed as before. If the still is large enough, this may be 
repeated 3 or 4 times, with a constantly increasing product. 
The chloroform sinks to the bottom of the distilled liquid, 
and may be rectified by distilling it with oil of vitriol. Its 
density should not be less than 1.496 : Liebig says 1.480, . 
but at that density it is not pure. Chloroform may be 
obtained by a similar process from rectified wood naphtha 
(pyroxylic spirit) ; but it is then contaminated with an empy- 
reumatic oil, lighter than water, which cannot be entirely 
separated from it. It is therefore unfit for inhalation ; but 
when rectified over sulphuric acid* and chloride of calcium, 
may be used as a solvent. The process recommended by 
Dr. Simpson is that of Dumas : Chloride of lime in powder 
4 ft, water 12 ft), rectified spirit 12 oz. Mix in a capacious 
still, and distil as long as a dense liquid, which sinks to the 
bottom of the water which comes over with it, is produced. 
For other methods see Pocket Formulary. 

Chocolate. See Chocolate, Pocket Formulary. 

Chromate of Potash. Mix 4 parts of chrome ore (chromate 
of iron) with 2 of pearlash and 1 of nitre, and heat the mix- 
ture in a reverberatory furnace for several hours. Lixiviate, 
and crystallize. The chromate is converted into bichromate 

* This process of rectification bj^ oil of vitriol does not seem to succeed. 
See RoYLE and Headland's " Materia Medica," art. Chloroformum. 


by adding sulphuric acid, or rather acetic acid, to the solu- 

Chromate of Lead. See Pigments. 

Chrome Oxide. Mix bichromate of potash with half its 
"weight of muriate of ammonia ; heat the mixture to redness, 
and wash the mass with plenty of boiling water. Dry the 

Chromic Acid. See Acid, Chromic. 

Clothes, Powder to Keep away Moths from. Mix pow- 
dered pipe-clay, 1| Bb, white pepper and starch each 1 oz., 
root of Florentine iris 1| oz., with spirits of wine 2 oz. To 
be dusted over the clothes when laid by. 

Cochineal Coloring. Macerate best carmine 1 oz. in strong 
solution of ammonia 6 oz. until it is dissolved. Heat gently 
to drive off excess of ammonia. Put into a quart wine bottle, 
and add rectified spirit 4 oz., and white sugar 8 ft). Fill up 
Avith warm water, and shake until the sugar is dissolved. — 
Mr. Palmer. 

Collodion. Mix in a glass, stoneware, or porcelain vessel, 
30 parts of strong sulphuric acid and 20 of powdered nitre ; 
place the vessel in cold water', add 1 part of carded cotton- 
wool, and open and stir it in the acid mixture by means of 2 
glass or porcelain rods, or stems of tobacco pipes, for 2 or 3 
minutes. Then remove the cotton into a large quantity of 
cold water, press it, and wash it in a stream of water, open- 
ing it with the fingers, till the water passes through it free 
from acidity. Squeeze it strongly in a dry cloth, and then 
open it, and dry it gradually in a warm situation, free from 
danger. One part of this prepared cotton with 16 of recti- 
fied ether, and 1 of alcohol, agitated together, soon forms a 
gelatinous solution. See Pocket Formulary for its medical 

Collodion, Elastic (for surgical purposes). Mix together, 
in a stoneware or porcelain pot, sulphuric acid (of sp. gr. 
1.847) 300 parts, very dry nitrate of potash 200 parts ; and 
add carded cotton 10 parts. Leave in contact for 12 miniites ; 
withdraw the cotton, wash it in cold water to remove the 
acid which it contains, and after 2 or 3 rinsings, immerse it 
again in a solution of 30 parts of subcarbonate of potash in 


1000 of water ; plunge it again into simple water, agitating 
well ; and lastly, dry it at a temperature of 77° to 86° Fahr. 
The product is xyloidine. Place now 8 parts of this xyloi- 
dine, with 125 parts of sulphuric ether, in a wide-mouthed 
flask, and add 8 parts of alcohol (sp. gr. 0.825). Agitate. 
Make next a mixture of Venice turpentine 2 parts, castor 
oil 2 parts, white wax 2 parts, sulphuric ether 6 parts. 
Heat together the first three substances, add the ether, and 
mix all with the solution of xyloidine. — M. Lauras. 

Collodion, Photographic. See Photography. 

Colors, Various. The principal dry colors will be found 
under Pigments. Other colors are noticed below. 

Colors for Druggist's Show Bottles. In making these, 
distilled water should be used, and rather more of the color 
than will fill the carboys made, to avoid the necessity of 
adding water to fill up after filtration, as this sometimes 
renders them turbid. The carboys should be perfectly 
clean, and also dry, or otherwise rinsed out with a portion 
of the filtered liquid. 

1. Blues. Sulphate of copper 4 to 8 oz., water a gallon, 
oil of vitriol 1 oz. 

2. Royal Blue. Sulphate of copper 8 oz,, water a gallon ; 
dissolve, and add water of ammonia till the full color is de- 
veloped ; then water to make up 2 gallons. 

3. Finest Royal Blue. Nitrate of copper 3 oz., water 
sufficient to dissolve it ; add water of ammonia as long 
as the color becomes deeper, then water to make up 2 

4. Paler. Crystallized acetate of copper J oz., muriatic 
acid 1|- oz., water of ammonia q. s., water to make up 2 

5. Light Blue. Crystallized acetate of copper a scruple, 
water of ammonia 2 oz., water 2 gallons. 

Green. 1. An infusion of saffron added to the above blues. 

2. Sulphate of copper 4 oz., bichromate of potash \ dr., 
water q. s. 

3. By adding to the above deep or light blues a small 
quantity of chromate or bichromate of potash till the de- 
sired tint is produced, various shades of green . may be 

4. Sulphate of copper, with muriate of soda, or muriate 
of iron. 


5. Emerald Green. Nitrate of copper 3 oz., muriatic 
acid 4 oz., nitric acid 4 oz., water 2 gallons. 

6. Veri/ Fine Emerald. Nickel 3 oz., muriatic acid 4 
oz., nitrous acid 2 oz.; digest for 24 hours, add 2 gallons 
of water, and filter. 

Hed. 1. Dried rose petals 8 oz., boiling water a gallon ; 
digest for 12 hours, strain ; digest the roses with more water, 
and strain ; mix the infusions, add a pint of diluted sulphuric 
acid, and filter. 

2. Cochineal ^ oz., boiling water a gallon ; digest, strain, 
- add J oz. of sulphuric acid, and water to make up' 2 


3. Crimso7i. Iodine, and iodide of potassium, of each 2 
dr. ; triturate with a dr. of water, and add 3 gallons of 
water, and 4 oz. of muriatic acid. 

4. For External Lamps. Camphene, strongly colored 
with alkanet root. 

Pink. 1. Infuse J oz. of good madder in a quart of boil- 
ing distilled water ; Avhen cold, add 1 oz. of strong ammonia, 
and filter into 2 gallons of distilled water. 

2. Dissolve muriate or nitrate of cobalt in water, and add 
sufiicient carbonate of ammonia to redissolve the precipitate 
first thrown down ;• then water q. s. 

Fwyle. To the last add sufiicient of the blue No. 3, to 
give the desired shade. 

Lilac. Smalts 4 oz., nitric acid 4 oz. ; let it stand 24 
hours, add 2 gallons of water, 1 oz. of alum, and 4 oz. of 
water of ammonia. Or rather as the purple. 

Yellow. 1. Chromate or bichromate of potash, with 
water q. s. 

2. Bichromate of potash 2 dr., hot water 4 oz. ; dissolve, 
and add 4 oz. sulphuric acid, and 2 gallons of water. 

3. Bichromate of potash, nitrate of potash, and water. 
Amber. 1. Deep chrome yellow 3 oz., pearlash 9 oz., 

water 2 gallons ; boil gently for half an hour, take it off" to 
cool, and add 6 oz. muriatic acid, and water to the desired 

2. Dragons' blood, digested with sulphuric acid, and di- 
luted with water to the desired shade. 

Olive. Sulphate of iron 3 oz., sulphuric acid 3 oz., water 
2 gallons ; dissolve, and add the green No. 5, q. s. to 
brighten the color. 

Liquid Colors for Maps, &c. See Inks, Dyes, Chemique 


Blue, Lake Liquor, &c. Gamboge and some of the cake 
colors, mixed with water, are also used. 

Colors for Confectioners. Many fatal accidents occur 
from confectionery being colored with poisonous pigments. 
The following may be safely used : Cochineal and its pre- 
parations, sap green, vegetable lakes, Prussian blue; a 
mixture of a yellow lake and Prussian blue for green. 

Coloring for Brandt, &c. Sugar melted in a ladle till it is 
brown, and then dissolved in water or lime-water. 

Colors for Liqueurs. Pink is given by cochineal ; yellow by 
saffron or safflower ; violet by litmus ; blue by sulphate of 

- indigo, saturated with chalk ; green by the last, with tincture 
of saffron, or by sap green. 

Colors for Leather. See Bookbinders' Colors. 

Colors, Improved Vehicles for. 1. One measure of satu- 
rated solution of borax, with 4 of linseed oil. The pigment 
may be ground with the oil or the mixture. 

2. A solution of shellac with borax, as in making 
Coathupe's Ink. See Ink. 

3. Water colors, mixed with gelatine, and afterwards fixed 
by washing with a solution of alum. 

4. Curd of milk, washed and pressed, then dried on fine 
net, and when required for use, mixed with water and the 
coloring matter. 

Copper, Oxide of. The Uach oxide is made by calcining the 
nitrate; or by adding caustic potash to sulphate of copper, 
in solution, and washing and drying the precipitate. The 
red oxide may be made as directed for Bronze Powder, 
No. 4, or in the moist way thus : Pour a solution of 27 
parts of sugar in 60 of water, over 9 parts of hydrated oxide 
of copper, weighed in its compressed but still moist state. 
A solution of 18 parts of caustic potash in 60 of water is 
added, and the whole agitated together without heat, and 
filtered. The clear liquid heated in a water-bath, and con- 
tinually stirred, deposits the red oxide, and the liquid 
becomes colorless. 

Nitrate of Copper. Dissolve copper in nitric acid to satu- 
ration, evaporate to dryness, redissolve, filter, and evaporate, 
so that the salt may crystallize. Or add a solution of sul- 
phate of copper to a solution of nitrate of lead, so long as 
sulphate of lead is precipitated ; filter, evaporate, and 



crystallize. ' For the other salts of copper, see Cuprum, 
Pocket Formulary. 

Cotton Powder. See Gun Cotton. 

Crayons for Writing on Glass. Fuse in a cup 4 parts of 
spermaceti, 3 of tallow, and 2 of wax ; stir in o parts of 
minium, and 1 of potash; keep warm for |- an hour, and 
• then pour into glass tubes of the thickness of a lead-pencil. 
If cooled rapidly, the mass may be screwed up and down in 
the tube, and cut at the end to a fine point. The glass to 
be written on must be clean and dry. 

Depilatories. See Hair Cosmetics, page 254. 

Dextrine, or Starch Gum. Heat 4 gallons of water in a 
water-bath to between 77° and 86° Fahrenheit; stir in IJ 
or 2 R) finely ground malt ; raise the temperature to 140°, 
add 10 ft) of potato or other starch ; mix all thoroughly, 
raise the heat to 158°, and keep it betAveen that and 167° 
for 20 or 30 minutes. When the liquor becomes thin, 
instantly raise the heat to the boiling-point, to prevent the 
formation of suga,r. Strain the liquor, and evaporate it to 
dryness, as the dextrine will not keep long in a liquid form. 
Another method is to boil solution of starch with a few drops 
of sulphuric acid, filter the solution, and add alcohol to 
throw down the dextrine. See Gum (British) for another 
form of dextrine. 

Dextrine Varnish. Dextrine 2 parts, water 6 parts, rectified 
spirit 1 part. — BaRon de Sylvestre. 

Diastase. Macerate ground malt in cold water ; strain with 
pressure ; heat the clear solution in a water-bath to 158° 
Fahrenheit to coagulate the albumen ; filter again, and 
add rectified spirit as long as diastase falls. If required 
very pure, redissolve it in Avater, and again precipitate with 
spirit. Dry it at a Ioav temperature. AVell-malted barley 
contains about 1 per cent, of pure diastase ; one part of 
which is capable of converting 2000 parts of starch into 
dextrine or sugar. 

Dietetic Articles. For these see another division of the work. 

Disinfecting and Deodorizing Compounds. 1. Sir Wm. 
Burnett's Patent Solution; It is made by dissolving zinc 
in commercial muriatic acid to saturation. 

2. Ellerman's Deodorizing Fluid. This consists chiefly 


of perchlorides and chlorides of iron and maiiganese. In a 
report addressed to the Metropolitan Board of Works in 
1859, Drs, Hoffman and Frankland stated that the per- 
chloride of iron was the cheapest and most eiBcient deodor- 
izer that could be applied to sewage ; J gallon deodorized 
7500 gallons of this. 1 bushel of lime, or 3 ft) of chloride 
of lime, would do the same. 

3. Ledoyen's Solution. This is a solution of nitrate of 
lead, and contains about 20 oz. of the salt in a gallon. The 
specific gravity should be 1.40. A similar compound may 
be made by mixing 13J oz. of litharge with 6 pints of water, 
and adding 12 oz. of nitric acid at 1.38 specific gravity (or 
8 oz. at 1.50) ; and digesting at a gentle heat till the solu- 
tion is complete. 

4. Siret's Compound. Sulphate of iron 20 ft), sulphate 
of zinc 2|^ ft), wood or peat charcoal 1 ft), sulphate of lime 
26|^ ft) ; mix, and form into balls. To be placed in cess- 
pools, &c., to deodorize them. M. Siret has subsequently 
modified this compound thus : Sulphate of iron 100 parts, 
sulphate of zinc 50, tan or oak-bark powder 40, tar 5, and 
oil 5 parts. 

5. CoLLiNs's Disinfecting Poivder. Mix 2 parts of dry 
chloride of lime with 1 of burnt alum. To be set in shallow 
dishes in rooms, &c., with or without the addition of water. 
(See also Chloride of Lime, and Chloride of Soda. 
Peat charcoal also possesses powerful deodorizing proper- 

Dubbing, Curriers'. Made by boiling cuttings of sheep- 
skins in common cod-oil. 

Driers for Painters. White copperas 1 ft), sugar of le'ad 1 
ft), white 2 ft) ; ground with boiled oil. 

Drying and Boiled Oil. Linseed oil is mixed with powdered 
litharge, and heated till it becomes thick. A pale drying 
oil is obtained by mixing with linseed oil suflicient dry sul- 
phate of lead to form a milky liquid, and shaking it re- 
peatedly for some days, letting it stand exposed to the light. 
When it has become quite clear, it may be poured off from 
the dregs. The sulphate of lead when washed from the 
mucilage, may be again used for the same purpose. Liebig 
directs 1 ft) of acetate of lead to be dissolved in half a gallon 
of rain-water, and 1 ft) of finely-powdered litharge added : 
the mixture is either boiled, or exposed for a longer time to 


a moderate heat, and frequently stirred, till no more parti- 
cles of litharge can be seen. A white deposit is formed, 
which may be left in the liquid or separated by filtration ; 
20 ft) of linseed oil, in which 1 lb of levigated litharge has 
been diffused, are gradually added to the lead solution, pre- 
viously-diluted with an equal bulk of water, and the mix- 
ture frequently stirred. It is then left to clear itself in a 
warm place ; but to obtain it bright it must be filtered 
through coarse paper or cotton. It may be bleached by ex- 
posure to the sun. The lead solution which subsides from 
the mixture may be filtered and used again, after dissolving 
in it 1 ft) of litharge as before. The oxide of lead contained 
in the oil may be removed from it by agitating it with 
diluted sulphuric acid, and letting it stand to settle. See 
also Oils (Clarified Linseed Oil). 

Dupuytren's Pomade. See Hair Cosmetics, after Per- 

Dyes and Compounds used in Dyeing. A few of the prin- 
cipal coloring matters and mordants may here be noticed ; 
for further inforniation, the reader is referred to Dr. Ure's 
"Dictionary of the Arts," Parnell's "Applied Chemis- 
try," Berthollet " On Dyeing," &c. 

Blue Byes. The most important of these is indigo. Being 
insoluble in water, it is prepared for use by sulphate of iron 
and alkalies of lime, by fermentation and alkalies, and by 
solution in sulphuric acid. 

1. Triturate 1 ft) of indigo with water and a little caustic 
potash ; then add 3 ft) of lime, and afterwards 2^ ft) of sul- 
phurate of iron in solution, stirring them well together. 
The solution contains disoxygenized indigo, which is soluble 
in lime and alkalies. The cotton, linen, &c., to be dyed is 
repeatedly dipped in the solution, and afterwards rinsed in 
water soured with muriatic acid. 

2. To 45 or 50 gallons of water, heated to 122° F., add 
12 oz. of indigo, 8 oz. of madder, 8 oz. of bran, and 24 oz. 
of potash. In 36 hours introduce 12 oz. more of potash, 
and |the same in 12 hours after. In 72 hours add a little 

"lime to check the fermentation. Wool, silk, linen, and 
cotton may be dyed in this bath. Another form of this dye 
is — Indigo 2 parts, common soda 5 parts, lime 2 parts, 
clarified honey 1 part, water as much as may be sufficient. 
Keep it warm in an earthen jar till the indigo is dissolved. 


3. A solution of indigo in sulphuric acid (see Chemic 
Blue) is used as a dye, but a purer tone of color is ob- 
tained by the following method: The sulphate of indigo 
mixed with water, is heated in a copper kettle ; wool is im- 
mersed in it, and the whole is allowed to cool for 24 hours. 
The wool is then taken out, washed till the water comes 
off colorless and free from acid; it is then boiled in water 
containing about 2 per cent, of pearlash, or other alkaline 
carbonate, for a quarter of an hour. The quantity of 
pearlash should be equal to one-third the weight of the 

Logivood, with verdigris, or sulphate of copper, gives a blue 
dye, bordering on violet : with alum and tartar a violet. • 

Prussian Blue is sometimes used in dyeing, after being tritu- 
rated and digested for 24 hours with its weight of muriatic 
acid. A blue is also given by immersing silk, &c., in a 
solution of peracetate of iron, then in a solution of prus- 
siate of potash, and afterwards rinsing it in acidulated 
water. Boiling water is suflScient to discolor articles thus 

Red Byes. The various shades of red are given by madder, 
cochineal, lac dye, safflower, &c. ; fixed by aluminous or 
tin mordants. Less permanent dyes are produced by Brazil 
wood, peach wood, and archil. Some of these require pecu- 
liar treatment. Safflower contains a yellow as well as a red 
coloring matter. The first being soluble in cold water, is 
extracted by putting the safflower in a bag and kneading it 
under water. The safflower thus deprived of the yellow 
matter, yields its red color to alkaline liquids : at the time 
of using which, lemon-juice or some other acid is added 
sufficient to saturate the alkali. Pink saucers are made by 
adding the lemon juice to an alkaline infusion of washed 
safflower and allowing the coloring to deposit. Madder 
also contains a dun coloring matter which deteriorates the 
red unless previously removed. This may be partially 
effected by washing it in cold water : another mode is to 
treat the madder with its own weight of sulphuric acid, 
which carbonizes the other matters, but leaves the red color 
uninjured. As madder gives out but little of its red color- 
ing matter to water, the decoction is not strained off, but 
the madder left in the bath. With acetate of iron, 


madder yields a purple tint. Lac dye, as imported from 
India, requires acids for its solution. See Lac Solvent, 

Yellow Byes. These are given by French berries, quercitron 
bark, turmeric, weld, yellow wood, &c. Also by some min- 
eral colors, as the following : The material to be dyed is 
first padded in a solution of bichromate of potash (8 oz. to a 
gallon of water), then in a solution of acetate or nitrate of 
lead. Cotton is dyed yellow by alternate dippings in iron 
liquor and lime-water, or solution of pearlash. A yellow 
color is given to silk by passing it through a mixture of 
equal measures of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.288) and water, 
heated to 95° or 100° Fahrenheit, and from thence into a 
stream of water, or a mixture of chalk and water. This is 
termed mandarining. 

Nankeen Dye is made by boiling annotto with an equal weight 
of pearlash in sufficient water. Orange is given by annotto ; 
or by a mixture of red and yellow dyes ; or by the successive 
application of acetate of alumina, a bath of quercitron, and 
the madder-bath. 

G-reens are given to woollens by first dyeing them blue, im- 
mersing the article in acetate of alumina, drying it, and 
finally immersing it in a quercitron bath. For silks, the 
order is reversed. 

Browns are given by catechu, by walnut peels with alum, by 
redwood and copperas, by madder and black dye, &c. 

Brabs are given by fustic with iron liquor. 

Blacks. These are given by salts of iron, with galls, sumach, 
and logwood. The best black cloths are previously dyed 
blue with indigo. 

By the mixture of various dyes, every variety of shade is 
produced : and often several tints from one coloring matter 
by the use of different mordants. 

(The beautiful new dyes of the Aniline series, Mauve, 
Magenta, &c., are obtained from coal tar by various patented 

Mordants are earthy and metallic compounds, the base of 
which unites both with the fibres of the material to be 
dyed and the coloring matter, thus rendering the dyes 
fixed. In calico printing, the mordants are formed into 


a paste with some gum or other thickening material, and 
printed with wooden blocks on the cloth : which, after being 
dried, &c., is passed through the liquid dyes. The coloring 
matter combines with the part so printed, but is easily dis- 
charged from the other parts. 

The principal Mordants are the following : 

Alu7ti Mordants. 1. Alum with one-fourth its weight of tar- 

2. Acetate of Alumina. (See page 301.) This is com- 
monly prepared in solution for the purpose: 100 parts of 
alum in solution, with 150 parts of pyrolignite of lime of 20° 
B. density, is sometimes employed. 

3. A solution of alum, with crystallized carbonate of soda, 
in the proportion of 1 oz. to each pound of alum. 

4. Hausmann's. This consists of a solution of alum with 
sufficient strong solution of caustic potash to redissolve the 
precipitated alumina; to which mixture a portion of linseed 
oil is added. 

5. To 50 gallons of boiling water add 100 ib of alum ; 
dissolve, and add slowly 10 Sb of crystallized carbonate of 
soda. When the effervescence is over, add 75 ib of sugar 
of lead. 

Tin Mordants. 1. Protoehloride of Tin. To strong muriatic 
acid add gradually small pieces of grain tin till no more is 
dissolved. It may be obtained in crystals by evaporation. 
In redissolving them, it is necessary to add to the water a 
few drops of muriatic acid. 

2. Nitro-muriate, or Percliloride of Tin. Mix 1 measure 
of nitric acid with 4 of muriatic acid, and add tin in small 
quantities as long as any is dissolved. Or mix 4 oz. of 

» muriatic with 1 of nitric acid and 1 of water ; dissolve in it, 
by small portions at a time, 2 drachms of grain tin. 

3. Aquafortis (or equal parts of nitric acid and water) 8 
parts, sal ammoniac 1 part ; mix, and add gradually 1 part, 
or as much as it will dissolve, of grain tin. 

4. Dr. Bancroft's Murio-sulphate of Tin. Digest 2 parts 
of tin with 3 of strong muriatic acid for an hour. Add very 
cautiously IJ part of oil of vitriol. Keep up the heat as 
long as hydrogen is evolved ; on coohng, it crystallizes. 
Dissolve this salt in water, so as to form a solution contain- 
ing 1 part of tin in 8. 

5. JSfeio Tin Crystals. Add 3 ft) of sal ammoniac to a 
gallon of solution of tin ; evaporate and crystallize. 


6. Mordant for Lac Bye. Mix 27 ft) of muriatic acid 
with \\ ft) of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.19), put it into a stone 
bottle, and add tin in small bits till 4 ft are dissolved. 

7. Stannate of Soda. Digest litharge 36 parts, or 
minium 27 parts, in a metallic vessel, with a soda lye of 1.35 
dens. ; when dissolved, 8 parts of tin in grains are gradually 
added. The lead separates at once in a spongy state, and 
the solution of stannate of soda may be decanted. 

Lac Spirit, used as a Solvent for lac dye, in preference to 
muriatic acid alone, is thus made : Add gradually 3 ft of tin 
■ to 60 ft of muriatic acid. Digest f ft of this solvent in 
each pound of the dye for 6 hours. Plum or puce spirit, 
peach spirit, and grain or scarlet spirit, are names given by 
dyers to different solutions of tin employed in dyeing these 
colors. For scarlet, the nitro-muriatic solutions (Nos. 2 and 
3, above) are used. 

Iron Liquor. Scraps of iron are placed in casks or other 
vessels, and covered with rectified raw pyroligneous acid. 
There are usually a series of vessels, through Avhich the 
solution is successively passed till it is fully saturated. 

[To jDroduce good and permanent dyes, several successive 
processes are required, which cannot be described here. In 
domestic dyeing, for trifling articles, the dye and mordant 
are often boiled together, and the silk, &c., immersed in the 
liquid. The following are some examples : Crimson. — Boil 
1 oz. Brazil-wood with 1 dr. of alum and ^ dr. of cream of 
tartar in a quart of water. Purple, or Lilac. — Archil 1 oz. 
(or cudbear 1 oz.), pearlash 1 dr., hot water a quart. Rose, 
or Flesh-color. — Pink saucers, with a little lemon-juice, will 
be found convenient. Violet. — Boil 4 oz. of logwood with 
1 oz. alum and J oz. of tartar, in a quart of water. Blue. — 
Add to the water as much sulphate of indigo (chemic blue) 
as will give it the required color. Or one of the other solu- 
tions of indigo (above) may be used. Yellow. — Boil 2 oz. 
of turmeric, or 4 oz. quercitron, or a drachm of saffron, with 
J oz. of alum, in a quart of water. Grreen. — Add to the 
yellow dye sufficient chemic blue to render it green. Rose- 
red, for silk. — Put your silk into a hot solution of alum and 
tartar; then into a hot decoction of madder. Scarlet, for 
silk. — Dye it yellow with saffron and alum ; then put it into 
a decoction of cochineal and madder. Black. — Boil 1 oz. 
of logwood, 1^ oz. sumach, and 1 dr. of copperas, in 4 pints 


of water. Buff. — Boil 1 oz. of fustic, 1 dr. of alum, in 4 
pints of water.] 

Eau de Javelle. See Chloiiide of Potash. 

Eggs, to Preserve. Jayne's Liquid (expired patent) is thus 
made: Take a bushel of lime, 2 lb of salt, |^ lb of cream of 
tartar, and water sufficient to form a solution strong enough 
to float an egg. In this liquid, it is stated, eggs may be 
preserved for two years. 

Elaine. See Oleine. 

Electric Tissue. Steep linen or cotton in a mixture of 
strong sulphuric acid, and 3 of pure nitric acid, for an hour. 
Squeeze out the acid, wash with water until no sensible 
acidity remains, plunge it in a weak alkaline solution, then 
in water, and dry. By friction it yields a large quantity of 
resinous electricity. 

Electro-brassing. Mr. Watt. Dissolve powdered acetate 
of copper, 5 oz., in J gallon of water ; add 1 pint of liquid 
ammonia; dissolve sulphate of zinc, 10 oz., in 1 gallon of 
water, at 180° F., and when cold add liquid ammonia 1 
pint ; dissolve potash, 4|- lb, in 1 gallon of water ; lastly, 
cyanide of potassium 8 oz., in 1 gallon of hot water. Now 
mix in the following order ; add the copper solution to the 
zinc, and then the potash and cyanide, digest for an hour or 
so, add water to make up 8 gallons. Work with a brass 
anode and active battery power, adding occasionally a little 
more ammonia and cyanide. 

Electro-bronzing. Brunel's Patent. Dissolve chloride of 
copper, 1 lb, in water ^ gallon, then carbonate of potash, 
25 Bb, in water 6 gallons ; and sulphate of zinc, 2 lb, in 
hot water J gallon ; mix the solutions ; add nitrate of 
ammonia 12J lb ; stir, and add water to 20 gallons. Work 
with an anode of brass and active battery of two or more 
cells. Add occasionally some liquid ammonia and cyanide 
of potassium. These will prevent incrustations on the 

Electro-coppering, for Iron or Zinc. The article must 
first be well cleaned, and "pickled" in dilute acid. Then 
dissolve sulphate of copper, 2 oz., in boiling rain-water ; 
when cold add carbonate of potash, 4 oz., and liquid am- 
monia 2 oz. A precipitate forms, which is redissolved. 
Add cyanide of potassium, 6 oz., until all the blue color 


disappears. Make up to 1 gallon, and work with a two- 
eell battery. The surface obtained mav be bronzed. (See 
page 322.) 

Electro-gilding. See Gilding. 

Electro-silvering. See Silvering. 

Electrotype Moulds. These are sometimes made with fusible 
metals ; sometimes with non-metallic compounds, having 
their surface covered with a conducting substance. The 
fusible metal is composed of 8 parts of bismuth, 3 of tin, 
■and 5 of lead. The French clichde moulds consist of 8 

' parts of bismuth, 4 of tin, 5 of lead, and 1 of antimony. 
These are repeatedly melted together till perfectly mixed ; 
and after being poured out on a suitable surface, are well 
stirred, and the model forcibly pressed on the compound at 
the moment it is about to become solid. Comjjosition Moulds 
are made with 8 oz. of spermaceti, If oz. of white wax, and 
the same of strained mutton suit. These are melted 
together, and a little fine plumbago of flake-white stirred in. 
To copy plaster casts, the cast is set in a plate of hot 
water, with its face above the water, till it has absorbed 
water ; it is then surrounded with a ring of cardboard, and 
the melted composition poured on it. The composition 
mould requires to be brushed over with finely-powdered 
genuine black-lead. 

Electrotype Moulds. Elastic. To 12 parts of carefully- 
melted glue, add 3 parts of treacle, and incorporate them 
perfectly. (For copying medals when the figures are in 
high relief.) Crutta-Percha Moulds are made by soften- 
ing a piece of gutta-percha by warm water (150° to 
160°) and pressing the medal into it by a screw. See 

Engraving, Process eor Cleaning. Put the engraving on 
a smooth board, and cover it thinly with common salt, 
finely powdered ; pour and squeeze lemon-juice upon this 
salt, so as to dissolve a considerable portion of it. Now 
elevate one end of the board, that it may form an angle of 
about 45° with the horizon. Pour lastly on the engraving- 
boiling water from a tea-kettle, until the salt and lemon- 
juice be all washed off; the engraving will then appear per- 
fectly clean, and free from" stains. It must be dried 
gradually, on the same board, or on some smooth surface. — 


Engraving Mixture, for Writing on Steel. Sulphate of 
copper 1 oz., sal ammonia ^ oz. Pulverize separately, 
adding a little vermilion to color it, and mix with 1^ oz. of 
vinegar. Rub the steel with soft soap, and write with a 
clean hard pen, without a slit, dipped in the mixture. 

Essence of Jargonelle Pear. Acetate of amylene is sold 
under this name. It is made by distilling a mixture of 1 
part of oil of grain, 2 of acetate of potash, and 1 of oil of 
vitriol. Wash the diluted liquid with alkaline water, agi- 
tate with dry chloride of calcium, and redistil it from litharge. 

Essence of Pineapple. See Butyric Ether. 

(For Perfumed Essences, see Perfumery. For Culi- 
nary Essences, see page 292.) 

Etching Fluids. For Lithography. Dissolve 3 oz. of fused 
chloride of calcium in 9 J oz. of water, add to the solution 2 
oz. of gum arable, and 1 oz. of pure hydrochloric acid. — 

For Copper. 1. Aquafortis 2 oz., water 5 oz. ; mix. 

2. Iodine 2 parts, iodide of potassium 5 parts, water 5 to 
8 parts. 

3. C allot' s Fau Forte, for Fine Touches. Dissolve 4 
parts each of verdigris, alum, sea-salt, and sal ammoniac in 
8 parts of vinegar ; add 16 parts of water, boil for a minute, 
and let it cool. 

For Steel. 1. Iodine 1 oz., iron filings ^ dr., water 4 oz. ; 
digest till the iron is dissolved. 

2. Pyroligneous acid 4 parts, by measure, alcohol 1 part ; 
mix, and add 1 part of double aquafortis (sp. gr. 1.28). 
Apply it from IJ to 15 minutes. 

3. Mix 10 parts of pure hydrochloric acid, 70 of distilled 
water, and a solution of 2 parts of chlorate of potash in 20 
of water. Dilute before using with from 100 to 200 parts 
of water. 

See Photo-Lithography and Photographic Etchings 
ON Steel. 

Etching Varnishes. 1. White wax 2 oz., asphaltum 2 oz. ; 
melt the wax in a clean pipkin, add the asphaltum in powder, 
and boil to a proper consistence. Pour it into warm water, 
and form it into balls, which must be kneaded and put into 
tafieta for use. 


2. White wax 2 oz., Burgundy pitch and black pitch each 
^ oz. ; melt together, and add by degrees 2 oz. of asphaltum 
in powder, and boil till a drop cooled on a plate becomes 

3. Equal quantities of linseed oil and mastic, melted 

Fats, to obviate Rancidity in. Add oil of pimento or bal- 
sam of Peru, 2 drops to the ounce of lard or other fat. — Mr. 
T. B. Groves. 

Filtering Powder. Fuller's earth, washed, dried, and 
-coarsely powdered, mixed with prepared bone-black (see 
Charcoal, Animal) coarsely powdered. 

Filter for Corrosive Liquids. Powdered glass or asbestos, 
or gun-cotton loosely packed in the neck of a funnel. 

Finings for Gin. Subcarbonate of potash 4 oz., Roche alum 
8 oz. Brewers' finings consist of isinglass dissolved in stale 

Fires, to Extinguish. Dr. Clanny's Solution consists of 5 
oz. of sal ammoniac to 1 gallon of water. The compound 
used in Phillips's Fire Annihilator is said to consist of dried 
prussiate of potash, sugar, and chlorate of potash. 

Fires, Colored. The ingredients for these compounds must 
be dry, not too finely powdered, and mixed very uniformly. 
The nitrate of strontian requires to be gently heated in an 
iron pan till it falls to powder. The chlorate of potash must 
be pulverized separately, and mixed very lightly with the 
other powders ; the whole must then be passed through a 
sieve once or twice. 

White Fires. 1. Nitre 30, sulphur 10, black antimony 5 ; 

2. Nitre 48, sulphur 13J, black antimony 5 parts ; mix. 

3. Nitre 12, sulphur 16, black antimony 4, charcoal \, 
white arsenic \ ; mix. 

4. Nitre 46J, sulphur 23, meal powder 12J, zinc filings 

5. For stars : Nitre 57, sulphur 28, zinc filings 15. 

Blue and Purple Fires. 1. Chlorate of potash 9, dried ver- 
digris 2, sulphur 1 oz. ; mix. 

2. Nitre 12, sulphur 16, black antimony 4, charcoal |-, 
orpiment ^. 


3. Chlorate of potash 9, sulphur 12, refiners' blue verditer 
3 oz. ; mix. 

4. Purple. Chlorate of potash 5, nitrate of strontian 16, 
realgar 1, sulphur 2, lamp-black 1 ; mix. 

5. Nitre 5, sulphur 2, metallic antimony 1 ; mix. 

6. Purple. Chlorate of potash 2 oz., sulphur 1 dr., oxide 
of copper 1 oz. ; mix. 

7. Violet. Chlorate of potash 1 dr., pure copper J dr., 
sulphur 1 scruple, charcoal 16 gr. ; mix. 

Yellow Fires. 1. Nitre 3 oz., meal powder 3 oz., flowers of 
sulphur 3 oz., dried salt 2 oz. ; mix. 

2. Nitrate of soda 6, sulphur 1, lamp-black 1 ; mix. 

Red Fires. 1. Chlorate of potash 10, nitrate of strontian 80, 
sulphur 26, charcoal 6 ; mix. 

2. Chlorate of potash 3, nitrate of strontian 24, sulphur 7, 
lamp-black 1, sulphuret of antimony 2. (Half the lamp- 
black or charcoal only may be added at first ; and if on trial 
it does not burn freely, add more.) 

3. Chlorate of potash 1, nitrate of strontian 5, sulphur 1, 
black sulphuret of antimony 1 ; mix. 

4. Chlorate of potash 2^, nitrate of strontian 20, sulphur 
6J, sulphuret of antimony 2, charcoal J ; mix. 

5. Chlorate of potash 5, nitrate of strontian 28, sulphur 
13, sulphuret of antimony 4, lamp-black 1. 

6. Chlorate of potash 35, nitrate of strontian 360, sulphur 
93, sulphuret of antimony 60, charcoal 10. 

7. Nitrate of strontian 72, sulphur 20, coal dust 2, gun- 
powder 6 ; mix. 

8. Forty parts of nitrate of strontian, 13 of sulphur, 2 of 
lime-tree charcoal. Mix, and add by mixing with a horn 
spatula, 5 parts of dry and finely powdered chlorate of 

Lilac Fire. Chlorate of potash 49, sulphur 25, dry chalk 20, 
black oxide of copper 6 parts. For pans. 

(jfreen Fires. 1. Sulphur 10|, nitrate of barytes 62|-, chlorate 
of potash 23|-, sulphuret of arsenic If, charcoal or lamp- 
black If ; mix. 

2. Sulphur 13, nitrate of barytes 77, chlorate of potash 5, 
metallic arsenic 2, charcoal 3 ; mix. 

3. Nitrate of barytes 20, sulphur IJ, sulphuret of anti- 
mony 1^, chlorate of potash 10, charcoal ^ ; mix. 

4. Nitrate of barytes 10|^ dr., sulphur 2 dr., chlorate of 
potash 162 gr., lamp-black 26 gr. ; mix. 


5. Dry nitrate of barytes 12 parts, sulphur 4, dry and 
finely-powdered chlorate of potash 5 parts. The chlorate to 
be mixed by a horn spatula. 

Colored Flames. The flame of alcohol may be colored by 

mixing certain salts with the spirit. A green color is given 

by muriate of copper, or boracic acid ; red by nitrate of 

strontian, nitrate of iron, or nitrate of lime ; yellow by 

-nitrate of soda, &c. 

Fire-Proofing. For Paper, see Paper. For Dresses, &c. : 
A strong solution of sulphate of ammonia. The dresses of 

> stage dancers may be soaked in a weak solution of chloride 
of zinc. The tungstate of soda is said to be the only perfect 

Flints, Liquor of. Soluble glass. Mix seventy parts of 
pearl-ash, 54 of washing soda, and 152 of silicious sand, and 
fuse the mixture in a crucible. It is soluble in water, and 
the filtered solution evaporated to dryness leaves a transpa- 
rent glass. It has been proposed to render wood, muslins, 
&c., incombustible by means of the solution. Dr. Turner 
directs 3 parts of carbonate of potash, and 1 of silica. See 
Soluble Glass. 

Flowers, Compound for Promoting the Blowing of. Sul- 
phate of ammonia 4 oz., nitre 2 oz., sugar 1 oz., hot water 
1 pint. Keep it in a well-corked bottle. For hyacinth 
glasses add 8 or 10 drops of the liquid to the water, chang- 
ing the water every 10 or 12 days. For flowering plants 
in pots, add a few drops to the water employed to moisten 

Flowers, to Preserve Living. Add 1 spoonful of charcoal 
powder to the water in which the boquet is placed. — French 

Flowers and Plants, to Preserve. Any vegetable sub- 
stance may be preserved moist in a solution of creasote, 
or in glycerine. The method of drying plants between sheets 
of paper needs no description. But the original form, and 
in many instances the color, of a fresh flower may be pre- 
served by carefully immersing it in some fine, dry material, 
and then rapidly drying in a baking oven. Millet seed has 
been used for this purpose, and may answer well for coarse 
specimens. For fine ones, white river sand in equal grains 
must be used. To separate large grains it should be passed 
through a sieve ; to remove fine particles it is copiously 


"vvaslied with water. While drying it is to be constantly 

M. Revel recommends further, that 1000 parts of this 
sand be intimately mixed with 1 of stearic acid and 1 of sper- 
maceti, before using. See next formula. 

Flowers, to Preserve in their Natural Shape and Color. 
Provide a vessel with a movable cover. Fit to the top a 
piece of fine metallic gauze, and replace the cover. Pass 
through sieve into an iron pot sand sufficient to fill this 
vessel, and heat it with ^ per cent, of stearine, carefully stir- 
ring. Place the flowers on the gauze, and, removing the 
bottom of the vessel, pour in the sand and stearine, so as to 
cover and envelop them. Place on the top of an oven for 
48 hours. Remove the cover, invert the vessel, and the 
sand runs away through the gauze, leaving the flowers dried 
in their natural position. — Journ. Soc. Arts. 

Fluxes. In a general sense these are substances which pro- 
mote the fusion of minerals, but particularly which cleanse a 
reduced metal, by assisting its separation from its impurities. 
They also serve to defend it from the action of the air, and 
some of them assist in the reduction of oxides. 

Black Flux. Into an earthen crucible, heated sufficiently hot 
to cause feeble combustion, but not to fuse the flux, throw 
successive portions of a mixture of 1 part of nitre, and 2 
of crude (or cream of) tartar. Keep the flux in a close 

White Flux. Into a large earthen crucible, heated to redness, 
throw successive portions of a mixture of 2 parts of nitre 
and 1 of tartar. Keep it as the last. 

Crude Flux, is the mixture of nitre and tartar, before defla- 

Dr. CiLV^i^ii^oi^' % Flux for reducing Arsenic. Mix crystallized 
carbonate of soda with ^ of charcoal, and heat gradually to 

Fresenius's Flux, for reducing sulphuret of arsenic. Dry 
carbonate of potash 3 parts, cyanide of potassium 1 part. 

Cornish Flux. Cream of tartar 10 parts, nitre 3|, borax 3. 


MoRVEAU's Flux'. Pulverized glass (free from lead) 8 parts, 
calcined borax ^ part, charcoal J part. 

Mr. Taylor's Flux. Saturate a solution of tartaric acid with 
carbonate of soda, evaporate to dryness, and calcine in a 
covered platinum crucible. 

Sal enixum (the acid sulphate of potash left in distilling 
nitric acid), sandiver or glass-gall, fluor spar, limestone, &c., 
' are also used as fluxes. 

Fly Poison. A common poison for flies consists of white 
. arsenic, or King's yellow, with sugar, &c., but the use of 
such compounds may lead to fatal accidents. A sweetened 
infusion of quassia answers the same purpose, and is free 
from danger. Pepper, with milk, is also used ; and also 
some adhesive compounds by which they are fatally en- 
tangled. Papier moure contains a large quantity of ar- 

Freezing Mixtures. The salts should be in a crystallized 
state, with as much water in them as possible without being 
damp. They should be coarsely pulverized at the time of 
using, and put into the water contained in a basin or other suit- 
able vessel. The water to be frozen should be inclosed in a 
thin vessel, and immersed in the freezing mixture. To 
obtain extreme degrees of cold, the ingredients and vessels 
employed should be previously cooled by one of the freezing 

1. Sal ammoniac 5 oz., nitre 5 oz., water 16 oz. 

2. Mix 4 oz. of nitrate of ammonia, 4 of crystallized car- 
bonate of soda, and 4 of water. In 3 hours 10 oz. of water 
may be frozen. 

3. Nitrate of ammonia and muriate of ammonia in equal 
proportions, water q. s. 

4. Nitrate of ammonia 5 parts, nitrate of potash 5, sul- 
phate of soda 8, water 16 parts. 

5. Phosphate of soda 9 parts, diluted nitric acid 4 parts. 

6. Sulphate of soda 8 parts, muriatic acid 5 parts. 

7. Sulphate of soda 6 parts, nitrate of ammonia 5 parts, 
diluted nitric acid 4 parts. 

8. Mix 1 part by weight of powdered sal ammonKac with 
2 of powdered nitre. Keduce common washing soda to 
powder. Keep these powders in well-closed bottles, and 
when required for use take equal measures of each, and 


add an equal bulk of water, or sufficient to dissolve the 

9. Muriate of ammonia 11 dr., nitre 10 dr., sulphate of 
soda 2 oz. Powder separately, and mix in a tin vessel with 
5 oz. of water. 

With Ice. 

1. Snow or pounded ice 2 parts, muriate of soda 1 part. 

2. Snow 2 parts, crystallized muriate of lime 3 parts. 

3. Snow 8 parts, muriatic acid 5 parts. 

4. Snow or pounded ice 12 parts, muriate of soda 5 parts, 
nitrate of ammonia 5. 

5. Snow 7 parts, diluted nitric acid 4 parts. 

6. Snow 3 parts, diluted sulphuric acid 2 parts. 

French Polish. This is an alcoholic solution of shellac ; 
some of the softer resinous gums are usually added, but too 
much of them renders the polish less durable. Highly 
rectified spirit, not less than 60 over proof, should be used. 
Rectified wood naphtha is sometimes substituted, to which 
the unpleasant smell is the only objection. 

1. Orange shellac 22 oz., rectified spirit 4 pints ; dis- 

2. Shellac 3 oz., gum sandarac J oz., rectified spirit a 

3. Shellac 4 oz., gum thus ^ oz., rectified spirit a pint ; 
dissolve, and add almond or poppy oil 2 oz. 

4. Shellac 5 oz., seed-lac 1 oz., gum juniper J oz., mastic 
1 oz., rectified spirit a pint. 

5. Shellac 3 oz., seed-lac 3 oz., gum juniper 1^ oz., mastic 
1 oz., rectified spirit a quart. 

6. Shellac 5 oz., oxalic acid ^ oz., rectified spirit a pint ; 
dissolve, and add linseed oil 4 oz. 

7. Shellac 5 oz., gum benzoin 5 oz., oxalic acid 10 dr., 
rectified spirit a quart ; dissolve, and add ^ pint of linseed 

8. Shellac 8 oz., gum elemi IJ oz., rectified spirit 4 

9. Shellac 10 oz., seed-lac 6 oz., gum thus 3 oz., san- 
darac 6 oZo, copal varnish 6 oz., rectified naphtha 8 pints. 
Or dissolve 8 oz. each of seed-lac, gum thus, and sandarac, 
separately in a pint of naphtha ; and 1 Sb of shellac in 8 
pints of naphtha. Then mix 6 oz. of copal varnish, 12 oz. 



of the solution of seed-lac, 6 oz. of tbe solution of frankin- 
cense, 12 of the solution of sandarac, and 5f ib of the 
solution of shellac. Let the copal varnish be put into the 
tincture of shellac, and well shaken, and the other ingredients 
added. A correspondent informs me that this polish cannot 
be excelled. 

10. Copal ^ oz., gum arable ^ oz., shellac 1 oz. Pul- 
verize, mix, and sift the powders, and dissolve in a pint of 

11. Shellac 5 oz., rectified naphtha a pint. 

French polish is sometimes colored with dragon's blood, 
turmeric root, &c. The general directions for preparing 
the polish are to put the gums with the spirit in a tin bottle, 
and set it on the hob, or in water, so as to keep it at a gentle 
heat, shaking it frequently. The cork should be loosened 
a little before shaking it, taking care that there is no flame 
near to kindle the vapor. When the gums are dissolved, 
let it settle for a few hours, and pour off the solution from 
the dregs. The method of using it is to have a roll of list, 
over the end of which five or six folds of linen rag are 
placed. The polish is applied to the linen with a sponge, 
and a little linseed oil is dropped on the centre of it. 

FuLMiNATiNa Compounds. Fulminating Poivder. Mix to- 
gether in a warm mortar 3 parts of pulverized nitre, 2 of 
dry subcarbonate of potash, and 1 of sulphur. A small 
quantity heated on an iron shovel or ladle till it fuses, sud- 
denly explodes with great violence. It should be used with 
great caution. Another kind of fulminating or detonating 
powder is made by mixing 3 gr. of chlorate of potash with 
1 of sulphur : by strongly triturating it with strong pressure 
in a marble mortar, a succession of sharp explosions is pro- 
duced. The same mixture, or 6 gr. of chlorate of potash, 
1 of sulphur, and 4 of charcoal, struck with a hammer on an 
anvil, gives a loud report. 

Chloride of Nitrogen and Iodide of Nitrogen cannot be med- 
dled with without extreme danger. Fulminating gold, 
and the fulminating silver prepared with ammonia, are 
also dangerous compounds, even in minute quantities. As 
they serve no practical use, the mode of preparing them is 

Fulminating Mercury (Howard's, as improved by Dr. Ure). 
Dissolve by a gentle heat 1 oz. of quicksilver in 7|- fluid 


oz. (or 10 oz. by weight) of nitric acid, of 1.4 specific 
gravity, in a glass retort, the beak of which is loosely in- 
serted into a large balloon, or bottle. When the mercury is 
dissolved, the solution, at the temperature of 130° Fahrenheit, 
should be slowly poured through a funnel into 10 fluid oz. of 
alcohol of 0.830 specific gravity, contained in a vessel that 
will hold 6 times the quantity of ingredients. When the 
action ceases, pour the contents of the matrass on a double 
filter in 'a glass funnel ; wash out any powder that may 
remain in the matrass with a little cold water, and throw 
this also on the filter ; and wash the fulminate with more 
water till it passes free from acid. When sufficiently drained, 
lift the filter out of the funnel, and lay it open on a copper 
or earthen plate, and dry the fulminate at 212°, or under, 
by hot water or steam. Its manufacture requires great 
caution ; some valuable lives have been sacrificed in its 

Fulminating Silver (Brugnatelli's). On 100 gr. of pulver- 
ized nitrate of silver, in an open glass vessel, pour first an 
oz. of alcohol, and then as much strong nitrous acid. The 
mixture boils, and gives out ethereal vapors. When all the 
powdered nitrate has taken the form of white clouds, cold 
distilled water must be added to sustain ebullition, otherwise 
the fulminate will be dissolved. Collect the powder on a 
filter, and dry it at a low temperature. Dr. Turner directs 
1 part of silver to be dissolved in 10 of nitric acid, at a 
gentle heat, 20 parts of rectified spirit to be added, and 
the mixture warmed. When it begins to boil, set it aside to 
cool, collect and wash the crystals on a filter, and carefully 
dry them. This is more violent and dangerous than fulmi- 
nating mercury. 

Fumigations. See Fumigatio, Pocket Formulary, for their 
medicinal uses. Though not strictly belonging to this place, 
it may be useful to give a few directions for the manage- 
ment of these important agents, as disinfectants and 

Chlorine Fumigation. This is probably the most effective in 
destroying noxious efiluvia, and putrid odors, and in checking 
the spread of contagious diseases. But as the gas itself is 
deleterious, except in a very dilated state, it must be used 
with caution in occupied apartments. To disinfect rooms 


from wliich the occupants have been removed, mix common 
salt and black oxide of manganese in equal quantities. Mix 
also in an earthen basin equal weights of oil of vitriol and 
water, and when it has cooled, put it into a bottle for use. 
Into a china or earthen basin put from 1 to 3 oz. of the 
powder, according to the size of the room, and pour over it 
twice or thrice as much of the mixed acid. Place it in the 
apartment, and close the doors and windows for a few hours ; 
the doors and windows are then thrown open till" the smell of 
chlorine disappears. Dr. A. T. Thomson directs a mixture 
of 1 oz. of salt and J oz. of oxide of manganese to be put 
into a china cup, and 6 fluid dr. of oil of vitriol poured on 
it, the cup being placed in a pipkin of hot sand. Instead of 
the above ingredients, some chloride of lime may be placed 
in a large jar or basin, and a mixture of acetic acid and 
water poured on it. When used in or near the apartments 
of. the sick, great care must be taken that the chlorine is so 
diluted with air that it shall occasion no annoyance to the 
invalid. Some contrivances have been adopted to render the 
extrication of chlorine gradual and continued. Smith's 
Chlorine Fumigator, and the more simple one of Messrs. 
Heathfield & Burgess, are very convenient. Another 
method is proposed by Mr. Scanlan, in the " Pharma- 
ceutical Journal," vol. vii, page 343. By such contrivances 
chlorine may with care be safely employed in houses occupied 
by the sick (in the passages, stairs, &c.) to prevent the 
spread of infectious fevers ; but chloride of lime, simply 
mixed with water, in the proportion of not more than 1 
oz. to a quart, is usually sufiicient to purify the chamber of 
the sick. It should be occasionally sprinkled on the floor, 
and also placed about the room in shallow dishes, or a linen 
cloth moistened with it, suspended on a line. The same 
method may be pursued in all places where unpleasant 
smells prevail. 

Nitric Fumigation. Put into a china cup equal measures of 
sulphuric acid and water, and add to it, from time to time, 
small quantities of powdered nitre; or put 2 or 3 dr. of 
powdered nitre into a cup, and pour over it about an equal 
quantity of oil of vitriol. Stir it with a piece of glass, or 
tobacco-pipe, and remove it from time to time to different 
parts of the apartment. For large rooms 2 or 3 cups may 
be required. It is often recommended to apply heat ; but 


Dr. Bateman, of the Fever Hospital, found this unnecessary 
and objectionable, especially in the apartments of the 
sick. No metallic or wooden stirrers, or vessels, must be 

Muriatic Fumigation. This is now almost disused, being less 
efficacious than the preceding. It is obtained by putting a 
few drachms of common salt into a cup, and pouring on it an 
equal quantity of oil of vitriol. The vapors are very injuri- 

• ous to the lungs. 

Acetic Fumigation. The vapor of vinegar, and especially of 
strong acetic acid, is employed as a disinfectant, but its 
efficacy is now considered to be very limited. It may be 
used by keeping the vinegar boiling over a lamp. A coarser 
method sometimes used is to plunge a red-hot poker into a 
cup of vinegar. Aromatic vinegar, merely held to the nose, 
may afford some slight protection to those who attend upon 
the sick. 

Sulphur Fumigation. The fumes of burning sulphur may 
possibly have some effect in decomposing miasmata and nox- 
ious effluvia ; but as they have no advantage over chlorine, 
and are very disagreeable, and otherwise objectionable, 
they are not likely to be employed. Formerly the follow- 
ing powder was burnt to destroy contagious miasmata. 
Flowers of sulphur, nitre, and powdered myrrh, of each 
1 oz. 

Tar Fumigation. The vapor of boiling tar has been used 
as a disinfectant, as well as a palliative in some affections 
of the respiratory organs. The usual plan is to keep the 
tar boiling over a lamp. See Fumigate Picea, Pocket For- 

Benzoin, styrax, and other odoriferous gums, cascarilla 
bark, coffee berries, and the compound termed aromatic pas- 
tiles, are burnt as purifiers and disinfectants. But little 
confidence is now placed in them as prophylactics against 
infection. The same may be said of camphor and tobacco. 
They should not be depended on to the exclusion of more 
efficient means, nor be made a substitute for free ventilation 
and the removal of all sources of noxious effluvia, when 

Fumigating Pastiles. See Perfumery. 

Furniture Cream. 1. Soft water a gallon, soap 4 oz., bees- 
wax in shavings 1 Hb; boil together, and add 2 oz. of pearl- 


ash. To be diluted with water, laid on with a paint brush, 
and polished off with a hard brush or cloth. 

2. Wax 3 oz., pearlash 2 oz., water 6 oz. ; heat them 
together, and add 4 oz. of boiled oil, and 5 oz. spirit of 

3. The same is sometimes given to a mixture of 1 oz. of 
white or yellow wax, with 4 of oil of turpentine. 

Furniture Paste. 1. Melt 1 Bb of beeswax with J pint of 
linseed oil, and add |- oz. of alkanet root ; keep it a moder- • 
ate heat till sufficiently colored ; then remove from the fire, 

,■ add ^ pint of oil of turpentine, strain through muslin, and 
put it into small gallipots to cool. 

2. Scrape 4 oz. of wax, and put it into a pipkin with as 
much oil of turpentine as will cover it, and J oz. of powdered 
resin ; melt with a gentle heat, and stir in sufficient Indian 
red to color it. 

3. Equal weights of beeswax, spirits of turpentine, and 
linseed oil. 

Furniture Oil. 1. Linseed oil a pint, alkanet J oz. ; digest 
in a warm place till colored, and strain. 

2. The same with ^ pint of oil of turpentine. 

3. Linseed oil a pint, alkanet root 1 oz., rose pink 1 oz. ; 
let them stand in an earthen vessel all night. 

4. A quart of linseed oil, 6 oz. of distilled vinegar, 3 oz. 
of spirit of turpentine, 1 oz. of muriatic acid, and 2 oz. of 
spirit of wine. 

5. Linseed oil 8 oz., vinegar 4 oz. ; oil of turpentine, 
mucilage, rectified spirit, each J oz. ; butter of antimony J 
oz. ; muriatic acid 1 oz. ; mix. 

6. Linseed oil 16 oz., black resin 4 oz., vinegar 4 oz., rec- 
tified spirit 3 oz., butter of antimony 1 oz., spirit of salts 2 
oz. ; melt the resin, add the oil, take it off the fire, and stir 
in the vinegar ; let it boil for a few minutes, stirring it ; 
when cool put it into a bottle, add the other ingredients, shak- 
ing all together. (The last two are especially used for re- 
viving French polish.) 

7. Linseed oil 1 pint, oil of turpentine J pint, rectified 
spirit 4 oz., powdered resin 1| oz., rose pink ^ oz. ; mix. 

8. Linseed oil 14 oz., vinegar 1^ oz., muriatic acid J oz, ; 

Fusible Metal. See Allots. 

Gall, Clarified. Ox-gall is prepared for the use of artists 
in the following manner: To a pint of fresh ox-gall, boiled and 


skimmed, add 1 oz. finely-powdered alum ; leave it on the 
fire till the alum is dissolved, then let it cool, put it into a 
bottle, and cork it loosely. Treat another pint in the same 
way with 1 oz. of salt instead of alum. After standing more 
than three months, carefully decant from each bottle the 
clear portion, and mix them together. The coloring matter 
is precipitated, and a clear colorless liquid is obtained by 
filtration. It is used for mixing artists' colors, and to pre- 
pare ivory, oiled paper, &c., to revive the colors. Also for 
taking out grease-spots. 

Galvanic Batteries, Solutions for. See page 307. 

Gannal's Solution. See page 311. 

Ganteine. (A composition for cleaning kid gloves ; some- 
times improperly termed jSajJonine.) Dissolve 3 oz. of soap 
by heat in 2 oz. of water, and when nearly cold add 2 oz. of 
eau de Javelle, and 1 dr. of water of ammonia ; form a paste, 
which is to be rubbed over the glove with flannel till suffi- 
ciently clean. 

Garancine. Madder (sometimes the spent madder of the 
dyer's bath) is mixed with its weight of oil of vitriol, added 
very gradually, so as to avoid overheating. The acid is then 
washed out. 

Garrot's Covering for Pills. Soak 1 oz. of purified gela- 
tine in 2 or 3 dr. of water; keep it liquefied in a salt-water 
bath. The pills are stuck on long pins, and dipped in the 
solution ; when cold the pins are withdrawn, after being 
heated by a small flame, which melts the gelatine and closes 
the hole. 

Gases. These are generated in gas bottles fitted, by grinding 
with an S-formed tube ; or in flasks to which a bent tube is 
adapted by means of a cork ; in a common retort ; or some- 
times in iron bottles with a metal tube. They are usually 
collected in vessels filled with water placed with their open 
ends in a vessel of water. Pepy's Gas Holder is very use- 
ful for receiving, retaining, and transferring gases. The 
pneumatic trough consists of a vessel for holding water, with 
a shelf for sustaining the jars or bottles that are to be filled ; 
these are filled by sinking them under water, and are then 
lifted on the shelf, above which the water rises, with their 
open end downwards. The beak of the retort, or bent 
tubes, are so placed that the gas issuing from them rises 


through the water into the vessel, and takes the place of 
the water in them. Some gases being very easily absorbed 
by water are collected over mercury. Sometimes they are 
collected in dry bottles. For light gases, as ammonia, place 
a bottle in a vertical position with its mouth downward over 
the tube from which the gas issues, which should touch the 
bottom of the bottle. When the bottle is filled with gas, 
and this escapes from the mouth, quietly withdraw the tube 
' and close the bottle, still inverted, with a greased stopper. 
For gases heavier than air, as chlorine, or carbonic acid, the 
bottle must be placed with its mouth uppermost, and the 
, tube delivering the gas must descend to the bottom of the 
bottle. When full of the gas, close it with the greased 
stopper. The tube connected with a flask in which a gas is 
generated should have a ball blown in it, into which asbestos 
may be introduced to arrest any particles thrown up by 

The following are the processes for procuring the principal 

gases : 

Ammoniacal Cfas. This is obtained by mixing equal weights 
of slaked lime (previously cooled) and powdered sal ammoniac, 
and heating the mixture in a retort or flask. As water 
rapidly absorbs the gas, it must be collected over mercury, 
or in a dry bottle, as described above. 

Carbonic Acid Gras. This is obtained by acting on marble or 
chalk, or carbonate of soda or potash, by a diluted acid. 
For exact experiments it must be collected over mercury ; 
otherwise it may be collected in a bottle (as above). Mr. 
Benson states that a saturated solution of sulphate of mag- 
nesia may be used in collecting this gas, instead of mercury. 

Carbonic Oxide is obtained by acting on binoxolate of potash 
with 6 times its weight of oil of vitriol at a gentle heat; or 
by strongly heating, in an iron bottle or gun-barrel, equal 
weights of chalk and iron filings. The gas must be passed 
through water containing lime or caustic potash to absorb 
the carbonic acid gas. 

Chlorine. This gas may be obtained from oxide of manganese, 
common salt, and sulphuric acid, as directed in making 
chloride of lime (p. 332). Or- from muriatic acid and oxide 
of manganese (See Chlorinium, Pocket Formulary). But 
more conveniently, on the small scale, by dissolving com- 


mon salt in water, adding | of its weight of nitric acid, and 
as much oxide of manganese. Apply a gentle heat, and the 
gas is abundantly produced without violent action. (Chem- 
ist, vol. i.) 
HydrocJdoric Acid Gas. It may he obtained by heating to- 
gether in a flask, equal weights of salt and oil of vitriol ; or 
simply by heating strong muriatic acid. It must be collected 
over mercury ; or otherwise conducted to the bottom of a 
dry bottle, as described above. 

Hydrogen Gf-as is readily procured by pouring on fragments 
of zinc, in a glass bottle, or flask with a bent tube, or retort, 
some diluted sulphuric acid (1 measure of strong acid to 5 of 
water). It may be collected over water. If zinc be not at 
hand, fine iron wire, or the turnings or filings of iron may 
be substituted for it. To procure gas of great purity, 
distilled zinc must be used. 

Carburetted Hydrogen Gf-as. Light carburetted hydrogen is 
readily obtained by stirring the mud of stagnant pools. 
Heavy carburetted hydrogen is prepared by heating 1 part 
of alcohol with 6 or 7 of oil of vitriol, and conducting the 
mixed gases through milk of lime, which retains the sulphur- 
ous acid ; and afterwards through oil of vitriol, which 
absorbs water, ether, and alcohol. Coal gas is a mixture of 
these gases, with other hydrocarbons, &c. 

Phosphiiretted Hydrogen. The spontaneously inflammable 
variety of this gas is made by boiling phosphorous with solu- 
tion of potash in a small retort, the beak of which is kept 
under water : as each bubble of gas rises from the water, it 
inflames, and forms a ring of white smoke, which dilates 
as it ascends. The spontaneous inflammability of the gas 
when mixed with atmospheric air or oxygen renders 
caution necessary in its preparation. The other varieties 
of phosphuretted hydrogen have no special interest or appli- 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen. Mix together 2 parts of- iron filings 
with 1 of sulphur into a thin pap with water, and heat it 
gently in an iron vessel. Combination takes place with the 
evolution of heat. Cover it till cold. On this compound, 
contained in a glass bottle, or other suitable apparatus, pour 
sulphuric acid previously diluted with 7 parts of water. If 
more acid be afterwards required, dilute the strong acid with 
only 4 of water. It is absorbed by water. 


Nitrogen, or Azote. Atmospheric air may be made to yield 
an unlimited supply of nitrogen, by exposing it to the action 
of substances which combines with it oxygen. By burning 
phosphorous in a large bell-glass standing in water, and 
allowing it to stand over the water a few hours, nearly 
pure nitrogen is obtained, which may be further purified 
by agitating it with solution of pure potash. Coken- 
WINDER procures it from his solution of nitrate of potash 

• (which see) by mixing 1 measure of it with 3 of concen- 
trated solution of sal ammoniac, and heating ^e mixture 
in a flask. The gas contains a little ammonia, from which 

. "it may be freed by passing it through diluted sulphuric acid. 

Protoxide of Nitrogen. Nitrous Oxide of Davy. It is most 
conveniently made by heating nitrate of ammonia (formed 
by neutralizing pure nitric acid, diluted with 3 parts of 
water, with carbonate of ammonia, and boiling the solu- 
tion till a drop let fall on a cold plate solidifies, adding 
a little ammonia towards the end, to insure neutrality) 
in a retort, at a heat not exceeding 500° Fahrenheit, till 
it is nearly all decomposed. It may be collected over warm 

Oxygen Gfas. Mix chlorate of potash with a third of its bulk 
of black oxide of manganese ; put the mixture into a glass 
bottle, or clean flask, to which a bent tube is fitted by a 
cork, and apply a gentle heat. The gas, which comes over 
freely, may be collected over water. 

Ozone Gras. This is supposed to be oxygen in an allotropic 
and more active state. It is formed by putting into a 
wide bottle pieces of clean phosphorus, with a little water, 
so that the phosphorus shall be partly in the water and 
partly uncovered. Close the bottle for some hours, when 
the air it contains will manifest the odor and efi'ects of 

Sulphurous Acid Cfas. It is procured in a nearly pure state 
by heating 2 parts of quicksilver with 3 of oil of vitriol, 
and collecting the gas over mercury. By passing the 
gas through a tube surrounded with a freezing mixture, 
it is condensed into a liquid. For ordinary purposes, 
the gas may be, obtained as directed under Acid, Sul- 

Gelatine, Purified. G-renetine. Itis made by various processes 


from gelatinous animal matters. Nelson's Patent G-elatine 
is made from the cuttings of the hides of beasts, and skins 
of calves. These, freed from hair, flesh, fat, &c., are washed 
and scored, then macerated for 10 days in a lye of caustic 
soda, and afterwards placed in covered vessels at a tempera- 
ture of 60° to 70° until they become tender ; then washed 
from the alkali, exposed to the vapor of burning sulphnr 
until they become sensibly acid, dissolved in earthen vessels 
heated to 150°, strained, put into settling vessels heated to 
100° or 120° for nine hours, the clear liquor drawn off, and 
poured on the cooling slabs to the depth of J an inch. 
When cold, the jelly is cut in pieces, washed till free from 
acid, redissolved at 85°, poured on slabs, cut up, and dried 
on nets. 

Bone G-elatine. The bones are boiled to remove the fat, 
then digested in diluted muriatic acid till the earthy matter 
of the bone is dissolved. The gelatine, which retains the 
form of the bone, is washed in a stream of water, plunged 
in hot water, and again in cold, to remove all remains of 
acid, and sometimes put into a solution of carbonate of 
soda. When well washed, it is dried on open baskets or 
nets. By steeping the raw gelatine in cold water, dissolving 
it in boiling water, evaporating the jelly, and cutting it into 
tablets, it may be dried, and preserved in that form. 

German Paste, for feeding insectivorous singing -birds. 
Blanched sweet almonds 1 ib, pea meal 2 ft), butter 3 oz., 
saffron a few grains, honey q. s. Form the whole into a 
paste, and granulate it by pressing it through a cullender. 
Some add the yolks of 2 eggs. 

Gilding. Leaf gold is affixed to various surfaces, properly 
prepared by gold size or other adhesive medium. Metallic 
surfaces are coated with gold by means of amalgam of gold 
and mercury, applied with a Avire brush, wet with an acid 
solution of mercury (made by dissolving 10 parts of mercury 
in 11 of nitric acid, by a gentle heat, and adding 2|- parts 
of water). This article thus coated is heated over charcoal 
till the mercury is dissipated, and afterwards burnished. To 
give it a redder color, it is covered with gilders' wax (a com- 
pound of verdigris, ochre, alum, and yellow wax) ; again 
exposed to heat, and afterwards washed and cleaned by a 
scratch brush and vinegar. An inferior kind of gilding is 
effected by dissolving gold, with a fifth of its weight of 


copper, in nitro-muriatic acid, clipping rags in the solution, 
drying and burning them, and rubbing the ashes on the 
metallic surface with a cork dipped in salt and water. 

Gilding, by immersion. Dissolve teroxide or terchloride of 
gold in a solution of pyrophosphate of soda, and dip the 
article to be gilt in it. 

Electro-gilding, by Elkington's patent process, is thus per- 
formed: A solution of 5 oz. of gold (see Acid, Nitro- 
muriatic, p. 305) is prepared, and boiled till it ceases to 
give out yellow vapors ; the clear solution is mixed with 4 
. "gallons of water, 20 ft) of bicarbonate of potash added, and 
the whole boiled for 2 hours. The articles, properly cleaned, 
are suspended on wires, and moved about in the liquid from 
a few seconds to a minute, then washed, dried, and colored 
in the usual way. 

The solution used in gilding with the voltaic apparatus is 
made by dissolving ^ oz. of oxide of gold, with 2 oz. of 
cyanide of potassium, in a pint of distilled water. 

Ginger Beer. See Beverages. 

Gingerbread, Purgative. See page 185. 

Glass of Borax. Calcine borax with a strong heat till the 
water of crystallization is expelled, and the salt fuses into a 
clear glass. 

Glass, Soluble. Mix 10 parts of carbonate of potash, 15 
of quartz (or of sand free from iron and alumina), and 1 
part of charcoal. Fuse together. The mass is soluble in 4 
or 5 parts of water ; and the filtered solution evaporated to 
dryness yields a transparent glass, permanent in the air. — 


Glass. The different kinds of common glass consist essentially 
of silica with soda or potash ; most of the white kinds also 
contain oxide of lead. Crown glass and green bottle glass 
contain a portion of lime. Green glass and some kinds of 
foreign white glass are free from lead, and should therefore 
be selected for chemical uses. 

To mark on Grlass. Glass may be written on for temporary 
purposes, by French chalk; pencils of this substance will 
be found convenient. Glass .may be written on with ink 
if the surface is clean and dry, and the pen held nearly 


perpendicular. The shellac ink (see Ink) is the best for 
labels, as it resists damp, &c. To scratch glass, a scratch- 
ing diamond is used; or a piece of flint, or crystal of 
quartz, or the point of a small 3-square file. To engrave 
on glass, fluoric acid is used, either in the liquid state or 
in vapor. The glass must be warmed, and coated with 
wax, or engravers' cement, and the writing or design 
traced through the wax with a brad-awl, or other pointed 
instrument. The liquid fluoric acid is poured on it, and 
left to act on the uncovered portions of the glass ; or the 
fluorspar may be powdered and made into a paste with 
oil of vitriol, and laid over the prepared surface, and 
covered with lead-foil or tea-lead ; or bruised fluorspar is 
put in a Wedgewood evaporating basin, with sufficient 
oil of vitriol to form a thin paste, and the prepared glass 
laid over the basin, so that the vapors may act on the 
portions from "which the wax has been removed. To cut 
glass (beside the usual method of dividing cut glass by a 
glazier's diamond), the following means may be used : 
To divide glass tubes or rods, form a deep mark round 
them with the edge of a sharp 3-square file, then with a 
hand placed on either side of the mark, break the rod 
with a slightly stretching as well as bending motion. 
A diamond or sharp flint may be substituted for a file. 
Flasks, globes, and retorts may be divided by means of 
iron rings, having a stem fixed in a wooden handle. 
Make the ring red-hot, and apply it to the flask, &c. If 
the vessel does not break where it came in contact with 
the ring, wet the part, and it will generally separate. 
Another method is to twist together 2 or 3 threads of 
cotton, such as is used for wicks, moisten them with spirit 
of wine, and encircle the flask with them ; then, holding the 
flask horizontally, set fire to the wick, and turn the flask 
with the fingers, so as to keep the flame in the direction of 
the thread. If the separation does not take place the first 
time, the process may be repeated after the glass has cooled. 
By these means a common oil-flask may be divided into an 
evaporating dish and a funnel. By means of a stout iron 
rod, fixed in a wooden handle, and terminating in a blunt 
point, and heated to redness, broken retorts, globes, and 
flasks may be converted into useful evaporating dishes, &c. 
If any crack exists, it may easily be led in any direction, 
as it will follow the motion of the heated iron. If no crack 
exists, one must be produced by applying the point of the 


heated rod to any convenient spot on the edge of the broken 
glass, touchhig it afterwards with a moistened finger, if 
necessary. The edges of glass thus divided are rendered 
less apt to break by heating them in the flame of a blow- 
pipe, or grinding them smooth Avith emery on a flat stone. 
See Faraday's Manipulations. 

Glass, to Platinize. M. Dullo. This is recommended to 
- prevent fusing of the end of the tube used in Marsh's test 
for arsenic. In draAving out the end of the tube, leave the 
diameter slightly larger than is necessary ; then roughen 
. " the narrow end with a file. Dip in a solution of bichloride 
of platinum, containing one-twentieth of the metal ; remove 
excess of the drop, and heat cautiously till the glass ac- 
quires a metallic appearance. Repeat this four or five 

Cflass, to Silver. The term silvering is commonly applied to 
the process of coating the surface of glass Avith amalga- 
mated tinfoil, in forming mirrors. The tinfoil is rubbed 
over with quicksilver, and more of the latter poured over 
it : the plate of glass, perfectly clean and dry, is then 
applied to it in such a Avay as to exclude all air-bubbles, 
and to bring the glass and tinfoil into perfect contact. 
The plate, after being inclined so as to allow the super- 
fluous quicksilver to drain off", is loaded with weights, under 
which it remains till the adhesion is complete. To convex 
and concave mirrors the amalgamated foil is applied by 
means of accurately fitting plaster moulds. The interior 
of globes is silvered by introducing a liquid amalgam (see 
Amalgam, p. 310), and turning about the globe till every 
part is covered with it. 

To Silver Grlass. Pettijean's process. 1540 gr. of 
nitrate of silver are treated Avith 955 gr. of strong solution 
of ammonia, and afterwards Avith 7700 gr. of water. To 
this solution, when clear, are added 170 gr. of tartaric acid 
dissolved in 680 of water, then 152 cubic inches more of 
water, with brisk agitation. When it has settled, the clear 
part is poured off"; 152 cubic inches of water are added to 
the sediment, to dissolve as much as possible. The clear 
fluids are mixed, and again 62 cubic inches of water are 
added. This is Silvering Solution No. 1. No. 2 is pre- 
pared in the same manner, but with twice as much tartaric 
acid. The glass plate being cleaned, and laid horizontally, 


an even layer of solution No. 1 is poured on it, to about the 
depth of y 0*^ 0^ ^^ inch. Heat is then applied by means 
of a cast iron water-bath beneath. Bright silver is soon 
deposited. When the stratum of fluid is exhausted, it is 
poured off, and solution No. 2 next applied in the same way. 
The silver surface may be polished, or coated with black 

M. LiEBiG proposes to silver glass without mercury by a 
solution of ammonio-nitrate of silver, to which potash or 
soda is added, and which deposits silver at ordinary tem- ' 
peratures when brought in contact with an aqueous solution 
of sugar of milk. 

Mr. Drayton mixes 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, 3 oz. of 
Avater, 1 oz. of liquid ammonia, and 3 oz. of spirit of wine, 
and filters the solution after it has stood 3 or 4 hours. To 
every ounce of the solution he adds ^ oz. of sugar {grape 
sugar if possible), dissolved in equal quantities of water and 
alcohol. The surface to be silvered is covered Avith this 
liquid at a temperature of 160° F., maintained till the depo- 
sition of silver is complete. When quite dry, the coated sur- 
face is covered with mastic varnish. Other substances besides 
sugar occasion the deposition of silver from the ammoniacal 
solution ; as oil of cassia, oil of cloves, and other essential 
oils, aldehyde, &c. Unger recommends a strong alcoholic 
solution of tannin. M. Vohl prefers an alkaline solution 
of gun cotton. Dissolve gun-cotton in a solution of caustic 
potash, pour it into a solution of nitrate of silver, and add 
ammonia sufiicient to redissolve the precipitate. The liquor 
being slowly heated in a Avater-bath, becomes brown, effer- 
vesces, and deposits silver of superior brilhancy. 

Glazes. Common eartheuAvare is glazed with a composition 
containing lead, on which account it is unfit for many phar- 
maceutical purposes. The folloAving glaze has been proposed, 
among others, as a substitute : 100 parts of washed sand, 80 
of purified potash, 10 of nitre, and 20 of slaked lime ; all 
well mixed and heated in a black-lead crucible, in a rever- 
beratory furnace, till the mass flows into a clear glass. It 
is then to be reduced to powder. The goods to be slightly 
burnt, placed under water, and sprinkled with the powder. 

vj-LAZE FOR Porcelain. Feldspar 27 parts, borax 18, Lynn 
sand 4, nitre 3, soda 3, Cornwall china clay 3 parts. Melt 


together to form a frit, and reduce it to a powder, with 3 
parts of calcined borax. — Rose. 

Glue is made by boiling parings of ox hides and other skins 
in water, evaporating the solution to a due consistence, 
allowing it to gelatinize in wooden boxes, cutting it into 
layers with a wire, and drying them on nets stretched on 
wooden frames. Bones also yield a pale glue, described 
' under Gelatine. Bank-note glue, or mouth glue, is made 
by dissolving 1 ife of fine glue, or gelatine, in water, evapo- 
rating it till most of the water is expelled, adding J ft) brown 
. "sugar, and pouring it into moulds. Some add a little lemon- 
juice. It is also made with two parts of dextrine, 2 of water, 
and 1 of spirit. 

Glue, Liquid. 1. Dissolve bruised orange shellac in |ths of its 
, weight of rectified spirit, or of rectified wood naphtha, by a 
gentle heat. It is very useful as a general cement and sub- 
stitute for glue. 2. Another kind may be made by dissolv- 
ing 1 oz. of borax in 12 oz. of soft water, adding 2 oz. of 
bruised shellac, and boiling till dissolved, stirring it con- 
stantly. 3. Dissolve 1000 parts of glue in 1000 parts by 
weight of water in a glazed pot over a gentle fire. When it 
is melted, add nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.32) 200 parts pouring it 
in very gradually. An effervescence is caused by the escape 
of hyponitrous acid. When all the acid is added, allow the 
mixture to cool. (This glue is found to remain unaltered 
on exposure to the air. It is applied cold, and is recom- 
mended as very convenient in chemical operations.) — M. 

Glue, Maeine. Cut caoutchouc into small pieces, and dis- 
solve it, by heat and agitation, in cold naphtha. Add to 
this solution powdered shellac, and heat the whole with 
constant stirring, until combination takes place, then pour 
it while hot on metal plates, to form sheets. When used it 
must be heated to 248° F., and applied with a brush. 

Glue of Caseine. 1. Braconnot. Dissolve caseine in a 
strong solution of bicarbonate of soda. 2. Wagner. Dis- 
solve caseine in a cold saturated solution of borax. Superior 
to gum, and may take the place of glue in many cases. May 
be used for the backs of adhesive tickets. 


Gluten, Vegetable. Form Avheat flour into a stiff paste 
with cold water; then knead it under a stream of water 
till all the starch is washed awaj. What remains is impure 

Golden Compound. Anhydrous tungstate of soda, or the 
salt obtained in fusing 2 equivalents of tungstic acid with 
1 of carbonate of soda, is to be melted in a porcelain cruci- 
ble, over a spirit lamp, at a temperature not more than 
sufficient ; then add small pieces of pure tin to the melted 
mass. Cubes of a golden color instantly form. The process 
should not be continued too long, or they acquire a purple 
hue. (See Aurum Musivum.) 

Gum, British. (See Dextrine.) It is also prepared by 
heating starch alone, or previously mixed with an acid. 
Pinel directs half a gallon of nitric and half a pint of 
muriatic acid to be mixed with 100 gallons of water, and 
as much potato fecula added as will form a paste. In 2 
hours remove the paste in buckets, prepared for the pur- 
pose, to drain off all the water. Then place the paste in 
small lumps in a drying-room till dry ; pulverize it, and 
expose the powder the first day to the temperature of 100°, 
the next day raise it to 150°, on the third day to 190°. 
It is then powdered, sifted, and heated from 300° to 350°. 
To give it the appearance of gum, after it has gone through 
the stove, and is powdered and sifted, mix it to a paste with 
water to which 1 per cent, of nitric acid has been added, 
spread it on copper plates in layers f of an inch thick, and 
heat it in an oven from 240° to 300° then remove it to the 
open air to cool. 

Gum Arabic, Purification of. Picciotto's process. The 
gum is dissolved in water, and sulphurous acid gas passed 
into it. The sulphurous acid is sufficiently removed for 
common purposes by gently boiling the mucilage in a retort 
with a receiver attached. But to obtain the gum in a purer 
state, carbonate of barytes is added, the mixture is filtered, 
afterwards agitated with gelatinous alumina, again filtered, 
and evaporated. 

Gun Barrels, to Stain. (See Browning Liquids, page 

Gun Cotton. Mix IJ fluid oz. of each of the strongest 
nitric and sulphuric acids ; put the mixture in a Wedge- 
wood mortar, and when cool, add 100 gr. of cotton-wool. 



Stir it with a glass rod, and when it is fully soaked, squeeze 
out the acid with the pestle or a porcelain spoon, throw the 
cotton into a large quantity of water, squeeze it again, and 
wash it under a stream of water till quite free from acid. 
In the specification, the patentee directs 1 measure of nitric 
acid, sp. gr. 1.45 or 1.50, to be mixed with 3 measures of 
sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1.85; the cotton to be soaked in the 

. acid, then squeezed from it and left in a covered vessel for 
an hour ; and after washing, to be dipped in a solution of 
1 oz. carbonate of potash in a gallon of water, then pressed, 

- and partially dried ; again dipped in a weak solution of nitre, 
. then dried in a room heated to 150°. This destructive com- 
pound has already fallen into disuse as to the purposes 
for which it was introduced ; but on the other hand, is use- 
fully applied to other objects. See Collodion. 

Gunpowder. A compound of nitre, charcoal, and sulphur. 
The nitre should be purified by recrystallization, the sulphur 
by distillation, and the charcoal selected of the best quality 
— that of the dogwood, alder, poplar, chestnut, or willow is 
preferred. The following is the composition of some of the 
most approved kinds : 

Nitre. Charcoal. Sulphur. 

Royal Mills, Waltham Abbey, 75 J 5 10 

Marsh's Sporting, T6 15 9 

Mining, 65 15 20 

French (Government), 75 12.5 12.5 

Sporting, 78 12 10 

Chinese, 75 14.14 9.9 

Gunpowder, White. Well dried ferro-prussiate of potash 
1 part, white sugar 1 part, chlorate of potash 2 parts. Let 
the ingredients be separately reduced to a fine powder, and 
the powders mixed by the hand, or by means of a leathern 
barrel turning on its axis. Or they may be moistened with 
water, and granulated by passing the paste through a wire 

Gypsum, to Harden. Keating's patent process is to moisten 
calcined gypsum with a solution of 1 ib of borax, 1 Sb of 
.tartar, in 11 ft of water; it is then heated to redness for 
6 hours, and pulverized. Erdemann recommends plaster 
figures, &c., to be soaked in a solution of Fuchs's soluble 

Hahnemann's Wine Test. See Tests. 


Harness Jet. Take 4 oz. "best glue, IJ pint good vinegar, 2 
oz. best gum arabic, ^ pint good black ink, 2 dr. best isin- 
glass. Dissolve the gum in the ink, and melt the isinglass 
in another vessel in as much hot water as will cover it. 
Having first steeped the glue in the vinegar until soft, dis- 
solve it completely by the aid of heat, stirring to prevent 
burning. The heat should not exceed 180°. Add the ink 
and gum, and allow the mixture again to rise to the same 
temperature. Lastly, mix in the solution of isinglass, and 
remove from the fire. When used, a small portion must be 
heated until fluid, and then applied with a sponge, and 
allowed to dry on. 

Harness, Waterproof Paste eor. Put into a pipkin black 
resin 2 oz., place on a gentle fire, and when melted add 
beeswax 3 oz. When this is melted, remove from the fire, 
and stir in ^ oz. fine lamp-black and |- dr. Prussian blue, 
finely powdered. When completely mixed, add spirits of 
turpentine to form a thin paste, and let it cool. To be applied 
like blacking. 

Heading for Beer. Equal parts of alum and sulphate of 
iron. — Gray. 

Incense. Olibanum 2 parts, benzoin 1 part. 

India-Rubber Court Plaster. A stout frame of wood must 
be made, about 3 yards long and about 1^ yard Avide. 
Within this frame must be placed two sides of another 
frame, running longitudinally and across, so fixed in the 
outer frame that the two pieces may slide independently of 
each other backwards and forwards about 6 inches. Tapes 
of canvas must be tacked round the inside of the inner 
frame and the corresponding sides of the outer frame, so as 
to form a square for the material to be sewn in, which, when 
done, the two loop frames must be drawn tightly to the 
outer by means of a twine passed round each, in order to 
stretch perfectly free from irregularities the silk or satin 
previous to laying on the composition. 

To make the Plaster. Dissolve India-rubber in naphtha or 
naphtha and turpentine, lay it on with a flat brush on the 
opposite side to that which is intended for the plaster. 
When the silk is perfectly dry, and the smell in a great 
measure dissipated, it will be ready for the adhesive mate- 
rial ; to make which, take equal parts of Salisbury or fine 
Russia glue and the best isinglass, dissolve in a sufficient 


quantity of water over a 'water-bath, and lay on with a flat 
hogtool while warm. It is requisite to use great caution to 
spread the plaster evenly and in one direction, and a suffi- 
cient number of coatings must be given to form a smooth 
surface, through which the texture of the fabric is not per- 
ceptible. Each coating should be perfectly dry before the 
succeeding one is given, after which, the frame is to be 
placed in a situation free from dust, and where a draught of 
air would facilitate the drying. The quantify of water used 
and the weight of the two materials must be a little varied 
. according to the season and the gelatine strength they pos- 
sess. Lastly, the plaster being ready to receive the polish- 
ing coat, which gives also the balsamic effect to it, a pre- 
paration is made in nearly the same manner as the Tinct. 
Benz. Co. of the P. L., with the addition of more gums. 
This preparation must be laid on once only, and with a 
brush kept for the purpose. For making plasters on colored 
silk it is only necessary to select the silk a shade deeper than 
the color required, as the plaster causes it to appear a little 

Indigo. The principal preparations of indigo are described 
under Chemic Blue, and Dyes Indigo may be purified by 
several methods, of which the following is the most simple : 

■' Mix indigo with half its weight of Paris plaster and 
sufficient water to form a thin paste. Spread this evenly on 
an iron plate, about two inches wide, to the depth of one- 
eighth of an inch, and let it dry in the air. Then apply 
the flame of a large spirit lamp to the under side of the 
plate, beginning at one end and advancing it to the other as 
the sublimation proceeds. The violet vapor condenses on 
the surface in brilliant prisms or plates. Good indigo yields 
from 15 to 17 per cent. — Mr. T. Taylor. 

Purified indigo is also obtained from the alkaline solution 
of reduced indigo, described under Dyes ; or by dissolving 
indigo in a mixture of 1 part of caustic soda, 1 of grape 
sugar, and 20 of water. To the clear solutions thus 
obtained add muriatic acid to throw down the indigo, wash 
this perfectly with pure water, and finally with alcohol. If 
"€are be taken to exclude the air before and after adding the 
acid, and to wash it with recently boiled water, to drain it 
rapidly and dry it in vacuo, the indigo is obtained nearly 
white, but becomes blue on exposure to the air. 


Inks. The following are specimens of the most useful 
kinds : 

Black Writing Inks. 1. Brande's. Bruised Aleppo 
galls 6 oz., soft water 6 pints; boil together, add 4 oz. of 
sulphate of iron and 4 oz., of gum arable. Put the whole 
in a bottle, and keep it in a warm place, shaking it occa- 
sionally. In 2 months pour it off into glass bottles ; and 
add to each pint a grain of corrosive sublimate, or 3 or 4 
drops of creasote. 

2. Dr. Wollaston's. Galls 1 oz., gum J oz., cloves | 
dr., sulphate of iron \ oz., water 8 oz. Digest with fre- 
quent shaking, till it has sufficient color. A good durable 
ink, and will bear diluting. 

3. Prerogative Court Ink. Galls 16 oz., gum 6 oz., 
alum 2 oz., sulphate of iron 7 oz., kino 3 oz., logwood in 
powder 4 oz., water 8 ib. — Gray. 

4. Dr. Urb's Ink. For 12 gallons of ink take 12 Bb of 
bruised galls, 5 ib of gum Senegal, 5 ib of green sulphate of 
iron, and 12 gallons of rain water. Boil the galls in a 
copper with 9 gallons of water for 3 hours, adding fresh 
water to replace what is lost by evaporation. Let the de- 
coction settle, and draw off the clear liquor ; add to it a 
strained solution of the gum ; dissolve also the sulphate of 
iron separately, and mix the whole. Instead of boiling the 
galls, they may be macerated in a portion of hot water for 
12 hours, then put into a percolator, and the rest of the 
water passed through it. 

5. Ajiticorrosive Ink. Aleppo galls 10 Bb, logwood 5 Bb, 
pomegranate-peel 2|- Bb, cloves 2|- oz., soft water 8 gallons. 
Let the whole boil gently for an hour or two, then cover the 
copper and leave it for 12 or 14 hours, stirring it now and 
then. Strain off the decoction and add 2 gallons more 
water to the ingredients ; simmer gently for an hour, and 
strain. Mix the liquors, and let them settle ; draw off the 
clear liquid from the dregs ; dissolve in a portion of it 2| Bb 
of gum arable and |- Bb of sugar candy ; and in another por- 
tion 2| Bb of green sulphate of iron. Strain both solutions, 
and mix the whole together; then add 1 oz. of calcined 
borax, and J oz. of creasote dissolved in \ pint of spirit of 
wine. (Dr. Hare recommends an ink free from acid, to be 
made with galls and " finery-cinder ;" but we are not sure 
what is intended by this name). 

6. Ribaucourt's Ink. Galls 1 Bb, logwood J Bb, gum 6 


oz., sulphate of iron J ft, sulphate of copper 2 o'z., sugar 2 
oz., water 12 flb (or 5 quarts). This has the disadvantage 
of corroding the steel pens and the penknives with which it 
comes in contact. 

7. Grails 3 oz., sulphate of iron 1 oz., logwood J oz., 
gum J oz., ale a quart. Let it stand in a loosely-corked 
bottle, in a warm place, for a week or more, shaking it 

8. Boil 4 oz. of logwood for an hour in 6 quarts of water ; 
adding boiling water as it evaporates : then add 16 oz. of 
blue galls coarsely bruised, 4 oz. of dried sulphate of iron 
{i. e., heated till it becomes whitish and pulverulent), 3 oz. of 
brown sugar, 6 oz. of gum arable, and ^ oz. of acetate of 
copper ground with a little of the decoction. Keep the 
whole in a bottle uncorked for a fortnight, shaking it twice 
a day. 

9. Reade's Paie?it This differs from common black ink, 
in containing a portion of soluble Prussian blue. 

10. Qhrome Ink. Extract of logwood ^ oz., gum \ oz., 
water a pint. Dissolve also in 12 oz. of water, ^ oz. of 
yellow chromate of potash (or \ oz., each of bichromate and 
bicarbonate of potash) ; and mix the two solutions. The ink 
is ready for immediate use. 

11. Dr. Lewis's Writing Ink. Powdered sulphate of 
iron 1 oz., powdered logwood 1 oz., powdered galls 3 oz., 
gum arable 1 oz., white wine or vinegar 1 quart. 

12. Berzelius recommends a solution of vanadiate of 
ammonia in infusion of galls. Dr. Ure states that this 
forms the most perfect ink that can be desired ; but the 
scarcity and high price of the vanadiate prevent its use. 

13. Runge's Black Writing Fluid. Boil logwood 22 
ft), in enough water to yield 14 gallons of decoction. To 
1000 parts of this decoction, when cold, add 1 part of chro- 
mate of potash. The mixture is to be well stirred. The pro- 
portions are to be carefully observed, and the yellow chro- 
mate, not the bichromate, employed. (This ink is said to 
possess some great advantages; to adhere strongly to paper, 
so that it can neither be washed off by water, nor even 
altered by weak acids ; to form no deposit ; and not to be in 
■the least acted upon by steel pens.) Steel pens should be 
washed in an alkaline solution before being used with this 

14. Alizarine Ink. Leonhardi. Digest 24 parts Aleppo 


galls with 3 parts of Dutch madder and 120 warm water. 
Filter. Mix 1.2 parts solution of indigo, 5.2 of sulphate of 
iron, and 2 parts crude acetate of iron solution. This ink 
contains no gum, cannot get mouldy ; the tannate of iron is 
prevented from separating by the sulphate of indigo. 
Alizarine ink may be evaporated to dryness and formed into 
cakes ; 1 part with 6 of hot water will then form an excellent 
writing fluid. 

Packers' Marhing Ink is merely the dregs of black ink, for 
marking parcels with a brush. 

Copying Ink. Mr. Brands directs 1 oz. of brown sugar to 
be added to No. 1, for copying. Another kind is made by 
dissolving ^ oz. of gum, and 20 gr. of Spanish liquorice in 
13 dr. of water, and adding to it a drachm of lamp-black, 
previously mixed with a teaspoonful of sherry. If the lamp- 
black is greasy, it should be heated to redness in a covered 
crucible. Another published form is : Black ink 3 oz., sugar 
candy 1 oz. 

Ink Poivder. This consists of the dry ingredients for ink, . 
powdered and mixed. 1. Powdered galls 4 oz., sulphate of 
iron (heated till it becomes white and pulverulent 1 oz., 
powdered gum 1 oz., white sugar J oz. ; mix.) To make a 
quart of ink with water or beer. 

2. Powdered galls 2 Bb, green vitriol 1 fb, powdered 
gum 8 oz. In 2-oz. packets, each for 1 pint of ink. — 

Red Writing Inks. 1. Best ground Brazil wood 4 oz., diluted 
acetic acid a pint, alum J oz. Boil them slowly in a covered- 
tinned copper or enamelled saucepan, for an hour ; strain, 
and add J oz. gum. Some direct the Brazil wood to infuse 
for 2 or 3 days before boiling. 

2. Weber's Red Ink. Boil 4 oz. of Pernambuca wood 
with 16 oz. of dilute acetic acid and an equal quantity of 
water, until 24 oz. remain. Add an ounce of alum, and 
evaporate again to 16 oz. ; add gum arable 1 oz., strain : 
and to the cold liquid add, lastly, 1 dr. of protochloride of 
tin. (Said to be of a finer color, and more permanent, than 
cochineal ink.) 

3. Boil 2 oz. of good Brazil wood, |- oz. of alum, and ^ 
oz. of cream of tartar, in 16 oz. of rain water, till reduced 
to half; strain, and dissolve in it |- oz. of gum arable, and 


add a tincture made with IJ dr. of cochineal in-li^ oz. of 
spirit of wine.^HENSELER. 

4. Brazil 4 oz., alum 2 oz., water a quart. Boil for an 
hour, and strain ; then add 1 oz. of gum. 

5. Triturate 1 dr. of cochineal and 1 dr. of subcarhonate 
of potash, with a little boiling water ; then add 1 dr. of 
burnt alum and 2 dr. of cream of tartar, and water to bring 
it to the desired color. (Not so permanent as the Brazil 

, ink.) 

6. Qarmine Ink. Heat a scruple of carmine with 3 oz. 
of water of ammonia for some minutes, a little below boiling, 

-and add 15 or 20 gr. of gum. (The inkstand must be kept 
' well closed.) 

7. Stephen's Med Ink. Patent. Take some common 
soda, potash, or carbonate of ammonia, and add to it, at in- 
tervals, twice its weight of crude argol in powder. When 
effervescence has ceased, pour off the solution, or filter it 
from insoluble matter. Add to it next, by measure, half 
the quantity of oxalate of alumina, prepared by adding to 
precipitated alumina in a damp state as much oxalic acid 
as will dissolve it. Into this mixture, when cold, put as 
much powdered cochineal as will give it a fine red color, 
and, after letting it stand for 48 hours, strain it for use. 

Blue Inks. 1. Reade's Patent. Prepare a solution of iodide 
of iron, from iodine, iron, and water ; add to the solution 
half as much iodine as first used. Pour this solution into a 
semi-saturated solution of ferroprussiate of potash, contain- 
ing nearly as much of the salt as the whole weight of iodine. 
Collect the precipitate, wash it, and finally dissolve it in 
water, to form the blue ink. The solution from which the 
precipitate is separated, evaporated to dryness, and the resi- 
due fused, re-dissolved, and crystallized, yields pure iodide 
of potassium. (This process being patented, ink must not 
be prepared by it for sale.) 

2. Add a pint of a cold solution of persulphate of iron 
(prepared as directed, page 385) to a solution of 6 oz. of 
ferrocyanide of potassium in 2 pints of water. Collect the 
precipitate, wash it with distilled water until it begins to dis- 
solve, then triturate it in a mortar with sufiicient distilled 
water to form a blue ink. 

3. Chemic, or Saxon blue (sulphate of indigo), diluted 
with water to the desired shade, with a little gum. 


4. Pure Prussian blue, triturated with a sixth part of its 
weight of oxahc acid, with a little water, to a smooth paste, 
and more water added to bring it to the proper color. 

. A larger proportion of the acid is ordered in some recipes. 

5. Dr. Normandy's Blue Ink. Chinese blue (ferrocyan- 
ide of iron) is ground in water with binoxalate of potash and 
gum arabic, in the following proportions : 7 oz. of water to 
3 dr. of Chinese blue, 1 dr. of binoxolate of potash, and 1 dr. 
of gum arabic. 

6. Stephen's Patent Blue Ink, Common Prussian blue 
is first macerated in strong sulphuric acid, then repeatedly 
washed in water, and afterwards dried. This process is to 
render it more soluble in oxalic acid, which is now to be gradu- 
ally added in the proportion of about 1 part to 6 of the Prus- 
sian blue (as before maceration), together with sufficient water 
to yield a dense blue solution. 

7. Digest 2 oz. of the cuttings of tin plate with 4 oz. of 
nitrous acid, and add the solution to a gallon of water in 
which 2 oz. of Prussiate of potash have been dissolved. 
(This requires frequent shakings to keep the precipitate — 
which is Prussian blue — suspended.) 

Violet Inks. 1. Boil 8 oz. of logwood in 3 pints of rain or dis- 
tilled water to 1|- pint. Strain, and add IJ oz. of clean gum 
and 2^ oz. of alum in fine powder. Agitate frequently till 

2. Cudbear 1 oz., pearlash 1|- oz., mucilage 2 oz., soft 
water to make a pint. Pour the water hot on the cudbear 
and pearlash, allow the mixture to stand for 12 hours, then 
strain, and add the mucilage. 1 oz. of rectified spirit may 
also be added. 

Purple Inks. 1. Add a little muriate of tin to a strong decoc- 
tion of logwood. A little gum may be added. 

2. Dr. Normandy's Purple Ink. To 12 Bb of Campeachy 
wood add as many gallons of boilng water, pour the solution 
through a funnel, with a strainer made of coarse flannel, on 1 
ft) of hydrate or acetate of deutoxide of copper finely pow- 
dered (having at the bottom of the funnel a piece of sponge) ; 
then add immediately 14 ft) of alum, and for every 340 gal- 
lons of liquid add 80 ft) of gum arabic or gum Senegal. Let 
these remain for 3 or 4 days, and a beautiful purple color 
will be produced. 

Brown Ink. 1. Boil ^ oz. of catechu with 8 oz. of water until 


dissolved, and. strain. Dissolve 60 gi\ of bichromate of 
potash in IJ oz. of water, and add it gradually to the solu- 
tion of catechu until the desired shade is obtained. It re- 
quires no gum. 

2. Bj adding to the violet ink finely-powdered bichro- 
mate of potash, in the proportion of from 15 to 30 gr. to 
an oz., various shades of brown and snuff color are ob- 

Yellotv Ink. 1. Gamboge triturated with water, and a little 
alum added. 

2. Boil 8 oz. of French berries with 1 oz. of alum in 1 
,■ quart of water ; strain, and add 1 oz. of gum. 

Cf-reen Ink. 1. Dissolve 8 dr. of bichromate of potash in 1 oz. 
of water ; add to the hot solution J oz. of alcohol, and 
decompose the mixture by a little strong sulphuric acid, till 
it assumes a brown color. Evaporate the liquid to half, let 
it cool, dilute with a sufficient quantity of water, and filter ; 
add to the filtered liquid 4 dr. of alcohol, decompose with a 
few drops of sulphuric acid, and let it rest. After some 
time it assumes a fine green color. A little gum inay be 
added. There is danger of the paper and steel pens suffer- 
ing from an excess of sulphuric acid.) — Winckler. 

2. Distilled verdigris 2 oz., cream of tartar 1 oz., water 8 
oz. ; boil to half, and filter. — Klaproth. 

3. Add to the yellow ink No. 2 sufficient sulphate of 

4. Dissolve sap green in water with a little alum. 

5. Rub 3J dr. of Prussian blue and 3 dr. of gamboge with 
2 oz. of mucilage, and add J pint of water. 

Crold and Silver Ink. Fine bronze powder, or gold or silver 
leaf, ground with a little sulphate of potash, and washed 
from the salt, is mixed with water and a sufficient quan- 
tity of gum. 

Indestructible Writing Fluids. The common writing inks 
being liable to be obliterated by many chemical agents, sev- 
eral compounds more capable of resisting these agents have 
been proposed, of which the following appear deserving of 
notice : 

1. Carbon Ink. Dissolve real Indian Ink in common 
black ink ; or add a small quantity of lamp-black, previously 
heated to redness, and ground perfectly smooth, with a 
small portion of the ink. 


2. Stephens's [patent) Carbon Ink. Common soda of 
commerce is mixed with resinous matters (as shellac or 
resin), in about equal parts by weight. Water being added 
according to the strength required, the solution is boiled 
until the resin has become dissolved. Mix in a mortar with 
the requisite quantity of fine lamp-black, and add any 
suitable-colored solution. 

3. Shellac Ink, or Coathupe's Writing Fluid. To 18 
oz. of water add 1 oz. of powdered borax, and 2 oz. of 
bruised shellac, and boil them in a covered vessel, stirring 
them occasionally, till dissolved. Filter, when cold, through 
coarse filtering paper ; add 1 oz. of mucilage ; boil for a 
few minutes, adding sufficient finely-powdered indigo and 
lamp-black to color it. Leave the mixture for 2 or 3 hours 
for the coarser particles to subside ; pour it ofi" from the 
dregs, and bottle it for use. 

4. Crluten Ink. Dissolve wheat gluten, free from starch, 
in weak acetic acid of the strength of common vinegar ; mix 
10 gr. of lamp-black and 2 gr. of indigo with 4 oz. of the 
solution, and a drop or two of oil of cloves. 

5. Hausmann's. Dissolve 1 part of genuine asphaltum 
with 4 parts of oil of turpentine, and sufiicient lamp-black. 
If sufficient lamp-black be used to give it a suitable con- 
sistence, it may be used Avith types. 

6. Braconnet's Indelible Ink. Take 20 parts of Dant- 
zic potash, 10 of tanned leather parings, and 5 of sulphur ; 
boil thern in an iron pot with sufficient water to dryness ; 
then raise the heat, stirring the matter constantly, till the 
whole becomes soft, taking care that it does not ignite. 
Add sufficient water, and filter through cloth. It must 
be kept from the air. It flows freely from the pen, 
and resists many chemical agents ; but it is not strictly 

T. Dr. Normandy's Indelible Ink. Frankfort lamp- 
black 24 ft), to be ground with mucilage, made by adding 
24 ft) of gum to 60 gallons of water, and the mixture 
filtered through a very coarse flannel ; 4 ft) of oxalic acid 
are then added, with as much decoction of cochineal 
and sulphate of indigo as will yield the shade of color 

8. Indian Ink. Real lamp-black, produced by combus- 
tion of linseed oil, ground with gum, and infusion of galls. 
It is prepared both in a liquid and solid form, the latter 
being dried in the sun. 


Ink for Writing on Zinc Labels. Horticultural ink': 1. Dis- 
solve 100 gr. of chloride of platinum in 1 pint of water. A 
little mucilage and lamp-black may be added. 

2. Sal ammoniac 1 dr., verdigris 1 dr., lamp-black |- dr., 
water 10 dr.; mix. 

Inh for Writing on Steel or Tin Plate, or Sheet Zinc. 1. 
Mix 1 oz. of powdered sulphate of copper and | oz. of 
powdered sal ammoniac with 2 oz. of diluted acetic acid, 
adding lamp-black or vermilion. 

2. Dissolve 1 part of copper in 10 of nitric acid, and 
dilute with 10 parts of water. 

White 3Iarking for Black Bottles, in cellars. Grind flake- 
white, or sulphate of barytes, with a little oil of turpentine, 
and any light-colored varnish, to a proper consistence. 

Lithographic Ink. 1. Lasteyrie's : Dried soaploz.; melt, 
and. add shellac 5 oz., then common soda 1 oz., mastic 1 oz., 
and lastly, lamp-black 3 dr. Melt, stir together, and, 
when completely melted, pour into moulds : to be used as 
Indian ink. 

2. Autographic. White soap 100 parts, white wax 100, 
mutton suet 30, shellac 50, mastic 50, lamp-black 30 or 35. 
Melted as above. 

3. Lithograjjhic Ink. Heat 40 parts of yellow wax until 
its vapor kindles on coming in contact with a burning 
match ; then remove it from the fire, and add gradually, in 
small parts, Marseilles soap 22 parts, gumlac 28 parts, and 
mastic 10 parts. Extinguish the flame, and incorporate 
perfectly with this mixture lamp-black 9 parts. Then 
again heat until the vapor can be ignited, when remove it 
from the fire, and after the flame has been extinguished, 
pour it upon a stone. The mass is then cut into pieces. — 
M. Weishaupt. 

4. Crayons. White wax 8 oz., white soap 2 oz., shellac 
2 oz., lamp-black 3 tablespoonfuls. Melt the wax and soap 
with a brisk fire ; stir in the lamp-black ; allow the mixture 
to burn for half a minute, then extinguish the flame, and 
add the shellac by degrees, stirring continually. Put the 
mixture on the fire till it kindles, or nearly so. Extinguish 
the flame, let the mixture cool a little, and pour 'it into 

Inks for Marking Linen. Some of these are used with types ; 
others with a clean quill pen. 


1. Sulphate of manganese 1 dr., water 1 dr., powdered 
sugar 2 dr., lamp-black ^ dr. Triturate them together, and 
stamp it on the linen with types. When dry, wash the 
part with liquor potassse ; again dry, and wash witli plenty 
of water. 

2. Dr. Smellib's. Sulphate of iron 1 dr., linseed oil 1 
oz., vermilion J oz. ; grind perfectly smooth. Printers' ink 
is also used with type. 

3. Heat to redness equal weights of black oxide of man- 
ganese and caustic potash, and mix it with an equal weight 
of pipe-clay, and sufficient water to give it a due consistence. 
To be applied with types or stencils. It becomes brown, 
and does not wash out. The following are used with a quill 

4. Nitrate of silver 100 gr., distilled water 1 oz., gum 
arable 2 dr., sap green 1 scruple ; dissolve. The linen is 
first to be wetted with the following pounce, dried and 
rubbed smooth, then written on by a clean quill or bone 
pen dipped in the ink. Pounce or Mordant. Subcarbon- 
ate of soda 1 oz., water 8 oz. (A great variety of recipes 
might be given, slightly diifering from the above in the 
proportion of the ingredients, and in the coloring matter. 
Gray directs 2 dr. of nitrate of silver, 6 dr. of water, and 
2 of mucilage, and a pounce of 1 oz. of subcarbonate of 
soda in 16 of water, with a little sap green. Another form 
is : Nitrate of silver 1 oz., distilled water 5 oz., powdered 
gum 1\ oz., sap green sufficient to color it. The linen to 
be first wetted with the following preparation : Subcar- 
bonate of soda 1 oz., water 6 oz., gum 1 oz., dissolve. Some 
add a little powdered bole to the preparation ; the object 
in coloring it being merely that the part which has been 
wetted may be more readily distinguished. The quantity of 
nitrate of silver should not be much less than 100 gr. in 1 
oz. of ink ; the proportion of the other ingredients is of less 
importance. Some direct the addition of a drop or two of 
nitric acid.) 

5. Italian. Moisten the linen with a solution of recently 
prepared muriate of tin, and write with a neutral solution of 
salt of gold. 

Marking Ink, witJiout Preparation. These merely require to 
have a hot iron passed over the part written on, or to be 
held pretty near the fire till the writing assumes a dark 


1. Nitrate of silver 3 dr., water IJ oz. ; dissolve and 
add as much strong liquid ammonia as will redissolve the 
precipitate formed bj it ; add 2 dr. of mucilage, a litte sap 
green, and water, if required, to make up the measure to 
2 oz. A little ivory-black, Indian ink, or indigo, is some- 
times used to color it. 8ome recipes contain nitrate of 
copper in addition to nitrate of silver. Several recipes 
might be given, but they will all probably be superseded by 

- Mr. Redwood's. (In operating with ammonia and nitrate 
of silver, fulminating silver is sometimes unexpectedly 
formed and may prove a source of danger. Perhaps in this 

. respect, as well as others, Mr. Redwood's preparation claims 
a preference.) 

2. Mr. Redwood's. Rub together 1 oz. nitrate of silver, 
and 1 oz. of bitartarate of potash ; add 4 oz. of liquor am- 
monias, and when dissolved mix in 6 dr. of white sugar, 10 
dr. of powdered gum arabic, J oz. of archil, and water to 
make up 6 oz. by measure. (Instead of archil, ^ oz. of sap 
green may be used to color the ink ; or 40 gr. of fine vege- 
table black, previously triturated with a little water or muci- 

3. Rev. J. B. Reade's patent. This differs from the 
last in using tartaric acid instead of bitartrate of potash. 
The quantities may be 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, 3 dr. of tar- 
taric acid, and the above quantities of the other ingredients. 
The use of tartaric acid he claims an exclusive right to. 

4. Add to the last an ammonical solution of an oxide or 
salt of gold. — Reade. (This addition prevents its being 
acted on by cyanide of potassium, and some other agents 
which the silver ink fails to resist.) 

5. In addition to the above receipts, the following of M. 
Henry may deserve attention in large establishments where 
economy is an object : Take 1 oz. of iron filings and 3 oz. 
of vinegar, or diluted acetic acid. Mix the filings with half 
the vinegar, and agitate them continually until the mixture 
becomes thick, then add the rest of the vinegar and 1 oz. of 
water. Apply heat to assist the action ; and when the iron 
is dissolved, add 3 oz. of sulphate of iron, and 1 oz. of gum 
previously dissolved in 4 oz. of water : and mix the w4iole 
with a gentle heat. To be used with a brush and stencil 

Crimson Marking Ink. Dissolve 1 oz. of nitrate of silver 
and IJ oz. of carb. soda in crystals, separately in distilled 


water ; mix the solutions, collect and wash the precipitate 
on a filter, introduce the washed precipitate, still moist, 
into a Wedgewood mortar, and add to it tartaric acid 2 
dr. 40 gr., rubbing together till effervescence has ceased; 
dissolve carmine 6 gr. in Liquor Ammonise (.882) 6 oz., 
and add to it the tartrate of silver, then mix in white 
sugar 6 dr., and powdered gum arabic 10 dr., and add 
as much distilled water as will make 6 oz. — Pharm. 

Printing Ink. This is usually made by boiling linseed oil in 
a large iron pot, setting fire to it, and letting it burn for 
half an hour or more. Various additions are made to it by 
some manufacturers, the use of which is not very evident. 
A viscid varnish is obtained, which is ground with lamp- 
black, vermilion or other coloring matters, till perfectly 
smooth. 2|- oz. of lamp-black are sufficient for each pound 
of varnish. See Varnishes. 

Printers' Ink from Resin Oil. Melt together 13 oz. of 
resin, 1 ft) of resin oil, and 1|^ oz. of soft soap ; when cold, 
add lamp-black or other coloring matters. 

Gopjper-'plate Printing Ink. This is not rendered so viscid as 
the former, and is colored with Frankfort black. 

Reade's Patent Printing Inks. The blue consists of his soluble 
Prussian blue (see Blue Writing Ink, above) ground with 
oil as above. The black, by evaporating his black ink, and 
mixing the product with oil as usual. The red in the same 
manner, from his patent red ink. 

Sympathetic or Secret Inks. The solutions used should be so 
nearly colorless that the writing cannot be seen till the 
agent is applied to render it visible. 

1. Digest 1 oz. of zaffre, or oxide of cobalt, at a gentle 
heat, with 4 oz. of nitro-muriatic acid till no more is dis- 
solved, then add 1 oz. of common salt and 16 oz. of water. 
If this be written with, and the paper held to. the fire, the 
writing becomes green, unless the cobalt should be quite 
pure, in which case it Avill be blue. The addition of a 
little nitrate of iron will then impart the property of be- 
coming green. It is used in chemical landscapes, for the 

2. Put into a vial J oz. of distilled water, 1 dr. of bromide 
of potassium, and 1 dr. of pure sulphate of copper. The 
solution is nearly colorless, but becomes brown when heated. 


3. Boil oxide of cobalt in acetic acid. If a little common 
salt be added, the writing becomes green when heated ; but 
w^ith nitre it becomes a pale rose-color. 

4. A solution of acetate of lead. Colorless, but be- 
comes brown when exposed to sulphuretted hydrogen 

5. A weak solution of sulphate of copper. The writing 
becomes blue when exposed to the vapor of ammonia. 

' 6. A solution of sulphate — or preferably, persulphate 
— of iron. It becomes black when washed with infusion 
of galls ; blue, by prussiate of potash, (This constitutes 
colorless ink, which becomes visible when written with 
on paper containing galls, or tannin, or prussiate of 

7. Mix equal quantities of sulphate of copper and sal 
ammoniac and dissolve in water. It becomes yellow when 

8. A weak solution of nitrate of mercury. Becomes 
black by heat. 

9. Rice water, or any solution of starch. It becomes 
blue when washed over with an alcoholic solution of 

10. Lemon-juice, milk, juice of onions, and some other 
liquids, becomes black when the writing is held to the 

Ink, to preserve from mouldiness. Add a small quantity 
of a solution of creasote in pyroligneous acid or rectified 

Insects, to kill. Camphor and pepper, may be used to keep 
ofi" moths. In Russia the powder of the flowers of a 
species of Pyrethrum is used as an insecticide. The 
powder of the root of Acorus calamus is also recom- 

loDATE OF Potash. Fuse iodide of potassium in a capacious 
Hessian crucible, remove it from the fire and add to it while 
still semi-fluid, successive portions of pulverized chlorate of 
potash, stirring after each addition, till no further action 
takes place. One part of iodide of potassium will require 
1^ of the chlorate. Wash the residuum in warm water, 
which leaves only iodate of potash. 

Iodide of Potassium. In addition to the process given in 
the Pocket Formulary, the following, by M. Ckiquelon, 


may deserve attention : Slake 40 parts of lime with sufficient 
"water, and add 24 parts of iron filings ; mix, and add 94 
parts of iodide by degrees, so as to avoid two violent action, 
stirring after each addition, and adding water, if necessary, 
to moderate the action. Triturate the mixture till starch 
paper ceases to become brown when touched with it, but 
only shows an ochreous spot. Throw it on a filter, and wash 
it till the water which passes gives no precipitate with 
acetate of lead. Treat the liquors with solution of carbonate 
of potash till it no longer occasions a precipitate. Filter 
and evaporate the solution. 94 parts of iodine yield 119 
parts of iodide of potassium. Another method is that of Mr. 
Heade, described under Ink (Reade's Blue). 

Iodine. See Pocket Formulary. Other methods of obtaining 
it are the following : 

To the mother liquor of kelp (after the crystallizable salts 
have been separated) add sulphuric acid to render the liquor 
sour. Introduce the acid liquor into a leaden still, heat to 
140° F., add binoxide of manganese, and lute on with pipe- 
clay a leaden head, fitted to a series of spherical glass con- 
densers, each having two mouths opposite each other, and 
inserted the one into the other. A stopper in the head of 
the still allows the contents to be occasionally inspected, and 
additions of acid or oxide made, if necessary. See Dr. 
Pereira's "Elements" for a drawing of the apparatus. 
SouBEiRAN proposes to add sulphate of copper to the lye, 
which precipitates half the iodine. He then decants the 
clean liquor, and adds more sulphate of copper with some 
iron filings. An iodide of copper is formed, which is sepa- 
rated from the iron filings and suspended in the liquor by 
agitation, collected on a filter, and heated with oxide of man- 
ganese and sulphuric acid. 

Iron Liquor. See Dyes, page 340. 

Iron, Persulphate of. Dissolve 16 ounces of sulphate of 
iron in 4 pints of water, to which have been added 14 fluid 
drachms of oil of vitriol. Heat to boiling, and add (by small 
portions, boiling the solution after each addition) 4 ounces 
of nitric acid, or so much that the solution yields with am- 
monia a brown precipitate unmixed with black. Continue 
the boiling for some time, let the solution cool, filter, if 
necessary, and add water to make up the measure exactly 4 



pints. If required in a dry state, evaporate to dryness by a 
gentle heat. 

Isinglass. The air-bags or sounds, of several kinds of fishes, 
washed, dried, and otherwise prepared. They are either 
dried without opening (purse, pipe, and lump isinglass), or 
opened and not folded (leaf and honeycomb isinglass), or 
folded (book isinglass), or twisted into the shape of a lyre or 
horseshoe (short and long staple). The leaf isinglass is 
sometimes rolled out into thin plates (ribbon and rolled leaf 
isinglass). The inner membrane, which is insoluble, is re- 

- moved from the opened air-bags, in the best kinds. The 
Russian isinglass, which is most esteemed, is made from the 
air-bags of several species of Acipenser {sturgeon') ; particu- 
larly A. Huso {the Being a); A. Guldenstadtii (the Osseter); 
A. RuTHENUS (the Sterlet) ; A. Stellatus (the Sewruga) ; 
and also from the Silurus glanis (the So7n), which yields the 
Samovey isinglass. Brazilian and East India isinglass are 
of inferior quality ; it is not certainly known from what 
genera or species of fish they are obtained. New York 
isinglass is the air-bladder of the common hake, macerated 
in water and rolled out into ribbons. The sounds of the cod 
yield an inferior kind. Prepared sole skins are used as a 
cheap substitute for isinglass. See Dr. Pereira's "Ele- 
ments," for the description of each variety. 

Ivory-Black. Burn shavings and waste pieces of ivory from 
the ivory turners, in a covered crucible, till no more smoke 
issues. Cover it closely while cooling. It should be after- 
wards washed with diluted muriatic acid, then with water till 
no longer acid, dried, and again heated in a covered crucible. 
It is of a deeper color than bone-black, and is used as a pig- 
ment, a tooth-powder, and to decolorize syrups and other 

Ivory, Flexible. The pieces of ivory or bone, already manu- 
factured into the shape required, are to be steeped for some 
time in dilute muriatic acid, until they have lost their earthy 
parts so far as to become yellowish, flexible, and elastic. 
When dry they become again inflexible, but their flexibility 
may at any time be restored by steeping them in water. In 
" this manner flexible tubes, probes, bougies, &c., may be con- 

Ivory, to Satin. Ivory is stained with the usual dyeing 
materials ; it should be first steeped in the mordant and 


afterwards in the hot color. Nitro-muriate of tin is the 
mordant for red, with decoction of brazil or cochineal ; for 
yellow, with fustic ; for violet, with logwood. After being 
plunged in hot liquor it should be placed in cold water. A 
black stain is given by nitrate of silver. 

Ivory may be gilded by immersing it in a fresh solution 
of proto- sulphate of iron, and afterwards in solution of 
chloride of gold. It may be bleached by solution of sul- 
phurous acid. 

Japan. See Varnishes. 

Jellies. See Dietetic Articles. ^ 

Kid-glove Cleaner. Add 15 drops of strongest solution of 
ammonia to spirits of turpentine ^ pint. (Having fitted the 
gloves on wooden hands, apply this mixture with a brush. 
Follow up this application with some fine pumice powder. 
Rub with some flannel or sponge dipped in the mixture. 
Rub ojff the sand, and repeat the same process twice or 
thrice. Hang in the air to dry, and, when dry, place in a 
drawer with some scent.) 

Kyan's Solution, for preventing the dry rot. Dissolve 
1 ft) of corrosive sublimate with 5 gallons of water. 

Labarraque's Chloro-Sodaic Liquor is nearly identical with 
the Liquor Sodge Chlorinatge of the London Pharmacopoeia. 
It is made by passing the chlorine gas from 2 oz. black 
oxide of manganese, and 8 oz. of muriatic acid, into a 
solution of 15 oz. of crystallized subcarbonate of soda in 
3 pints of water ; or sufficient to bring it to the density of 
12° Baum^, or 1.09 specific gravity. 

Labels, indestructible, for acid bottles, &c. Write with 
dilute sulphuric acid (1 part to 6 of water), dry the label, 
and expose it to a moderate heat. 

Lac, Preparations of. Stick-lac consists of twigs of several 
kinds of trees incrusted with a resinous matter produced 
by the puncture of an insect (the coccus lacca). This, 
triturated with water and dried, forms seed-lac. The seed- 
lac heated and pressed in cotton bags forms shellac. Lac- 
dye is the coloring matter extracted from stick-lac by water, 
evaporated to dryness with the addition of earthy matters, 
and formed into square cakes. Seed-lac and shellac are 
chiefly used in varnishes, dissolved in rectified spirit or 


rectified wood ■ naphtha. The alcoholic solution is rendered 
paler, so that it may be used for polishing light-colored 
woods, by digesting it in the sun, or near a fire, for 2 or 3 
weeks, with good animal charcoal, and then filtering it 
through paper in a funnel heated with hot water. Shellac 
may be bleached by dissolving it in a solution of potash or 
soda, and passing chlorine into the solution. The preci- 
pitated lac is collected and well washed. Kastner directs 

■ 3 parts of carbonate of potash to be dissolved in 24 of water, 
and 3 of lime added, and the whole digested in a close vessel 
for 24 hours. The clear liquor is poured ofi', and boiled 

. ■ with 4 parts of ^shellac. When cold, dilute with 4 times its 
bulk of Avater, and filter ; then add chloride of hme, and 
afterwards diluted muriatic acid. 

Lacquers. See Varnishes. 

Lake Liquor Boil 1 oz. each of cochineal and salt of tartar 
in 8 oz. of water, then add 1 oz. of cream of tartar, and the 
same of alum. 

Lakes. These consist of vegetable colors in combination 
with alumina. Alum is usually added to an infusion or 
decoction of the coloring ingredient, and afterwards potash 
added, which throws down the coloring matter combined 
with alumina. Some of the lakes are noticed under 

Lemon-Juice, Factitious. Dissolve 4 oz. of citric acid in 
3 pints of water, with 8 drops of essence of lemon, rubbed 
with the acid, or dissolved in a little spirit. After standing 
a few days, filter it, and preserve it in well-closed bottles. 

Lenses, Extemporaneous. Procure a piece of thin platinum 
wire, and twine it once or twice round a pin's point, so as to 
form a minute ring with a handle to it. Break up a piece 
of flint glass into fragments a little larger than mustard 
seed ; place one of these pieces on the ring of wire, and hold 
it in the point of the flame of a candle or gas-light. The 
glass will melt and assume a complete lens-like or globular 
form. Let it cool gradually, and keep it for mounting. 
Others are to be made in the same manner; and if the 
operation be carefully conducted, but very few will be 
imperfect. The smaller the drop melted, the higher in 
general will be its magnifying power. It may be mounted 


by placing it between two pieces of brass which have corres- 
ponding circular holes cut in them of such a size as to hold 
. the edge of the lens. They are then to be cemented to- 
gether. — Francis. 

Linseed Oil, Clarified, for Varnishes. — Heat in a copper 
boiler 50 gallons of linseed oil to 280° F. ; add 2i ft) of cal- 
cined white vitriol, and keep the oil at the above temperature 
for half an hour ; then remove it from the fire, and in 24 
hours decant the clear oil, which should stand for a few 
weeks before it is used for varnish. 

Linseed Oil, Refined. (Wiles'^ Patent.) In 236 gallons 
of oil pour 6 ft) of oil of vitriol, and stir them together for 3 
hours ; then add 6 ft) of fullers' earth, well mixed with 14 ft) 
of hot lime, and stir for 3 hours. Put the oil into a copper 
boiler, Avith an equal quantity of water, and boil for 3 hours ; 
then extinguish the fire, and when the materials are cold 
draw ofi" the water, and let the oil stand to settle for a few 
weeks before using. 

Liquorice, Purified Extract of. Italian or Spanish juice 
maybe purified by the following method: Take a sugar- 
mould, close the vent-hole with a stopper, place inside it some 
coarse tow, and over this some clean straw, laid crossways 
in layers of an inch each, then the sticks of liquorice placed 
upright, and packed closely in the mould with chopped straw 
cut rather long. When this arrangement is completed to 
within an inch of the brim, pour water over the liquorice, 
allow it to remain for 24 hours, then draw it off, and add 
more. The liquor, on evaporation, yields an extract per- 
fectly soluble in water. 

Litmus. A preparation of some kind of lichen, probably 
Lecanora tartarea, or Roccella tartarea, or both. The exact 
mode of preparing it is kept secret. It is imported in small 
cubical masses, many samples of which Dr. Pereira found 
to contain, besides the coloring matter, tissues of the lichen, 
indigo, chalk, &c. See Tests. 

Lozenges. See Trochisci, P. F,, and Lozenges, under Patent 
Medicines, in this volume. 

Lubricating Compounds. See Antiattrition. The French 
compound termed Liard is thus made : Into 50 parts of finest 
rape oil put 1 part of caoutchouc cut small, and apply heat 
until it is nearly all dissolved. 


Mankettrick's Lubricating Compound consists of ca- 
outchouc (dissolved in spirits of turpentine) 4 Sb, common 
soda 10 ft), glue 1 ft), oil 10 gallons, water 10 gallons. Dis- 
solve the soda and glue in the water by heat, then add the 
oil, and lastly the caoutchouc, stirring them until perfectly 

LuciFERS. See Matches, below. 

Luminous Vials. Nearly fill a bottle with olive or almond 
oil, and heat it in a water-bath. Drop into it small slices of 
- phosphorus so long as it is dissolved. Let the solution cool, 
and pour off the oil from the undissolved phosphorus into 
clean dry vials, which should not be quite filled. When un- 
corked they emit light. 

Lutes. See Cements. 

Manures, Artificial. These constitute a new and important 
branch of manufacture ; but a few of the more simple and 
readily prepared kinds are all that can be noticed here. 

Poivder for Coating Seeds. Fine bone-dust 20 parts, 
gypsum 1 part. The seeds are steeped in water from the 
dung-hill, then strewed over with the powder, so that each 
shall receive a layer of it, and afterwards dried. 

Sulphated Bones. See Bones, Sulphated. A usual pro- 
portion is 33 of sulphuric acid to 1 cwt. of bones. 

Saline Mixture, as a top-dressing for potatoes, &c. Equal 
weights of nitrate of soda and dry sulphate of soda. IJ 
CAvt. to an acre. 

Mr. Huxtable's Mixture. Bone-dust 4 cwt., gypsum 
4 cwt., salt 2 cwt., ashes 2 quarters, wood ashes 30 

Another Saline Mixture. Sulphate of ammonia 42 ft), 
sulphate of lime 56 ft), sulphate of potash 56 ft), carbonate 
of magnesia 14 ft), salt 56 ft), to 1 acre. 

Dr. Anderson's Manure for Clover. Sulphate of am- 
monia 98 ft), gypsum 172 ft), sulphate of potash 174 ft), sul- 
phate of soda 323 ft), sulphate of magnesia 246 ft>, sulphuric 
acid 98 ft), saltpetre 202 ft), common salt 107 ft), muriate of 
potash 149 ft). 

Dr. Johnstone's Substitute for G-uayio. Bone-dust 7 
bushels, sulphate of ammonia 100 ft), wood ashes 20 ft), salt 
100 ft), dry sulphate of soda 11 ft). 

To promote the Blowing of Floivers. See page 350. 


Marble, to Clean. Mix soft soap, solution of potash, and 
slaked lime, to a paste ; spread it over the marble, and 
leave it for a day or two. Then wash it off. 

Marble, to Stain. Make the marble hot, and pour on it the 
colored liquid, also made hot. The stains usually employed 
are archil, solution of indigo, solution of verdigris, decoction 
of Brazil wood, logwood, and sulphate of iron, tincture of 
dragon's blood, &c. But the most penetrating medium is 
wax, which may be colored with alkanet, annotto, verdi- 
gris, &c. 

Marine Glue. See Glue. 

Marine Soap. See Soap. 

Matches for Instantaneous Light. 1. Chlorate ^latches 
{without sulphur). Chlorate of potash, separately powdered, 
6 dr., vermilion 1 dr., lycopodium 1 dr., fine flour 2 dr. ; 
mix carefully the chlorate with the flour and lycopodium, 
avoiding much friction, then add the vermilion, and mix the 
whole with a mucilage made with — 1 dr. powdered gum 
arable, 10 gr. of tragacanth, 2 dr. of flour, and 4 oz. of hot 
water; mix, add sufiicient Avater to bring it to a proper con- 
sistence, and dip it in the wood, previously dipped in a solu- 
tion of 1 oz. of gum thus, and ^ oz. of camphor, in 6 oz. oil 
of turpentine. 

2. With Sulphur. Chlorate of potash 9 gr., sulphur 2 
gr., sugar 3 gr., vermilion 1 gr., flour 2 gr., spirit of wine 
q. s. The chlorate of potash, &c., must be separately 
reduced to powder, and the whole mixed with as little fric- 
tion as possible. The wood should be previously prepared 
as above, or with camphorated spirit. (These are ignited by 
dipping them in sulphuric acid, and instantly withdrawing 
them. The acid should be absorbed by asbestos). They are 
now become obsolete, having given place to — 

Lucifer Matches. These contain phosphorus in a finely di- 
vided state, to which it is reduced by agitating it in some 
warm solution of gum or glue, then adding the other ingredi- 
ents, so as to form a paste, into which the wood or card 
is dipped. It is said that urine and artificial urea have the 
property of readily dividing phosphorus when warmed and 
agitated together. The following are some of the published 
recipes : 

1. Form 6 parts of glue into a smooth jelly, and rub with 
it 4 parts of phosphorus, at a temperature of 140° or 150° 


F. ; add 10 parts of nitre, 5 of red ochre, and' 2 of fine 
smalts. The matches are first dipped in melted wax to the 
depth of one-tenth of an inch, first rubbing their ends on a 
hot iron plate. 

2. Noiseless Oongreves. Triturate 9 parts of phosphorus 
with a solution of 16 parts of gum, and add 14 parts of nitre 
and 16 of vermilion. — Dr. Boettger. 

3. Glue 6 parts, phosphorus 4, nitre 10, red lead 5, 
- smalts 2 ; the glue is soaked in water for 24 hours, then 

liquefied in a warm mortar, and the phosphorus added, tak- 
ing care that the temperature is not above 167° F. 

4. Glue 21, phosphorus 17, nitre 38, red lead 24; pro- 
ceed as before. 

Promethean 3fatehes. These consist of a composition 
similar to that of the chlorate matches, inclosed at the end 
of a paper spill, with a minute glass bulb filled with oil of 
vitriol in the centre of the composition. When struck, the 
vessel of acid is broken, and kindles the match. 

Microscope, Formulae for the. 
Reagents. Dr. Beale's list : 

1. Alcohol, of various strengths. 

2. Ether, to dissolve oil-globules. 

3. Nitric acid, 1 part of strong acid to 5 of water. 

4. Sulphuric acid, 1 to 5. 

5. Hydrochloric acid. 

6. Acetic acid, glacial, and dilute (1 to 5). 

7. Chromatic acid, very dilute, — to harden tissues. 

8. Solution of potash, saturated, and dilute (1 to 10). 

9. Solution of soda, 25 gr. of fused soda in 1 oz. 

10. Ammonia (1 part of the strongest solution to 3 of 

11. Nitrate of barytes, a cold saturated solution. 

12. Nitrate of silver (120 gr. in 2 oz.) These two are 
tests for the mineral acids. 

13. Oxalate of ammonia, in solution. Test for lime. 

14. Solution of iodine saturated, i. e., 1 to 7000 water ; 
also of 1 gr. of iodine, 3 of iodide of potassium, in 1 oz. 

Cements. 1. Brunswick Black. Boil together |- ft) of 
foreign asphaltum and 4J oz. of linseed oil (previously 
thickened with litharge), then mix to a proper consistence 
with oil of turpentine (about 1 pint). 

2. Crold Size. Boil 25 parts of linseed oil with 1 of 
minium and |-d part of umber for 3 hours ; pour ofi" the 


clear fluid, and mix with equal parts of powdered white lead 
and yellow ochre, added in small successive portions. Then 
boil well the whole again, and pour off the clear fluid. It 
dries slowly but firmly. Both this and the last are dissolved 
by turpentine. 

3. Groadhy's Marine Cflue. Dissolve separately in coal 
naphtha equal parts of shellac and India-rubber. Mix 
thoroughly with heat. 

4. Sealing-wax Varnish. Dissolve the best sealing-wax 
in enough strong spirit of wine to reduce it to the proper 
consistence. This is brittle. 

5. Canada Balsam. This dries spontaneously. 
Solutions of shellac, gum, and various other cements, 

and glues (which see), are employed by microscopic manipu- 

Preservative Fluids. Canada Balsam, spirit and tvater, gly- 
cerine solution of gelatine, saturated solutions of alum, chlo- 
ride of zinc, and chloride of calcium, are all used to preserve 
microscopic objects. The following formulae will be found 
useful : 

1. Gioadhys Solution. Bay salt 4 oz., alum 2 oz., cor- 
rosive sublimate 4 gr., boiling water 4 pints : mix and filter. 
It may often be more diluted. 

2. Thumites Fluid. Mix spirit of wine 1 oz., with crea- 
asote sufficient to saturate it; rub up with chalk to form a 
thin paste, and mix gradually with water 16 oz. To this 
may be added an equal quantity of water saturated with 

3. Simple Creasote Solution. Dissolve creasote 1 dr. in 
pyroligneous acid 1 dr., and mix gradually with cold water 
1 pint. 

4. Passim s Solution. For blood-globules, nerves, , and 
white tissues generally. Chloride of mercury 1 part, chlo- 
ride of sodium, 2 parts, glycerine 13 parts, distilled water 
113 parts. 

Milk, Preserved (Bethel's Patent). The milk or cream is 
first scalded, and when cold, strongly charged with carbonic 
acid gas, by means of a soda-water machine. (Attempts 
have also been made to preserve milk by evaporating it to 
dryness ; but it is necessary to remove the cream in order to 
efiect it.) 

Mineral, Chameleon. See Chameleon Mineral. 


Modelling, Clay for. Knead up clay to the proper consist- 
ence with glycerine. — Barreswil. 

MoiREE Metallique. A method of ornamenting the surface 
of tin plate by acids. The plates are washed w4th an alka- 
line solution, then in water, heated, and sponged or sprinkled 
with the acid solution. The appearance varies with the 
degree of heat and the nature and strength of the acids 
, employed. The plates, after the application of the acids, 
are plunged into water, slightly assidulated, dried, and 
covered with white or colored varnishes. The followinor are 
-some of the acid mixtures used : Nitro-muriatic acid, in 
different degrees of dilution ; sulphuric acid, with 5 parts of 
water ; 1 part of sulphuric acid, 2 of muriatic acid, and 8 of 
water ; a strong solution of nitric acid ; 1 part nitric acid, 
2 sulphuric, and 18 of water. Solution of potash is also 

Mordants. See Dyes, p. 340. 

MuLTUM. A name given to a compound of liquorice and 
quassia, improperly sold by druggists to brewers. 

Nitrate of Barytes. This may be made from the carbo- 
nate by dissolving it in dilute nitric acid, evaporating, and 
crystallizing ; but more cheaply from the sulphate of barytes, 
by converting it into a soluble sulphuret by heating it with 
charcoal, and decomposing the filtered solution with nitric 
acid. M. Weiss recommends mixing the pulverized sul- 
phate of barytes (cawk or heavy spar) with one-eighth of 
charcoal and one-fourth of flour, heating it in a covered 
crucible, pulverizing the product and forming it into balls, 
with one-eighth of charcoal and a little water, and again 
heating them placed between layers of charcoal. Hot-water 
extracts the sulphuret, which crystallizes from the filtered 
solution. By decomposing this by nitric acid (avoiding the 
gas which escapes) the nitrate is obtained. The other salts 
of barytes are obtained in a similar manner. 

Nitrate of Silver. See Argenti Nitras, P. F. It may 
be prepared from impure silver by the following process : 
Dissolve it in nitric acid, add common salt till no more silver 
remains in solution. Wash the precipitate thoroughly ; then 
add water and a very little hydrochloric acid, and introduce 
some pieces of zinc ; let them remain together 24 hours, 
stirring frequently. Remove the zinc, and wash the re- 


duced silver thoroughly. Again dissolve it in nitric acid, 
diluted with 2 or 3 parts of water; filter, and evaporate, 
that it may crystallize. 

Nitrate of Strontian. This may he obtained from the 
native carbonate of strontian, or more cheaply from the 
native sulphate, by the processes employed for Nitrate of 

Nitric and Nitro-Muriatic Acids. See Acids. 

Nitrite of Potash. It is obtained mixed with a little nitre 
and potash by heating nitre to redness. To purify the 
residuum, dissolve it in boiling water, set aside for 24 hours, 
pour off the liquid from the deposited nitre, neutralize the 
free alkali with acetic acid, and add twice its volume of 
alcohol. In a few hours more nitre crystallizes, and the 
liquid separates into two layers; the upper is alcoholic 
solution of acetate of potash, the lower is solution of nitrate 
of potash, which may be evaporated to dryness, or kept 
in solution. Used as a test for iodine, wit'h starch paste 
and hydrochloric acid. Corenwinder passes nitrous acid 
gas, formed by acting on 1 part of starch with 10 of nitric 
acid, through a solution of caustic potash, sp. gr. 1.38, until 
it becomes acid ; then adds a little caustic potash, so as to 
render it distinctly alkaline. 

NiTRO-PRUSSiDE OF SoDiUM. To 213 parts of powdered fer- 
roprussiate of potash, in a porcelain basin, add 450 parts 
of nitric acid of 1.42 density (or 337J parts at 1.50), adding 
all the acid at once. When dissolved, transfer to a bolt- 
head, and digest in a water-bath until the solution precipi- 
tates salts of protoxide of iron of a slate color. Neutralize, 
Avhen cold, with a cold solution of carbonate of soda ; then 
boil, and separate the precipitate by filtration. Evaporate 
the liquid again, filter, and allow the nitrates of potash 
and soda to crystallize out. Evaporate the liquid again, 
and remove the prismatic crystals of nitro-prusside as they 
form. They may be dissolved in water and recrystallized 
by cooling. 

NoVARGENT. This is said to consist of a solution of fresh 
precipitate chloride of silver in hyposulphite of soda (or, 
according to the Pharmaceutical Journal, of oxide of 
silver in cyanide of potassium), mixed with prepared chalk. 

Oils, Purification and Bleachng of. Fish and other fat 


oils are improved in smell and color, by passing hot air or 
steam through them. Dunn's method is to heat the oil by 
steam to 170° or 200°, and force a current of air through 
it, under a chimney, till it is bleached and purified. Mr. 
Cameron's method of bleaching palm oil is to keep it at 
230° with continued agitation by passing into it high- 
pressure steam, through leaden pipes of two inches diameter. 
Four tons of oil require 10 hours' steaming. Palm oil is also 
' bleached by chloride of lime. Take from 7 to 14 ib of chloride 
of lime, triturate it in a mortar, adding gradually 12 times the 
quantity of water, so as to form a smooth cream. Liquefy 
, 112 ft) of palm oil, remove it from the fire, add the solution 
of chloride of lime, and stir well with a wooden stirrer. 
Allow it to cool, and when become solid, break into small 
fragments, and expose it to the air for 2 or 3 weeks. Then 
put it into a cast-iron boiler lined with lead, and add sul- 
phuric acid in equal weight to the chloride of lime, diluted 
with 20 parts of water. Boil with a moderate heat till the 
oil drops clear from the stirrer ; then let it cool. 

To remove the foetor from fish oils, treat them in the same 
way (except the exposing to the air), using only 1 ft) chloride 
of lime to 112 ft) of oil. It does not remove the natural 
smell of the oil. 

Fresh-burnt animal charcoal has some power in improving 
the color and smell of most kinds of oil ; but its effects are 

Calcined magnesia has been used to deprive oils of their 

Mr. G-RISELER finds that the addition of a few drops of 
nitric ether will prevent oils from becoming rancid. 

Mr. Watt's patented method of bleaching oil is by 
chromic acid. For palm oil it is thus used : The oil is 
heated in a steam vessel, allowed to settle and cool down to 
130° F., then removed into wooden vessels, taking care that 
no water or sediment accompany it. For a ton of palm oil 
make a saturated solution of 25 ft) of bichromate of potash ; 
add 8 ft) of sulphuric acid, and 50 ft) muriatic acid (or an 
equivalent quantity of salt and sulphuric acid.) Put the 
muriatic acid into the oil, and let it be constantly stirred 
till it becomes of a light-green color. If not sufficiently dis- 
colored, add more of the mixture. Let the oil settle for 
half an hour, then pump it into a wooden vat, boil it for a 
few minutes with fresh water by means of a steam-pipe, and 


let it settle. For linseed, rape, and mustard oil, a dilute 
solution of chromic acid is used, with a little muriatic acid ; 
for olive, almond, and castor oil, no muriatic acid is required. 
Fish oils and fats are first boiled in a steam apparatus with a 
"weak soda ly e ( J i]b of soda for every ton of fat) for half an hour ; 
then J % sulphuric acid, diluted with 3 ft) of water, is added ; 
the whole boiled for 15 minutes, and allowed to settle for an 
hour or more, when the water and sediment are drawn off, 
and the oil further bleached by a solution of 4 ft) of 
bicarbonate of potash and 2 ft) of. sulphuric acid properly 
diluted. • 

Mr. Davidson treats whale oil first with a solution of tan, 
next with water and chloride of lime, and lastly with diluted 
sulphuric acid and warm water. Rape and other seed oils 
are also refined by means of sulphuric acid and twice as 
much water. Mr. Gkay directs 2 ft of oil of vitriol to 112 
ftj of oil. The oil should be carefully washed from the acid, 
and filtered. 

Mr. Bancroft's process for refining common olive oil, 
lard oil, &c., for lubricating purposes, is to agitate them 
with from 3J to 8 per cent, of caustic soda lye, of 1.2 
specific gravity. If on trial a small quantity of the lye 
be found to settle clear at the bottom, enough has been 
added. The oil is allowed to rest for 24 hours, for the 
soapy matter to subside : the supernatant oil is then fil- 

Another plan of purifying oils (especially lamp oils) 
is to agitate them with a strong solution of common 

The above methods of treating oil are of doubtful pro- 
priety in reference to such as are to be used as medicines. 
Oils which have been so carefully prepared from sound and 
fresh materials as to require no purification should be 
selected for this purpose. This is especially important in 
reference to cod-liver oil. See Linseed Oil. 

Oil for Machinery. Sperm oil, palm oil, and olive oil, are 
used. Care should be taken that they are not adulterated. 
For compound lubricants see Anti-attrition, and Lubri- 
cating Compounds. 

Oleine. This may be prepared by boiling fine olive oil with 
absolute alcohol, and evaporating the solution. 


Oxygenated Water, or Deutoxide of Hydrogen. The- 
nard's oxygenated water is thus made : Expose fragments 
of perfectly pure barytes to a current of oxygen gas, in 
a green glass tube heated to a dull redness, to form a deut- 
oxide of barium. To 7 oz. of water add as much pure 
muriatic acid as will dissolve 4 dr. of barytes ; add to this, 
by degrees, 8 dr. of pulverized deutoxide of barium, and 
when this is dissolved, add sulphuric acid, drop by drop, 

' till the barytes ftills down in the state of sulphate. Then 
add more deutoxide, and precipitate by sulphuric acid as 
before. Then filter the solution ; and repeat the solution 

■ ' and precipitation several times, till about 3 oz. of deutoxide 
of barium are used, filtering the liquid after every second 
repetition. Sulphate of silver is then added to remove the 
hydrochloric acid, and afterwards pure barytes, to throw 
down the sulphuric acid, and a few drops of diluted sul- 
phuric acid to remove any excess of barytes. 

This energetic compound must not be confounded with 
the oxygen water formed by impregnating water with 
oxygen gas ; nor with the oxygenous aerated water of 
Searle, which is water strongly charged with protoxide 
of nitrogen. 

Oxygen Gas. See Gases. 

Paper, Copying. Mix lard Avith black lead or lamp-black, 
into a stiff paste, rub it over writing paper with a flannel, 
and wipe off the superfluous quantity with a soft rag. 
These sheets alternated with writing paper and Avritten 
on with a solid pen, produce 2 or 3 copies of a letter at 

Lithographic Paper. Give the paper 3 coats of thin size, 1 
of starch, and 1 of solution of gamboge. Each to be ap- 
plied with a sponge, and allowed to dry before the next is 

Hydro graphic Paper. This name has been given to paper 
which may be written on with water. It may be made by 
rubbing paper over with a mixture of finely powdered galls 
and sulphate of iron heated till it becomes white. The 
powder may be pressed into the paper by passing it between 
rollers or passing a heavy iron over it. A mixture of dried 
sulphate of iron and ferro-prussiate of potash may be used 
for blue writing. Or the paper may be imbued with a 


strong solution of one ingredient, thoroughly dried ; and 
the other applied in powder. Paper which has been wet 
with a solution of ferro-prussiate of potash also serves for 
writing on with a colorless solution of persulphate of iron. 

Iridescent Paper. Nutgalls 8 parts, sulphate of iron 5, sal 
ammoniac 1, sulphate of indigo 1, gum arable ^th. To be 
boiled in water, and the paper washed with it exposed to 

PliotograpMc Paper. See Photography, below. 

Tracing Paper. Paper well wetted with Canada balsam and 
camphene, and dried. Another kind is made with nut oil 
and oil of turpentine ; the paper is moistened with it, and 
then rubbed with flour. A temporary tracing paper is made 
by moistening paper with pure alcohol : it must be used 
while wet. 

Waxed Paper. Lay the paper on a clean hot iron plate, 
and rub it over with a piece of white wax inclosed in 

Oiled Paper as a suhstitute for oiled silk. Boiled linseed oil 
is reboiled with litharge, acetate of lead, sulphate of zinCj 
and burnt umber, an ounce of each to a gallon. The 
sheet of paper being laid on a square board, it is well 
covered with this mixture. The first sheet is covered 
on both sides, the second, placed on this, receives one 
coating, and so on to 20, or 50. Separate and hang up to dry. 

FiREPROorma for Paper. Dip it in a strong solution of 
alum, and then dry it. Should the paper be extra thick, 
the same process may be repeated. 

Paper Paste. Boil white paper in water for 5 hours ; 
then pour off the water, and pound the pulp in a mortar ; 
pass it through a sieve, and mix with some gum-water 
or isinglass glue. It is used in modelling by artists and 

Papier-mache. A plastic material, formed of cuttings of 
white or brown paper, boiled in water, and beaten to a paste 
in a mortar, and then mixed with a solution of gum- 
arabic in size to give tenacity. It is variously manufac- 
tured by being pressed into oil moulds, afterwards dried, 
covered with a mixture of size and lampblack, and var- 


Papyrine. Dip white unsized paper for J a minute in 
strong sulphuric acid, and afterwards in water containing a 
little ammonia. When dried it has the toughness and ap- 
pearance of parchment. See Vegetable Parchment. 

Paraffine. Liquid and solid paraffine are obtained from the 
tarry product of the distillation of peat, by first distilling off 
the lighter tar oil, then the residue separately. The crystal- 

, lized paraffine is separated by a hair sieve, melted, cast into 
moulds, pressed in a st-earine hot press, at a temperature not 
exceeding 100° ; then redistilled, and the same process re- 
- peated till it is obtained perfectly pure. The liquid paraffine 
js redistilled, and burned in lamps. The solids is made into 

Pastes. See Blacking Paste, Furniture Paste, &c., above. 
For flour paste, see Cements. For almond paste, honey 
paste, and tooth pastes, see Cosmetics. 

Paste for Oleaning Brass, S^c. 1. Rotton-stone in very fine 
powder, 2 oz., soft soap 1 oz., oil of amber 1 dr. 

2. Neat's-foot oil 16 oz., water of ammonia 1 oz.. pow- 
dered rotten-stone sufficient to form a paste. 

3. Rotten-stone 4|^ ib, oxalic acid (dissolved in the water) 
2 oz., soft soap 8 oz., sweet oil 8 oz., oil of amber 1 oz., 
boiling water 1 ib. Some substitute oil of turpentine for 
oil of amber. 

Paste for Razors. 1. Emery very finely levigated in the same 
manner as prepared chalk, mixed with lard or tallow, or a 
mixture of these with neat's-foot oil. 

2. Equal parts of jewellers' rouge, black lead, and pre- 
pared suet. 

3. Pradier's. Best putty powder 1 oz., jewellers' rouge 
1 oz., scales of iron ^ oz., levigated Turkey stone 3 oz., beef 
suet 1^ oz. 

4. Mix equal parts of dried sulphate of iron and salt, and 
apply a gradually increased heat, in a closed vessel. Pul- 
verize, elutriate, and mix with lard or tallow. 

Pastilles, Aromatic. See Perfumery. 

Payne's Process for rendering Wood Fire-proof. The 
wood is introduced into a close vessel, which is exhausted 
of air ; the liquid is then admitted, and forced in by the 
pump till the pressure is from 110 to 140 ft) to the square 
inch. The liquids employed are the liquid sulphuret of 


calcium, or of barium; a solution of sulphate of iron is 
afterAvards forced into the wood. 

Percussion Caps, Priming for. 100 gr. of fulminating mer- 
cury are triturated, with a wooden muller on marble, with 
30 gr. of water and 60 gr. of gunpowder. This is sufficient 
for 400 caps. Dr. Ure recommends a solution of gum 
mastic in turpentine as a medium for attaching the fulmi- 
nate to the cap. 

Pharaoh's Serpents. The chemical toy sold under this 
name consists of the powder of sulphocyanide of mercury 
made up in a capsule of tin foil in a conical mass about an 
inch in height. Ignited at the apex, an ash is protruded 
long and serpentine in shape. The fumes evolved are stifling 
and very deleterious to health. 

Phosphorescent Oil. Dissolve 1 gr. of phosphorus in 1 oz. 
of olive oil in a test tube by the heat of hot water, or add a 
larger quantity to some oil of lavender, in which it will dis- 
solve spontaneously. Keep in a close vial. 

Phosphorus. See Pocket Formulary. 

Phosphorus Matches. See Lucifers. The old phosphorus 
bottles with sulphur matches were made by melting phos- 
phorus with a fourth part of wax in the bottles placed in 
warm water, and turning them about so as to coat the 
sides. — Gray. 

Phosphorus Paste for Vermin. Introduce 1 dr. of phos- 
phorus into a Florence flask, and pour over it 1 oz. of 
rectified spirit. Immerse the flask in hot water, until the 
phosphorus is melted, then put a well-fitting cork into the 
mouth of the flask, and shake briskly until cold. The phos- 
phorus is now reduced to a finely divided state. This, after 
pouring off" the spirit, is to be mixed in a mortar with 1 J oz. 
of lard. . Five oz. of flour and IJ oz. of brown sugar, pre- 
viously mixed together, are now added, and the whole made 
into a paste with a little water. Cheese may be substituted 
for sugar when the paste is intended for rats or mice. 
(There is said to be no danger whatever of spontaneous 
ignition, either during or after the preparation of this paste.) 
— Pharm. Journal. 

Photography. — Photographic Collodion. 

Mr. Collins.^ Put into a large tumbler J oz. of strong 



nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.50), and add J oz. of oil of vitriol. 
Weigh out 30 grains of cotton-wool (or of paper made from 
linen rags), and with two glass rods stir it well into the acid, 
that the cotton may become quickly saturated. It must not 
be allowed to become soft and gummy. From 15 to 20 
seconds is generally sufficient for this immersion. The cot- 
ton is next removed by the glass rods, and plunged into a 
basin of cold water, placed under a running tap, — the cotton 
being worked about in this until it ceases to redden a piece 
of blue litmus paper. Remove it, express the water, first 
. by wringing in a clean cloth, then between folds of blotting- 
paper. Hang up to dry. Take 9 fluid ounces of rectified 
ether, and dissolve in it 15 grains of this dry prepared cot- 
ton. Add 1 oz. of alcohol, cork the bottle tightly, and allow 
it to stand until any fiocculent matter has subsided. Finally, 
decant into a stoppered bottle for use. 

M. Mann finds that the best collodion tvool is prepared in 
the following manner : Mix nitrate of potash (powdered but 
not dried), 20 parts, in a glass cylinder with sulphuric acid 
(sp. gr. 1.830 to 1.835) 31 parts, and stir until dissolved. 
Into this mixture, while still warm, but not above 122 F., 
introduce cotton-wool 1 part, and agitate with a rod until 
perfectly saturated with the acid liquid. Cover the cylinder 
now Avith a glass plate, and allow it to stand for 24 hours at 
a temperature of 85°. Then remove the avooI, place it in a 
porcelain mortar, and wash with cold water till it has no 
longer an acid reaction. Finally, free it by repeated treating 
with boiling water from the least trace of sulphate of potash, 
which it retains with some obstinacy. The wool being now 
freed from moisture by bibulous paper, &c., will dissolve 
readily in a mixture of 7 to 8 parts of ordinary pure ether, 
and 1 part of absolute alcohol. It may be diluted, without 
any separation, with an equal quantity of ether again. 
Perfectly dry wool will dissolve with more difficulty than the 

Mr. Hardwich recommends pyroxyline made from joapg?' 
for collodion for negatives. Of this 15 to 22 gr. are dissolved 
in rectified ether (0.70) 53 oz., and alcohol (0.836) 2 dr., to 
make plain collodion. 

To prepare collodion for forming a sensitive surface on 
glass, on which, if poured in a thin layer, it now leaves only 
a transparent coating by the evaporation of the ether and 
spirit, it must first be iodized. To each fluid ounce of collo- 


dion made by the last formula add 2 dr. of the following 
solution : Alcohol of 0.886 1 oz., iodide of potassium 20 gr. 
The plate, before exposure, is rendered sensitive by the 
aceto-nitrate bath, in a dark chamber. Or, Collins's collo- 
dion may be iodized and sensitized together, as follows : To 
a saturated solution of iodide of potassium in alcohol, as 
much iodide of silver is to be added by degrees as the liquid 
will dissolve : a process which must be performed by candle- 
light. To every ounce of Collins's collodion add 20 drops 
of this iodide mixture, and keep it now carefully from the 
light. To obtain instantaneous pictures a few drops of a 
fresh alcoholic solution of iodide of iron may be added to the 
iodized collodion just before it is used. 

Photography. — The Calotype Process. 

Iodide Solution. Iodide of potassium 20 gr., water 1 oz. 
(The paper to be saturated in this, and dried.) 

Aceto-nitrate Solution. Nitrate of silver 20 gr., glacial 
acetic acid f dr., distilled water 1 oz. (Soaked for five 
minutes in this in a dark room, then in distilled water, then 
hung up to dry. — The paper is now sensitive to light.) 

Developing Solution. Distilled water saturated with gallic 
acid. (This brings out the picture, after the paper has been 
exposed in the camera for from 5 to 20 minutes.) 

Fixing Solution. Hyposulphite of soda 3 dr., water 1 
pint. (The paper is steeped for some time in this, to dis- 
solve the undecomposed iodide, then washed and dried) 

Waxed paper is best for negative pictures. Positive pic- 
tures may be printed with paper rendered sensitive in various 
ways, either from collodion or albumen negatives on glass, 
or from waxed paper negatives. 

Photography. — Collodion Process on Glass. 

Iodized Collodion. See above. (This is to. be spread 
evenly on the plate, which is first properly cleaned.) 

Sensitizing Bath. Nitrate of silver, crystallized and dry, 
30 gr., glacial acetic acid 1 min., alcohol 20 min., distilled 
water 1 oz., iodide of potassium ^th gr., carbonate of soda, 
if required. The nitrate of silver being dissolved in part of 
the water, the iodide of potas^um is dissolved in the remain- 
der, and added, when a precipitate forms which dissolves 


on agitation. Any acid reaction is now to be 'neutralized 
by carbonate of soda, before adding the acetic acid and 

Developing Fluid. Glacial acetic acid 15 minims, pyro- 
gallic acid 1 gr., alcohol 10 minims, distilled water 1 oz. 

Fixing Fluid. Hyposulphite of soda 1 oz. (or cyanide 

of potassium 24 gr.), water 2 oz. (For the details, and all 

' further information as to this process, the reader is referred 

to Mr. Hardwich's admirable "Manual of Photographic 


Photogrphy. — The Albumen Process on Glass. 

Iodized Albumen. Albumen 450 fluid parts, of a satu- 
rated solution of iodide of potassium, 7^ parts, saturated 
solution of bromide of potassium 1| part, water 1 part, solu- 
tion of caustic potash Jjth part. Place in a large bottle, 
and shake for 10 minutes, till it is filled up with white foam. 
After 6 hours' standing in a cool place, decant the clear 
albumen into a tall cylindrical glass vessel. (An hour after 
it should be spread on the glass plates. These must be 
passed over the vapor of iodine, to saturate the free potash.) 
For positives, common salt instead of bromide of potassium. 

Silvering Bath. 1500 parts of water, 150 nitrate of 
silver, 150 glacial acetic aid. (In a gutta percha vessel. 
After being immersed for 1|- minute, well washed in distilled 
water, and again passed over the vapor of iodine, the plates 
are ready for exposure.) 

Develoijing Solution. 300 parts of water, 1 pyrogallic 
acid, 5 glacial acetic acid, 1 formic acid. (Immersion about 
^ an hour.) 

Fixing Solution. 100 distilled water, 10 hyposulphite of 
soda. (Continue this till all yellow iodide disappears ; then 
wash and dry.) 

Photography — Dry Collodion Process. Mr. Mayall. 

Exciting Sohition. 3 gr. of iodide of cadmium, 1 gr. of 
chloride of zinc ; dissolve in alcohol J oz. (This is to be 
inixed with 1 oz. of ordinary collodion, which must then 
stand a few days to settle, and be decanted into a dry bottle. 
Spread as usual.) 

Albuminate of Silver BMJi. Mix 1 oz. of albumen with 


distilled water 16 oz. ; add IJ oz. of glacial acetic acid, 
shake up, and let it stand 3 hours ; then add IJ oz. nitrate 
of silver (neutral) in crystals ; shake, filter, and let it stand 
for 24 hours. Add iodide of potassium 2 gr., and filter 
again, when it is ready for use. (The plate being coated 
with collodion, this is used in the dark, as an ordinary silver 
bath. The plate is then washed with distilled water for 5 
minutes, and allowed to dry, placed vertically, in a place 
free from dust. It will keep three weeks. After exposure, 
it is again passed for 3 minutes into the silvering bath.) 

Developing Fluid. 6 gr. of protosulphate of iron, 1 oz. 
of distilled water, 1 dr. of glacial acetic acid. (After using 
this, again wash.) 

Fixing Fluid. Cyanide of potassium 1 part, distilled 
water 20 parts. (N. B. Neither the albuminate bath nor 
the developing fluid must on any account be exposed to 

M. Dupuis mixes iodide of zinc with the collodion, ren- 
ders the plates sensitive with aceto-nitrate of silver, washes 
them well, and covers them with a layer of dextrine. In 
developing he uses pyrogallic and citric acids, 1 part each 
in 300 of water. 

M. Taupenot's Iodized Albumen. 1 per cent, of iodide 
of potassium is dissolved in clear albumen of eggs. (This 
is poured on a collodionized plate which has been passed 
through the silver bath. It is suffered to drain and dry in 
darkness, and will keep for several days. When wanted for 
use, the plates are placed for about 15 seconds in the 
aceto-nitrate bath.) 

M. Marten's Iodized Albumen. To the whites of 8 eggs 
put 4 gr. of iodide of ammonia, 1 gr. of dextrine, 25 gr. of 
distilled water, and IJ gr. of grape sugar. These are the 
proportions for delicate or architectural subjects. For land- 
scapes 2 or 3 times as much iodide is used. (Employed 
alone, as in the albumen process, or poured over a collo- 
dionized plate. The albumenized glasses will keep for any 
length of time.) 

Photography — Miscellaneous Solutions. 

1. Barytic Solution. Muriate of barytes (chloride of 
barium) 35 gr., distilled water 2 oz. 

2. Chromatic Solution {simple). A saturated solution of 


bichromate of potash. A little sulphate of indigo is some- 
times added to vary the color. 

3. Oompound' Chromate Solution. Dissolve 10 gr. of 
bichromate of potash and 20 gr. of sulphate copper in an 
ounce of water. 

4. Hydriodate of Iron and Barytes Solution. Hydriodate 
of barytes 40 gr., water 1 oz., pure sulphate of iron 5 gr. ; 
mix, filter, add a drop or two of diluted sulphuric acid, and 
when settled decant the clear liquor for use. 

5. Grold-toning Bath for Positive Printing. Mr. Hard- 
. wiCH. Pure chloride of gold 1 gr., hyposulphite of soda 1 

to 3 gr., hydrochloric acid 4 minims, water 4 oz. For the 
other Solutions, see Processes, above. 

Photography, Papers used in. (The paper used may be the 
finest satin post paper, of uniform texture, free from the 
maker's mark, specks, and all imperfections. Canson's 
paper is much recommended. The papers must be prepared 
by candle-light, and kept in the dark till used.) 

1. Simple Nitrated Paper. This is merely paper brushed 
over with a strong solution of nitrate of silver. In brush- 
ing over the paper it must not be crossed. Its sensitive- 
ness is increased by using spirits of wine instead of water. 
This paper only requires washing in water to fix the 

2. Mwriated Paper. The paper is first soaked in solu- 
tion of common salt, pressed with a linen cloth or blotting- 
paper, and dried. It is then brushed over on one side 
(Avhich should be marked near the edge) with the solution 
of nitrate of silver, and dried at the fire. The stronger the 
solution, the more sensitive the paper. If the barytic solu- 
tion No. 1 be used instead of common salt, richer shades of 
color are obtained. A sal-ammoniac solution (10 gr. to 1 
oz.) gives a very sensitive paper. A due proportion must 
be observed in the silver and salt solutions. 

Mr. Hunt gives the following as proper proportions : Sen- 
sitive paper for the camera. 50 gr. of common salt to 1 oz. 
of water ; and 120 gr. of nitrate of silver to 1 oz of water. 
Or, 6.0' gr. of the nitrate, with 40 gr. of muriat of ammonia 
and 4 oz. of water. Or, 100 gr. with the barytic solution, — 
Less sensitive, for copying engravings, botanical and ento- 
mological specimens, &c. The salt solution to contain 25 
gr. of salt to 1 oz. of water. The silver solution 90 gr. in 1 


oz. common, for copying lace work, feathers, patterns, &c. 
The salt solution 20 gr., the silver solution, 40 gr. to an ounce. 
To fix the drawing on these papers, they must be first 
washed in lukewarm water, then dipped twice in solution of 
hyposulphite of soda (1 oz. to 1 pint), then in pure water, 
and dried. 

3. Iodized Paper. Brush over the paper, on one side 
(which should be marked) with strong solution of nitrate of 
silver (100 gr. to 1 oz.) ; then dip it in solution of iodide of 
potassium (25 gr. to 1 oz.) ; wash it in distilled water, drain, 
and dry it. 

4. Bromide Paper. Soak the paper in solution of bro- 
mide of potassium (40 gr. to 1 oz.) ; then brush it over 
with strong solution of nitrate of silver, and dry in the 

5. Galotype Paper. See Calotype Process. 

6. Chromatype Paper. Soak the paper in the solution 
No. 2, and dry it at a brisk fire. To fix the drawing, care- 
ful immersion in warm water is all that is required. It is 
not sufiiciently sensitive for the camera. 

7. Compound Chromatype Paper. Wash the paper with 
the solution No. 3, and dry it. After the paper has been 
exposed to the sun with the article to be copied superposed 
upon it, it is washed over in the dark with a solution of 
nitrate of silver of moderate strength. A vivid picture 
makes its appearance, which is sufiiciently fixed by washing 
in pure water. For copying engravings, &c. Another 
method is to brush writing paper over with a solution of 1 
dr. of sulphate of copper in 1 oz. of water ; and when dry, 
with a strong but not saturated solution of bichromate of 

8. Cyanotype Paper. Brush the paper over with a solu- 
tion of ammonio-citrate of iron. Expose the paper in the 
usual way, then wash it over with a solution of ferrocyanide 
of potassium. 

9. Crysotype Paper. Wash the paper with solution of 
ammonio-citrate of iron, dry it, and afterwards brush it over 
with a solution of ferrocyanide of potassium. Dry it in a 
dark room. The image is brought out by brushing it over 
with a neutral solution of gold or of silver. 

10. Catalisotype. Steep paper in water with a drop or 
two of hydrochloric acid, absorb the superfluous moisture 
with blotting-paper ; brush over with a mixture of ^ dr. 


syrup of iodide of iron, 2^ dr. of Avater, and a drop or two 
of tincture of iodine. Dry with blotting-paper, and brush 
over with a solution of 12 gr. of nitrate of silver to 1 oz. of 
distilled water. It is then ready for the camera. The 
picture is fixed by washing in water and afterwards 
in a solution of bromide of potassium (20 grains to 1 

11. Paper for Positive Photographs. Most of the pre- 
' ceding give negative pictures, the lights and shadows being 

reversed ; in the following they are correct : Wash highly 
■ glazed paper with solution of sal ammoniac (10 gr. to 1 oz.); 
, dry it, and brush it over with the following solution: Dis- 
solve 120 gr. of crystallized nitrate of silver in IJ oz. of 
distilled water, and add IJ oz. of alcohol; after it has stood 
a few hours, filter it. Expose the paper thus washed to the 
sunshine till it is darkened ; if mottled, wash it a second 
time, and expose it again. To use this paper, wash it over 
with the solution No. 4, expose it in the damp state, with 
the engraving or other object on it to the light, and fix the 
drawing by washing with water only. (To copy objects, lay 
them on a plate of clear glass fixed in a frame, place the pre- 
pared paper over them, and fix a back with a cushion at- 
tached to it so as to press the paper closely on the glass. 
The glass is then exposed to the light, and the drawing after- 
wards fixed, as described above. For feathers, lace-work, 
and other objects which freely admit light through them, the 
nitrated paper and less sensitive muriated papers may be 
used. For copying engravings, leaves, and other botanical 
objects, or entomological specimens, the more sensitive 
muriated papers, or the bromide paper, or other sensitive 
kinds, may be used. Engravings should be wetted and 
placed with their face to the prepared side of the paper, and 
kept in close contact with it. Leaves should have their 
under surface next the glass. For the camera the most 
sensitive samples of the muriated papers, made with not 
less than 100 gr., of the nitrate of silver to the ounce, 
are selected. The calotype is still more certain. The 
papers intended for the camera require to be very carefully 

12. Instantaneous Positive Paper. Mix 6 dr. of a satu- 
rated solution of bichloride of mercury with distilled 
water 1 pint. Float the paper on this solution in a flat 
dish. Dry it ; take into a dark place lit by a candle 


with a yellow glass, and render it sensitive by a solution of 
nitrate of silver (38 gr. to 1 oz.). To print, expose to a 
perpendicular light from 2 to 10 seconds in summer, about 
1 minute in winter ; then immediately cover with a black 
cloth. (The image, at first very feeble, is developed by 
this solution ; Sulphate of iron 15 gr., glacial acetic acid 25 
gr., to distilled water 1 oz. The deepening of tint must be 
watched, and arrested at the proper moment. Then wash, 
and fix with hyposulphite.) 

13. Alhumenized Pa])er for Positive Printing. White of 
egg, and water equal parts, iodide of potassium or chloride 
of sodium 5 gr. to 1 oz. (or bromide of potassium 20 gr.) 
Coat the paper with this solution. Dry. Immerse in the 
dark in bath of 120 gr. nitrate of silver to 1 oz. Dry again. 
(This is exposed, with the negative over it, for 10 to 15 

14. Prepared Wax Paper. De la Blanchere. Make 
a strong size by digesting 25 parts of gelatine, 50 of linseed, 
and 150 of rice flour, in hot water 2000 to 3000 parts. 
Filter through a cloth. Take of this size, when cold, 
1000 parts by weight, and dissolve in it sugar of milk 
50 parts, iodide of potassium 35, bromide of potassium 5 

The pieces of paper, well waxed, are steeped in this bath, 
one by one, for about 10 minutes, then hung up to dry. 
They will keep well for 2 or 3 months, and may any time 
be sensitized for use. 

15. Paper prepared with Mucilage, Turpentine, and Wax. 
Lespiault and Blot. Boil 30 gr. of Carrageen moss in ^ 
pint of water for 5 minutes ; strain through fine linen, then' 
add J pint more water hot. Add then 1 per cent, of iodide 
of potassium, and 15 per cent, of simple syrup. A few 
drops of acetic acid and a few fragments of camphor will 
preserve this mucilage. The paper is soaked for 5 minutes, 
then removed, drained, and dried by suspending from one 

When quite dry, immerse for some minutes in the tur- 
pentine-wax bath — made by saturating oil of turpentine 
with wax, filtering, and adding pure iodine IJ gr. to each 
ounce. This paper is sensitized, when wanted, in an aceto- 
nitrate bath. 

Photography. — Miscellaneous Recipes. 

To Clean Cflass Plates. Mr. Mayall. Shake up to- 


gether alcohol 30 parts, strong liquid ammonia 10, water 
40, and fine tripoli 30 parts. The plates are to be rubbed 
hard and evenlj with balls of cotton-wool dipped in this 
mixture. Rub again, when dry, with a clean ball of cotton ; 
lastly, dust the back and edges with a clean hog's-hair 

To Clean off Collodion Pictures. This may be done, 
whether they have been varnished or not, by means of a 
tuft of cotton-wool dipped in wood spirit. 

To Color Photographic Prints. This may be done vari- 
, ously in water or oils. A simple way is to rub in slowly 
with a small camel-hair brush a minute piece of dry color 
laid upon the part, as of flesh tint for the face, &c. When 
properly distributed, the paper may be breathed upon, and 
the tint will not easily be rubbed off. Or it may be care- 
fully coated with gelatine. 

M. MiNOTTO has described a plan of coloring on the back 
of the paper. The picture, being held up to the light, is 
first faintly outlined, on the reverse side ; colors are then 
laid on, of water or oil, as preferred, on this side. When 
dry, the paper is rendered transparent by a varnish, and the 
colors will then appear through it with all the delicacy and 
effect of a miniature on ivory. Good strong writing paper 
is best for this purpose ; the colors must be vivid ; and the 
varnish may consist of Canada balsam dissolved in turpen- 
tine, or a mastic varnish may be used, or turpentine and 
wax, or oil. 

Artificial Ivory for Photographers. Mayall. Tablets 
of gelatine or glue are immersed in a solution of alumina. 
When entirely penetrated by the alumina, the slabs are to 
be removed, dried, and polished like ivory. 

Photographic Varnish. See Varnishes. 

Photographic Engraving. M. Niepce. (The original pro- 
cess, invented by M. Niepce, the elder, before the discovery 
of the daguerreotype, has been recently modified and im- 
proved by his nephew.) Two parts of Judea bitumen are 
dissolved in 10 parts of essence of lemon and 90 of benzine, 
yielding a varnish which is acted upon by the sun's rays in 
such a manner that the part exposed is rendered much more 
insoluble than the covered part in certain spirituous and 
oily liquids. This varnish is spread evenly on the surface 


of the plate, and allowed to dry in the dark. A camera 
picture obtained bj any photographic process, or a waxed 
engraving to be copied, is adjusted over the stone by means 
of a glass, and it is then exposed to the sunshine for about 
I" of an hour. The resin surface is now acted upon by a 
liquid, composed of 3 parts of naphtha and one of benzine. 
This disengages the image. The stone may now be prepared 
for printing in the usual way. If a steel plate be used, the 
resinized parts will offer sufficient resistance to enable the 
surface to be acted on by aquafortis. Or a glass plate may 
be submitted to the action of the vapor of hydrofluoric 

Mr. McPherson. Judea bitumen is dissolved in sulphuric 
ether, and the solution used to form a layer on the stone. 
It rapidly dries. The parts unacted on by light are instan- 
taneously dissolved on plunging in a bath of sulphuric ether. 

Professor Ramsey has described a modification of the last 
process for etching on steel or copper. After the plate has 
undergone the solvent action of ether, the parts which are 
left bare are gilded by an electro-gilding arrangement. The 
gold will not attach itself to the bitumen. This is next re- 
moved by means of spirit and heat. Nitric acid is now ap- 
plied as in the common etching process, and acts on the 
parts of the plate uncoated by gold. 

Mr. Fox Talbot. Some bichromate of potash is dissolved 
in a strong solution of gelatine, and this is poured on the 
surface of the steel plate and dried. A yellow coating is 
thus formed. Upon this is placed the object to be copied, 
as fern leaves, grasses, or pieces of lace ; they are pressed 
closely by a piece of glass, and exposed to sunshine. By 
this the salt is decomposed, and the chromic acid, by acting 
on the gelatine, produces in the exposed parts a brown 
opaque surface, which is comparatively insoluble in water. 
The plate being placed in water, the gelatine is dissolved off 
the steel opposite the superimposed object. A solution of 
bichloride of platinum being now poured on the plate, the 
lines are rapidly etched in. The plate being then washed 
until all the gelatine is removed, it is submitted to the opera- 
tion of the copperplate printer. Very beautiful prints of 
grasses, textile fabrics, &c., have been obtained in this 

M. PoiTEViN. (Itf Mr. Talbot's process, the bichromate 
of potash and gelatine are used as a varnish ; in this new 


process the surface formed by them is itself used to mould 
the plate.) On a plate of glass or other level surface is 
poured a uniform layer of solution of gelatine, of thickness 
according to the kind of print desired. When dry, the 
plate is placed for several minutes in a concentrated solution 
of bichromate of potash, then passed quickly through water, 
and allowed to dry in the dark. The plate is now exposed 
for a considerable period to the sunlight, either in the 
camera or with a transparent picture superimposed. The 
plate is now plunged in water in a darkened room. The 
.gelatine unacted upon swells up, so as to produce relief. 
-• The parts acted on by light scarcely swell at all ; they form 
the hollows. The process is arrested by pouring on a solu- 
tion of protosulphate of iron. The dry plate may now be 
moulded in plaster, or other proper material, and a copper 
plate finally obtained from the mould, by means of the 
electrotype process. 

Pigments. A few of these have been noticed before; see 
Indigo, Lakes, Prussian Blue, Purple of Cassius. 
They generally constitute a distinct branch of manufacture, 
but a brief account of the composition of some of them may 
be useful. Those of which the coloring matter is derived 
from the animal and vegetable kingdoms will first be 
noticed ; then the mineral colors. 

Carmine. Several processes have been published for this 
beautiful pigment, but probably some minute precautions, 
not generally known, may be necessary to the production of 
the finest quality. The climate and state of the atmosphere 
are said to influence the result. 

1. Madame Cenette's jorocgss. Into 6 pails of boiling 
clear, soft water, in a copper vessel, throw 2 ib of powdered 
cochineal of good quality ; boil for 2 hours, add 3 oz. of 
purified nitre, and after a few minutes, 4 oz. of salt of 
sorrel. Remove the vessel from the fire, let the contents 
settle for 4 hours, draw of the clear liquor with a syphon 
into flat plates, and leave it at rest for 3 weeks. Carefully 
detach the pellicle of mould from the surface, withdraw the 
liquid with a syphon and pipette, and dry the deposit in a 

2. Boil 4 quarts of soft water in a pewter kettle, add to 
it 4 oz. of finely-powdered cochineal ; boil for 5 minutes, 
adding 2 dr. of powdered cream of tartar ; then add 8 


scruples of Roman alum, and keep the whole "on the fire for 
a minute longer. Let the decoction settle, decant it into 
cylindrical glasses, and cover them. When the carmine has 
subsided, pour off the clear liquor, and dry the sediment. 
By adding solution of tin to the liquid, more carmine is 

3. Into a 14-gallon boiler of tinned copper put 10 gallons 
of distilled water, or filtered rain-water ; when it boils, sprin- 
kle in, by small quantities, 1 ft) of powdered cochineal, and 
keep it boiling for half an hour. Then add 3| oz. of crys- 
tallized carbonate of soda ; in a minute or two, draw the 
fire, and add IJ oz. of Roman alum in fine powder ; stir 
with a glass rod till the alum is dissolved, leave it to 
settle for 25 minutes, draw off" the liquor with a glass syphon, 
and strain the rest through a coarse linen cloth. Clean the 
boiler, return into it the clear-colored liquor, and stir into it 
the Avhites of 2 eggs, previously well beaten with a quart of 
warm (not hot) water. Then light the fire, and heat the 
liquor till it begins to boil ; separate the coagulum by filtra- 
tion, wash it on the filter with distilled water, spread it thinly 
on earthen plates, and dry it in a stove. 

Inferior carmine may be improved by dissolving it in 
water of ammonia, and precipitating it by acetic acid and 

Cochineal Lake. Add 2 ft) of pearlash to the red liquor 
from which the carmine has been prepared in the last pro- 
cess, and return it to the boiler with the dregs of the cochi- 
neal ; boil for half an hour, draw the fire, and when the 
sediment has subsided, draw ofi" the clear liquid into an 
earthen vessel. Pour on the sediment a solution of 1 fti of 
pearlash in 2 gallons of water, and boil for half an hour. 
Filter, and return both liquors into the copper. When as 
hot as the hand can bear, add to the liquor, by little and 
little, 3 ft) of powdered Roman alum, and let it simmer for 
5 minutes. Allow it to settle, draw off the clear liquors, 
collect the sediment on a filter, wash it with clean rain-Avater, 
and leave it covered with a cloth for a few days, till hali" 
dry ; form it into ^mall lumps, and dry them in a stove. 

Oarthamine or Safflower Lake. Wash safflower till the 
water comes off colorless ; mix it with water holding 15 per 
cent, of carbonate of soda in solution, so as to form a thick 
paste; leave it for several hours, then press out the red 


liquid, and nearly neutralize it with acetic acid. ' Then put 
cotton into it, and add successive small portions of acetic 
acid, so as to prevent the liquid becoming alkaline. In 24 
hours take out the cotton, wash it, and digest it for half an 
hour in water holding 5 per cent, of crystallized carbonate of 
soda in solution. Immediately on removing the cotton, 
supersaturate the liquid with citric acid, and collect the pre- 
cipitate, which must be repeatedly washed in cold water. 
' For pink saucers the liquid is allowed to deposit in the 
saucers. Mixed with the scrapings of French chalk it con- 
stitutes rouge. 

Lakes are also obtained from Brazil-wood and madder, 
by adding alum to a concentrated decoction of the former, 
or to a cold infusion of the latter (made by triturating the 
madder, inclosed in a bag, with the water), and afterwards 
sufficient subcarbonate of potash or soda to throw down the 
alumina in combination with the coloring matter. The 
precipitate is to be washed and dried. A little solution of 
tin added with the alum improves the color. Lakes may be 
obtained from most vegetable coloring matters by means of 
alum and an alkaline carbonate. Yellow Lake is made from 
French or Persian berries, by boiling them in water, with a 
little soda or potash, and adding alum to the strained liquor 
as long as a precipitate is thrown down. Or by boiling weld, 
or quercitron bark, in water, and adding alum and chalk in 
a pasty state. 

Rose Pi7ik. Boil 6 ft of Brazil-wood and 2 ft of peach- 
wood in water, with ^ ft of alum; and pour the strained 
decoction on 20 ft of sifted whiting. 

Bistre. It is obtained from the soot of beech-wood. 

8ap Cheen. The expressed juice of buckthorn berries 
(and sometimes of other species of rhamnus, and also of 
privet berries) is allowed to settle, and the clear liquid 
evaporated to dryness. A little gum arable is sometimes 
added to the juice. 

The beautiful colors of the mauve series are prepared from 
coal tar by patented processes. 

Mineral Pigments. Azure Blue, or Smalts. The common 
is made by fusing zaffre (roasted cobalt ore calcined with 
siliceous sand) with potash. . A finer quality is obtained by 
precipitating a solution of sulphate of cobalt by a solution of 


silicate of potash. Another cobalt blue is obtained by add- 
ing a solution of phosphate of soda to a solution of nitrate 
of cobalt, and mixing the precipitate, washed, but not dried, 
with eight times its weight of fresh hydrated alumina. When 
dry, heat it to a cherry red. 

Egyptian Azure. Carbonate of soda 16 oz., calcined 
flints ^4 oz., copper filings 4 oz. Pulverize, mix, and fuse 
in a crucible for two hours. When cold, reduce to powder. 

Blue Verditer. It is generally stated to be made by 
adding chalk to a solution of nitrate of copper produced in 
the process of refining silver; but Mr. Phillips did not 
succeed in making it by this means, and found no lime in 
the best samples. 

Neiv Blue. Mix equal parts of common arseniate of cop- 
per (see Mineral Green, below), and neutral arseniate of 
potash, fuse by heat in a large crucible, then add to the 
fused salt one-fifth of its weight of nitre. Effervescence 
takes place, and the salt becomes blue. Cool, pulverize, and 

Chrome Yellow. To a solution of bichromate of potash 
add a solution of nitrate of lead as long as a precipitate 
forms. Wash the precipitate, and dry it with a gentle heat. 
An inferior kind is said to be made by 4 ft) of pure white 
lead, 1 lb of bichromate of potash, and 20 ft) of water, and 
boiling till the water becomes colorless. Or 75 parts of pre- 
cipitated sulphate of lead may be acted on by a hot solution 
of neutral chromate of potash 25 parts. A mixed product 
of chromate and sulphate of lead is thus obtained, which is 
said to cover as well as the pure chrome yellow, and is much 
cheaper. (Riot.) 

Chrome Bed. Melt saltpetre in a crucible heated to dull 
redness, and add chrome yellow, by small portions, till no 
more red fumes arise. Allow the mixture to settle, then 
pour off the melted salt from the heavy sediment, and wash 
the latter with water, which should be quickly 'poured off, 
and dry the pigment. The liquefied salt poured ofi" con- 
tains chromate of potash, and is reserved for making chrome 

Orange Chrome is chrome yellow acted on by an alkali, 
which deprives it of part of the chromic acid. 

King's Yellow. This is a yellow sulphuret of arsenic, now 


almost superseded by chrome yellow, but occasionally used 
for killing flies. 

Naples Yellow. Mix 12 parts of metallic antimony, 8 
parts of red lead, and 4 of oxide of zinc, and calcine in a 
reverberatory furnace. The mixed oxides are rubbed to- 
gether, fused, and the fused mass elutriated into a fine 
powder. — Dr. Ure. M. Guimel recommends 1 part of 
well-washed antimoniate of potash to be ground into a 
paste Avith 2 parts of red lead, and the powder exposed 
to a red heat for 4 or 5 hours, keeping the heat moderate. 

Brighton Gfreen. An inferior color, made with 28 ft) of 
whiting, or white lead, 7 ft) sulphate of copper, 3 ft) sugar 
of lead, and ^ oz. of bichromate of potash. 

Brunswick Green. Pour a saturated solution of muri- 
ate of ammonia over copper filings in a close vessel placed 
in a warm situation ; add more of the solution from time to 
time till three parts of the muriate have been used to two of 
copper. After standing for a few weeks the pigment is sep- 
arated from the unoxidized copper by washing through a 
sieve. It is then to be well washed, and dried slowly in the 
shade. It is often reduced with white lead ; some samples 
contain arsenic. 

Arsenical Copper Gfreens. Of these are several varieties. 

Mineral Green, Scheele's Green or Arsenite of Copper. 
1. Dissolve 11 oz. of white arsenic and 2 ft) of carbonate of 
potash, by heat, in a gallon of water. Dissolve also 2 ft) of 
sulphate of copper in 3 gallons of water. Filter each solu- 
tion separately, and add the former gradually to the latter 
as long as it occasions a precipitate. Wash the precipitate, 
drain it, and dry it 

2, Dissolve 50 lb of sulphate of copper and 10 Bs of lime 
in 20 gallons of good vinegar, and add quickly a boiling hot 
solution of 50 ft) of white arsenic. Stir repeatedly, then 
allow it to settle ; decant the clear liquor (which is reserved 
to dissolve the arsenic next time), and wash the precipitate, 
and dry it. 

3. Emerald Green. Mix ten parts of pure verdigris with 
sufficient boiling water to form a soft pulp, and strain this 
through a sieve. Dissolve 9 or 10 parts of white arsenic in 
100 parts of boiling water, and, whilst boiling, let the verdi- 
gris pulp be gradually added, constantly stirring the mix- 
ture till the precipitate becomes a heavy granular powder. 


Gfreen tvithout Arsenic. . Dissolve 48 fib of sulphate of 
copper, and 2 fib of bicarbonate of potash in water, and add 
. to the clear solution 2 fib of pearlash and 1 R) of. chalk. 

Rinmanns G7'een Pigment. Dissolve together in suflB- 
cient water 1 part of sulphate of cobalt and 3 of sulphate of 
zinc ; precipitate Avith carbonate of soda, wash the precipi- 
tate, and calcine it. 

Chrome Grreen. A mixture of chrome yellow and Prus- 
sian blue. (See also Chrome Oxide, p. 33-i.) 

BartTis Gireen. A mixture of. Prussian blue and jellow 

Ultramarine, Factitious. Take 70 parts of silica, or pure 
siliceous sand in fine powder ; 240 parts of recrystallized 
alum, calcined ; 144 parts of sulphur ; 48 parts of finely 
powdered charcoal ; 240 parts of dry carbonate of soda. 
These are mixed together with the greatest care till the 
mixture appears of uniform color under a powerful mag- 
nifier, and the mixture exposed to a moderate red heat in a 
closely covered crucible for an hour and a half. Wash the 
product in boiling water. Mix the powder with its own weight 
of sulphur and 1^ its weight of dried soda, and burn as 
before ; heat it again with sulphur and soda, and wash it till 
the filtered fluid no longer colors acetate of lead. If a sample 
of the dried powder becomes blue when burnt with sulphur, 
it is ready for the last operation. Spread over a cast-iron 
plate a layer of sulphur a line in thickness, and over it an 
equal layer of the dried powder after having passed it 
through a gauze sieve. Heat the plate so as to burn away 
the sulphur at the lowest possible temperature. Reduce the 
pigment to powder, and repeat the burning with sulphur and 
pulverization till the color is perfect. 

White Lead is carbonate of lead prepared by various 
processes. Zinc White is oxide of zinc, prepared by com- 
bustion. Oxychloride of Zinc is also used. Antimony 
White is oxide of antimony. 

Plates, Daguerreotype, are prepared by cleaning and polish- 
ing the silver surface, exposing it to the vapor of dry iodine, 
or tincture of iodine, or iodide of bromine, or bromide of 
lime. After having the image thrown on them, they are 



exposed to the vapor of mercury. But the manipulations 
and precautions necessary to the success of the operation are 
too numerous to detail here. 

PLATE-BoiLiNa Powder. Equal parts of cream of tartar, 
alum, and common salt. A small quantity added to the 
water in which plate is boiled gives it a silvery white- 

Plate Powders. 1. Jewellei-s' Rouge. Dissolve green vitriol 
in hot water, and add a solution of pearlash as long as it 

- throws down a precipitate. Wash the precipitate repeatedly 
. with warm water, drain it on calico, and finally calcine it 
till it assumes a bright color. It is sometimes made by 
calcining the sulphate of iron with a strong heat till oxide 
of iron only remains. Let it be triturated with water, and 
prepared in the same way as prepared chalk. See Polishing 
Powder, below. 

2. French Plate Poivder. Mix 1 part of jewellers' rouge 
with 12 of carbonate of magnesia. 

3. Finely prepared chalk, or burnt hartshorn. One way 
in which these are used is to boil them with water with pieces 
of rag ; the finer particles are entangled in the fibres of the 
the rags, which are dried and kept for use. 

4. Quicksilver with chalk 1 oz., prepared hartshorn 8 oz., 
prepared chalk 4 oz. Powders containing quicksilver, be- 
sides the necessary wearing of the surface, are supposed to 
render the plate more brittle. If used it should not be in 
larger proportion than the above. 

5. Finest putty powder 1 oz., levigated chalk 5 oz. ; a 
little rouge may be added to color it. 

See Novargent, Silvering Powder, &c., for restoring 
the silver to plated goods. 

Platina, Black (Oxiphorous). Dissolve protochloride of 
platinum in a boiling solution of potash, add alcohol in small 
proportions till effervescence ceases. Boil the black precipi- 
tate successively with alcohol, muriatic acid, and potash, and 
finally 4 or 5 times with water. 

Platinated Asbestos. Dip asbestos in a solution of chloride 
of platinum, and heat it to redness. It causes the inflamma- 
mation of hydrogen in the same manner as sponge platinum. 
— Dr. Hare. 

Platinized Silver. Silver plates for Smee's voltaic battery 


are covered with pulverulent platinum by adding a little 
bichloride of platinum to acid water, and decomposing the 
. solution by the use of a platinum terminal in connection 
with the copper of a battery, the silver plate to be platinized 
being in connection with the zinc. Platinum itself is sometimes 
platinized in the same way. Sometimes the plates are platin- 
ized without the battery. The following solution is used by Dr. 
Wright for the plates of his battery : Saturated solution of 
chloride of platinum J drachm, sulphuric acid 1^ drachm, 
water 2 drachms. Dip the plates in it for a few seconds, 
and wash them quickly. 

Platinum, Chlorides of. Dissolve platinum in nitro-muri- 
atic acid, and evaporate with a gentle heat to dryness. 
The red bichloride remains. Heated to 450°, the proto- 
chloride remains. 

Platinum Sponge. Dissolve separately in rectified spirit 
chloride of platinum and sal ammoniac. Mix the solutions, 
and heat the precipitate to redness. For balls for hydro- 
gen lamps, form the precipitate into balls while moist, and 
afterwards burn them. 

Poison. See Beetle Wafer, Bug Poisons, E,at Poison; 
Phosphorus Paste, Remedies for Blights, &c. 

Polish. See French Polish. 

Polish for Boots, &c. See Blacking. 

Polishing Powder for Specula. Lord Ross. Precipitate 
a dilute solution of sulphate of iron by ammonia in excess ; 
wash the precipitate, press it in a screw press till nearly dry ; 
then expose it to heat until it appears of a dull red color in 
the dark. 

Pot Pourri. See Perfumery. 

Potash, Carbonate of. Salt of Tartar. Mix 10 parts of 
pearlash with six of water ; let them stand in a cool place for 
24 hours, stirring them frequently : filter ; concentrate the 
solution by a gentle heat, stirring constantly, remove from 
the fire as soon as the liquor begins to appear opaque, and 
continue the stirring until cold. To procure it purer, redis- 
solve it in an equal weight of distilled water, filter, and evapo- 
rate to dryness. It is free from sulphate of potash, but con- 
tains 1.1 per cent, of chloride of potassium. 

Potash, Chlorate. See Chlorate of Potash. 


Potato Disease, Remedies for. The following are some of 
the more recent propositions for the prevention of this terri- 
ble and well-known plant epidemic : 

1. Some direct that the haulms and leaves should be 
entirely removed as soon as the least symptom of disease 
shows itself in them. The roots may grow on to full size 
without becoming affected. 

2. The Chevalier Clausen's Cure. The potatoes, be- 
fore planting, are wet with water acidulated with sulphuric 
acid (1 part to 500), and, before they are dry, powdered 

- sulphate of lime is thrown over them. This plan has been 
. found a very eflScient one. 

3. Mr. T. Herapath's Plan. The roots, before planting, 
are allowed to become dry, and then dipped for a short time 
in a weak solution of sulphate of copper. The land is dressed 
with a mineral composition (2 parts of lime to 1 of salt) 
instead of farmyard manure. This process also has been 
attended with considerable success. 

Pounce. Powdered gum juniper is used under this name for 
preparing parchment for writing on. For liquid pounce, see 
Ink, Marking. 

Poudre Clarifiante. Beat together the whites and yolks of 
eggs, dry them with a very gentle heat, and reduce to pow- 
der. For clarifying wines and syrups. 

Powders. See Tooth Powders, and Hair Powders, under 
Cosmetics; Scent Powders, under Perfumery, &c. 

Preservative Liquids. See Anatomical Subjects, and 
Animal Substances, to Preserve. 

Prussiate of Potash (Yellow). What is known in com- 
merce by this name is the ferroprussiate of potash, or ferro- 
cyanide of potassium. It is prepared by fusing in an egg- 
shaped iron pot a mixture of 2 parts of pearlash and 5 parts 
of dry animal matters, such as horns, hoofs, tallow-chandlers' 
greaves, &c., till the fetid vapors cease to be produced. Iron 
filings are sometimes added, but usually the iron necessary 
to the formation of this salt is derived from the iron pots and 
"stirrers. The fused mass {jjrussiate cake) is allowed to cool, 
dissolve in warm water, and the clear filtered or decanted 
solution evaporated, that crystals may form. These are dis- 
solved in hot water, and the solution allowed to cool very 
slowly, that large crystals may form. 



Red Prussiate op Potash. Ferridcyanide of Potassium. 
Into a dilute solution of the above prussiate of potash a 

. current of chlorine gas is passed, till the solution ceases to 
give a blue precipitate with persalts of iron. It is then 
evaporated, crystallized, and recrystallized till quite pure. 
(M. PosSELT advises to add a few drops of solution of pot- 
ash to the boiling liquor, to decompose the green matter 
that is formed ; to filter the hot solution, to separate some 
peroxide of iron which is throAvn down, and to let the liquor 
cool very slowly.) Or, boil yellow prussiate of potash with 
12 or 15 parts of water, and while boiling add good chloride 
of lime until a filtered sample no longer yields a blue pre- 
cipitate with persalts of iron. Filter quickly, and add car- 
bonate of potash till the liquid has a faintly alkaline reac- 
tion, then evaporate for crystallization. — Chemist, vol. 

Prussian Blue. Percyanide, ferrocyanide, or ferroprussiate 
of iron. Commercial Prussian Blue is made by adding to a 
solution of prussiate of potash, or of prussiate cake, a solu- 
tion of 2 parts of alum and 1 of sulphate of iron, washing 
the precipitate repeatedly with water to which a little muri- 
atic acid has been added, and exposing it to the air till it 
assumes a deep blue color. A purer kind is made by 
adding a solution of persulphate or perchloride of iron to a 
solution of pure ferroprussiate of potash. Turnbull's 
Prussian Blue (ferridcyanide of iron) is made by adding a 
solution of red prussiate of potash to one of protosulphate 
of iron ; or by adding protosulphate of iron to a mixture of 
yellow prussiate of potash, chloride of soda, and hydrochloric 

Soluble Prussian Blue. Add a solution of protosulphate 
of iron to a solution of prussiate of potash, and expose the 
precipitate to the air till it becomes blue, and wash it till 
the soluble salts are washed away. By continuing the 
washing, the blue itself dissolves, forming a deep .blue solu- 
tion, which may be evaporated without decomposition. Or 
add a solution of persulphate of iron to a solution of ferro- 
prussiate of potash, keeping the latter in excess ; wash the 
precipitate until it begins to dissolve, and dry it. See Ink, 
Beade's Patent Blue, for another method. 

Purple of Cassius. See Aurum Stanno Paratum, Pocket 
Formulary. Many other processes have been proposed, 


of which the following is one : Dissolve 3 gr. of gold in aqua 
regia, avoiding excess, and dilute with 3 oz. of water. Mix 
30 gr. of pink salt (the bichloride of tin Avith sal ammoniac) 
with 3J gr. of tin filings and 2 dr. of water till the tin is 
almost entirely dissolved: add 7 dr. of water, and add this 
solution to the gold solution, slightly warmed. Wash the 
precipitate, and dry it. 

Ptroligneous Acid, ^ By the destructive distillation 

Pyroxylic Spirit, ' V of dried wood, chiefly that 

Pyroacetic Spirit, &c. j of the beech and birch, in 

. ' iron cylinders, an acid liquor and tar are produced. These 
are received in proper reservoirs, and are afterwards sepa- 
rated. The tar is subjected to distillation, and yields oil of tar 
(containing creasote, eupione, &c.), and leaves a residuum 
of pitch, or English asphalt. The acid liquor, separated 
from the tarry deposit, is also distilled : the first portion 
which comes over contains the pyroxylic spirit, which is 
rectified by one or more distillations. It may be further 
purified by distilling it with dried muriate of lime, and 
finally with quicklime. This constitutes one of the articles 
sold under the name of naphtha, and is regarded by chemists 
as a hydrated oxide of methule. After the pyroxylic spirit 
has come over, the crude pyroligneous acid distils, which 
still holds some tar and empyreumatic oil in solution. It is 
purified by saturating it either directly with common soda, 
or first with lime, or rather chalk, and when the neutral 
solution has become clear, evaporating it to 1.114 sp. gr., 
and adding suflicient saturated solution of sulphate of soda 
to decompose the impure acetate of lime. The clear solu- 
tion obtained by either process is then evaporated, that the 
acetate of soda may crystallize. This is afterwards roasted 
at a temperature of about 500° Fahrenheit, to destroy the 
tar, and again dissolved and crystallized. The purified ace- 
tate is then distilled with sulphuric acid. See Acidum 
Aceticum, P. F. For some manufacturing purposes, an 
impure acid is obtained by merely saturating the crude 
pyroligneous acid with lime, evaporating to dryness, and 
distilling with sulphuric acid. 

• If acetate of lime or acetate of lead be distilled with- 
out addition, and the liquid which comes over be rectified 
over lime, pyroacetic spirit is obtained : this is also termed 


Pyrophorus. This name is given to several compounds, pre- 
pared by calcination, which take fire when exposed to the 
air, especially when breathed upon. The following are per- 
haps some of the best : 

1. Heat tartrate of lead in a tube of hard glass, and se- 
curely close the tube before the charred residuum becomes 
cold. A little poured out and breathed upon takes fire. 
The tartrate of lead is made by dissolving separately 2 dr. 
of tartaric acid and 5 dr. of crystallized acetate of lead in 
sufficient water, mixing the solutions, and collecting, wash- 
ing, and drying the precipitate. 

2. Calcine tartar emetic in a similar manner, or in a 
closed crucible. 

3. Mix 11 parts of lamp-black with 2 of powdered sul- 
phate of potash, and heat the mixture strongly in a closely- 
covered crucible. The product is so combustible that it can 
scarcely be transferred to a bottle without danger. 

4. Mix 3 parts of powdered alum with 1 of flour, and 
calcine the mixture in a common vial coated with clay or 
placed in sand, till it ceases to emit a blue flame. Before 
it is cold, close it securely with a sound cork or glass 

5. Mix neutral chromate of lead with l-6th its weight of 
sulphur ; triturate them with water sufficient to form a 
paste, and make it into pellets ; dry these perfectl}^ then 
heat them in a tube till the sulphur is all driven off, and 
secure as the last. 

Rat and Mice Poisons. (Such as contain arsenic are placed 
first, and afterwards several compounds which have been 
introduced as substitutes for that mineral, which has proved 
so destructive of human life. According to a recent Act of 
Parliament, this dangerous compound can only be purchased 
in wholesale quantities. Among other precautions taken to 
prevent accident, it is provided that it be mixed with color- 
ing matters, such as soot and indigo, in order to prevent its 
being taken by mistake, or insure detection if designedly 

Arsenical Paste (authorized by the Government of France). 
1. Melt 2 fib of suet in an earthen vessel over a slow fire, 
and add 2 Bb of wheat flour, 3 oz. of levigated white arsenic, 
2J dr. of lamp-black, 15 drops of oil of aniseed. It may be 
used alone, or mixed with bread crumbs, &c. (For destroy- 
ing rats and mice.) 


2. For barn floors. Mix a pint of good flour witli as 
much yellow arsenic as will lie on a shilling ; put this in a 
small heap on the floor, and over this put another pint of 
good flour unmixed. Draw a track up to the heap with a 
feather dipped in oil of aniseed and oil of caraways, and 
sprinkle this over with a little flour.* 

3. Mix a quart of the best oatmeal, 2 oz. of powdered 
loaf sugar, 6 drops each of the oils of rhodium, caraway, 
and aniseed, and ^ gr. of musk. Mix them very perfectly 
without touching the mixture with the hands. Place in a 
retired place 6 or 8 pieces of clean board, and on each two 

. tablespoonfuls of the powder, for a few successive nights, 
without disturbing the rats. About" the sixth night, if they 
are found to eat freely, mix a teaspoonful of white arsenic 
with the powder. What remains in the morning should be 
burnt, avoiding the fumes. — The Chemist, vol. vi, 

4. White arsenic 2 oz., carbonate of barytes 2 oz., white 
sugar 3f oz., rose pink ^ oz,, oil of aniseed and oil of rho- 
dium, of each 5 drops. 

5. Malt flour 1 ft), oil of rhodium 3 drops, sugar 2 oz., 8 
cloves, a tablespoonful of caraway seeds, all beaten in a 
mortar. Lay it in small parcels where they frequent, for 3 
or 4 nights, till they eat freely, then add some arsenic dis- 
solved in spirits of salts. — Mayer. 

6. Ointment for Rats in Micks. Mix together 1 ft) of 
fresh butter, free from salt, IJ oz. of calomel, 8 oz. of 
crumbs of white bread, 2 oz. of sugar, 5 drops each of oils 
of nutmeg and rhodium, and 2 drops of oil of aniseed. To 
use it, make a hole with the arm under the ridge; into this 
hole insert a stick, and on the middle of it, where it does not 
touch the rick, put a lump of the ointment. J^or Ti'aps. 
Put the same with 2 or 3 drops of oil of thyme. 

7. ITanqJshire Millers' Rat Poivder. Mix 1 oz. of nux 
vomica in powder with a pound of fresh oatmeal, and add a 
few drops of oil of rhodium, or, what answers better, oil of 
aniseed with musk. 

8. Philanthrope Ifuophobon. A French preparation so 
called consists of 1 part of emetic tartar to 4 of farinaceous 
and other ingredients. 

* The following is an old rat-catcher's receipt for oils to attract rats : 
Two dr. of oil of aniseed, 2 drops of nitrous acid, and 2 gr. of musk. Oil 
of rhodium is also supposed to be very attractive to these vermin. Assa- 
foetida with these oils is sometimes used. 




9. Put into a flash 2 dr. of phosphorus and 5 or 6 oz. of, put the flask in -warm water (about 150° Fahrenheit) 
till the phosphorous is liquefied ; pour the contents into a 
mortar, and immediately add 5 or 6 oz. of rye-meal ; when 
cool, add the same quantity of melted fresh butter, and 4 oz. 
of sugar. 

10. Another form of the phosphorus compound is : Melt 
1 K) of lard in a bottle plunged into "water, and heated to 
150° Fahrenheit. Introduce into it ^ oz. of phosphorus 
and add a pint of proof-spirit. Cork the bottle securely 
after its contents have been heated from 140° to 150°, and 
taking it out of the water-bath, ao-itate it brisklv till the 
phosphorus is uniformly difi"used; repeat the agitation occa- 
sionally as it cools, and, when cool, pour off" the spirit which 
has separated (which may be reserved for the same purpose), 
and incorporate with the fatty compound wheat flour and 
sugar. Oil of rhodium or aniseed may be added. Place 
little lumps of this in the rat-holes, and set some water near 
for them to drink. For a third recipe, see PnosPHORrs 
Paste for Vermis, p. 401. 

11. Valentia almonds 1 oz., treacle 2 oz., carbonate of 
barytes 1 oz., oil of aniseed 5 drops, flour enough to form a 

12. Powdered squill ^ oz., strong cheese 2 oz. : mix, and 
form into balls. Fo7' Mice. 

Rennet. The stomach of a calf washed, salted and dried. 

Eennet, Liquid. Essence of Renxet. Fresh rennet 12 
oz., salt 2 oz., proof-spirit 2 oz., white wine a quart; digest 
for 24 hours, and strain. A quart of milk requires 2 or 3 
teaspoonfuls. Wislix directs, 10 parts of a calf's stomach, 
salt 3 parts. The membrane of the stomach is to be cut 
with scissors, and kneaded with the salt and the rennet found 
in the interior of that organ ; the whole left in a cool place 
in an earthen pot till the cheesy ordor is replaced by the 
proper odor of rennet, which will be in 1 or 2 months. Then 
add 16 parts of water and 1 of spirit. Filter and color with 
burnt sugar. 

Rust, to Prevent and Remove. Steel goods are rubbed 
over with a mixture of lime and oil, to preserve them from 
rusting. Mercurial ointment has been recommended for the 
same purpose. M. Payen recommends plunging the articles 
into a solution of common soda. Spots of rust are removed 


by rubbing them with very fine emery and sweet oil. A 
chemical means of removing them, the ammoniacal chloride 
of zinc, may be found useful. See Zinc. To remove rust- 
spots from linen, oxalic acid or binoxalate of potash is com- 
monly used. RuNGE recommends prussiate of potash. Dis- 
solve a little in water, and just acidulate with sulphuric acid. 
The stained linen macerated in this water turns blue. Its 
whiteness is now restored by a solution of carbonate of 
' potash. 

Saxon Blue. See Chemic Blue. The solution of indigo in 
- sulphuric acid, diluted wiih twice its weight of water, is so 
" termed. 

Scouring Drops for Removing Grease. 1. Alcohol (pure) 
6 oz., camphor 2 oz., rectified essence of lemon 8 oz. 

2. Camphene 3 oz., essence of lemon 1 oz. ; mix. Some 
direct them to be distilled together.' 

3. French. Camphene 8 oz., pure alcohol 1 oz., sulphuric 
ether 1 oz., essence of lemon 1 dr. 

4. Spirit of wine a pint, white soap 3 oz., ox-gall 3 oz,, 
essence of lemon \ oz. 

Sealing-wax. 1. Blue. Shellac 2 parts, dammar resin 2 
parts, Burgundy pitch 1 part, Venice turpentine 1 part, 
artificial ultramarine 3 parts. 

2. Light Blue. As the last, with 1 part of dry sulphate 
of lead. 

3. Bark Blue. Venice turpentine 3 oz., finest shellac 7 
oz., clear amber or black resin 1 oz., Prussian blue 1 oz., 
carbonate of magnesia 1 J dr. The last two to be made into 
a stifi" paste with oil of turpentine, and added to the melted 
shellac and Venice turpentine. 

4. Black. 1. Venice turpentine 4|^ oz., shellac 9 oz., 
colophony ^ oz., lamp-black mixed to a paste with oil of 
turpentine q. s. 

2. Inferior. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shellac 8 oz., 3 oz. 
of colophony, and sufficient lamp-black mixed with oil of 
turpentine to color it. 

3. Shellac 8 oz., Venice turpentine 4 oz., lamp-black 
6. oz. 

4. Common, for bottles. Besin 6 oz., shellac 2 oz., Ven- 
ice turpentine 2 oz,, lamp-black q. s. 

Broivn. 1. Light Brown. Venice turpentine 4 oz., 
shellac 1^ oz., brown earth (English umber ?) J oz., cinnabar 


|- oz., prepared chalk |- oz,, carbonate of magnesia moistened 
with oil of turpentine 1| dr. 

2. Light Brown — Second quality. Venice turpentine 
4 oz., shellac 7 oz., resin 3 oz., English umber 3 oz., 
cinnabar ^ oz., prepared chalk 1 oz., magnesia as the 

3. Dark Brown. Venice turpentine 4 oz., fine shellac 
7|- oz., English umber 1|- oz., magnesia as before. 

4. Dark Brown — Second quality. Venice turpentine 4 
oz., shellac 7 oz., colophony 3 oz., English umber IJ oz., 
magnesia as before. 

G-reen. 1. Venice turpentine 2 oz., shellac 4 oz., colo- 
phony 1\ oz.. King's yellow J oz., Prussian blue J oz., mag- 
nesia as for brown. 

Gfold. 1. Venice turpentine 4 oz., fine shellac 8 oz., leaf- 
gold 14 sheets, bronze powder J oz., magnesia (made into a 
paste with oil of turpentine) 1|^ dr. 

2. Use gold talc instead of gold leaf and bronze. — 

Marhled. Melt each colored wax separately, and just as 
they begin to grow solid, mix together. — Gray. 

Red. 1. Fine Carmine Wax. Venice turpentine 2 
oz., finest shellac 4 oz., colophony 1 oz., Chinese vermil- 
ion IJ oz,, magnesia (moistened with oil of turpentine) 

2. Finest Bed. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shellac 7 oz., 
cinnabar 4 oz., carbonate of magnesia (with oil of turpen- 
tine) 1^ dr. 

3. As the last, with only 3|- oz. of cinnabar. 

4. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shellac GJ oz., colophony 

I oz. r'innQl-ifiT' 91 

1| dr'. 

5. Venice turpentine 4 oz., shellac 6 oz., colophony f oz., 
cinnabar If oz., magnesia as before. 

6. As the last, but use colophony and cinnabar each 

II oz. 

7. Venice turpentine 4 oz., snellac 5J oz., colophony IJ 
oz., cinnabar IJ oz., magnesia as before. 

8. English. Venice turpentine 2 oz., shellac 4 oz., ver- 
milion 1 oz. 

9. Spanish. Venice turpentine 8 oz., shellac 2 oz., colo- 
phony 4 oz., vermilion 1 oz. Remove from the fire, and add 
J oz. of rectified spirit. 

2 oz., cinnabar 2J oz., magnesia (with oil of turpentine) 


Yellow. Venice turpentine 2 oz., shellac 4 oz., 'colophony 
IJ oz., King's yellow f oz., magnesia as before. 

Perfumed Wax. Add to any of the above a small 
quantity of fine benzoin. 

Common Bottle Wax. 1. Dark resin 18 oz., shellac 1 
oz., beeswax 1 oz. Mix together, and color with red lead, 
Venetian red, or lamp-black. 

2. Resin 19 oz., beeswax 1 oz. ; color as before. 

Sea-Water, Artificial. See Aquarium. 

Shellac, to Bleach. See Lac, page 388. 

Silk Cleaner. Mix well together |- Bb of soft soap, a tea- 
spoonful of brandy, ^ pint of proof spirit, and ^ pint of 
water. It is to be spread with a sponge on each side of the 
silk without creasing it ; the silk is then rinsed out two or 
three times, and ironed on the wrong side. 

Silver, to Clean. See Plate Powder. To clean silver 
utensils, blackened by sulphuretted hydrogen, Bottger 
recommends a boiling saturated solution of borax, or a solu- 
tion of caustic potash, with some fragments of metallic 

Silvering- Powder, &c., for silvering copper, covering the 
worn parts of plated goods, &c. 1. Nitrate of silver 30 gr., 
common salt 30 gr., cream of tartar S^ dr. Mix. Moistened 
with water and rubbed on dial plates or other copper articles, 
it coats them with silver. 

2. Silver precipitated from its nitric solution by copper 20 
gr., alum 30 gr., cream of tartar 2 dr., salt 2 dr. 

3. Precipitated silver ^ oz., common salt 2 oz., muriate of 
ammonia 2 oz., corrosive sublimate 1 dr. ; make it into a 
paste Avith water. Copper utensils are previously boiled 
with tartar of alum, and rubbed with this paste, then made 
red-hot, and afterwards polished. 

4. Dissolve muriate of silver in a solution of hyposul- 
phite of soda, mix this with prepared hartshorn or other 
suitable powder. 

Silvering Paste. Nitrate of silver 1 part, cyanide of potas- 
siuna (Liebig's) 3 parts, water sufficient to form a thick 
paste. Apply it with a rag. A bath for the same purpose 
is made by dissolving 100 parts of sulphite of soda, and 15 
of nitrate of silver, in water, and dipping the article to be 
silvered into it. 


Electko-silvering. Mr, Watt. 1. To the crystallized 
nitrate of silver obtained by dissolving 1 oz. of fine silver 
in nitric acid, add 3 pints of cold distilled water to dissolve 
it. Precipitate with common salt. Wash well. Dissolve 
the chloride in just enough of the strong solution of cyanide 
of potassium. Filter several times, then add distilled water 
to 1 gallon. This is excellent for a dead white, or to plate 
cleaned figures, or clock-dials, which only require to be 
scratch-brushed first. Or if worked weaker, with a feeble 
battery, and a small surface of anode exposed, a thick layer 
is obtained, which will bear burnishing. 

2. Dissolve as much nitrate in the same quantity of dis- 
tilled water. Add strong solution of cyanide of potassium 
till there is no further precipitate — (not enough to redis- 
solve this). Wash the precipitated cyanide several times 
with pure water. Add now enough strong solution of 
cyanide of potassium to dissolve it, and make up the solution 
to 1 gallon. Filter before using. When it is desired that 
the articles should come out with a bright appearance, a 
little bisulphuret of carbon is added to the solution. 

Silver, Oxidized. Ornaments to which this name is given 
have a surface of silver which has been acted on by some 
chemical liquid. A solution of sal ammoniac will give a 
brownish tint ; a still better one is obtained by using equal 
parts of sulphate of copper and sal ammoniac dissolved in 
vinegar. A fine black tint may be produced by a slightly 
warm solution of sulphuret of potassium. Solutions of the 
chloride of platinum and gold are sometimes adopted in these 

Silvering Glass. See Glass. 

Silver, to Purify and Reduce. Silver, as used in the arts 
and coinage, is alloyed with a portion of copper. To purify 
it, dissolve the mental in nitric acid slightly diluted, 
and add common salt which throws down the whole of the 
silver in the form of chloride. To reduce it into a metallic 
state several methods are used : 1. The chloride must be 
repeatedly washed with distilled water, and placed in a zinc 
cup : a little diluted sulphuric acid being added, the chloride 
is soon reduced. The silver when thoroughly washed is quite 
pure. In the absence of a zinc cup, a porcelain cup contain- 
ing a zinc plate may be used. The process is expedited by 
warming the cup. 


2. Digest the washed chloride with pure copper and 
ammonia. The quantity of ammonia need not be sufficient 
to dissolve the chloride. Leave the mixture for a day, then 
wash the silver thoroughly. — Hornung. 

3. Boil the washed and moist chloride in solution of pure 
potash, adding a little sugar : when washed it is quite pure. 

Silver, Solvent for. See page 433. 

Size. Oil size is made by grinding yellow ochre or burnt red 
ochre with boiled linseed oil, and thinning it with oil of tur- 
pentine. Water size (for burnished gilding) is parchment 
size ground with yellow ochre. 

Smalts. See Pigments. 

Skeleton Leaves, to make. Steep the leaves, seed vessels, 
or other parts of the plant to be dissected, in rain-water, 
until febe whole of the soft matter is decomposed. Some 
require a few weeks, others several months. The rotted 
parts are now to be carefully removed by a fine brush, 
under the surface of water, or in a stream of water. A 
syringe is sometimes required. To bleach the skeletons 
soak them for some hours in a mixture of 1 oz. of strong 
solution of chloride of lime and a quart of distilled water. 
Lastly, wash thoroughly in cold water, and dry by exposure 
to air. 

Smoking Fluid. One drop of creasote in a pint of water 
imparts a smoky flavor to fish or meat dipped into it for a 
few minutes. 

Soap. For Perfumed and Toilet Soaps, see page 238. 
For the manufacture of soaps generally, see l)r. Ure's 
" Dictionary of the Arts," and other similar works. Hard 
soaps are made by boiling oils or fats with a lye of caustic 
soda. Soft soaps consist of oil and potash ; and as they do 
not separate from the lye like the hard soaps, they generally 
contain an excess of caustic alkali. Silica soap has silicate 
of soda incorporated with it. Soap is adulterated by earthy 
matters, as pipe-clay, &c. ; these and other impurities remain 
when soap is dissolved in alcohol. 

Soap, Marine. Patent. This, is made by substituting cocoa- 
nut oil for the fats and oils used in the manufacture of 


common soap. It has tlie advantage of forming a lather 
with salt water. 

Soda. For its medical and pharmaceutical compounds, see 
Pocket Formulary. 

Soda, Hyposulphite of. Dissolve 1 ft) of crystallized car- 
bonate of soda in a quart of boiling water. Shake |^ ft) of 
lime in another quart of water. Mix the solutions, let 
them stand in a covered vessel until cold, pour off the clear 
liquid, and boil it with more sulphur than it will dissolve. 
Pour off the clear solution into a deep vessel, and pass sul- 
phurous acid gas through it until it becomes nearly color- 
less. While still a little yellow filter, and evaporate it 
quickly in an earthen vessel to a syrupy consistence. Shake 
this with half its bulk of rectified spirit, and allow the lower 
layer to crystallize under the alcoholic solution which floats 
on it. It must be kept from the air and light. 

Solvents for India-Rubber. Ether for this purpose should 
be agitated with water, and decanted. Benzole will dissolve 
caoutchouc with Avarmth and long digestion. Rectified coal 
naphtha forms an imperfect solution employed in Macin- 
tosh's waterproof fabrics. Oil of turpentine, rendered 
pyrogenous by absorbing it with bricks of porous ware, and 
distilling it without water, and treating the product in the 
same way, is also used for this purpose. It is stated that 
the solution on evaporation does not leave the caoutchouc 
in a sticky state. Another method is to agitate oil of tur- 
pentine repeatedly with a mixture of equal weights of sul- 
phuric acid and water ; and afterwards expose it to the sun 
for some time. Bisuljjhuret of carbon is a good solvent, dis- 
solving the gum without heat. This constitutes Parke's 
Patent Solvent. Chloroform is an excellent but rather 
expensive solvent. Caoutchoucine has also been employed 
as a solvent. It is prepared by distilling India-rubber 
without addition, increasing the heat to 600° Fahr. The 
product is rectified by distilling it with one-third of water. 
It is then a colorless fluid of 0*680 specific gravity. Its 
smell is improved by agitating it with 5 oz. of nitro-muriatic 
acid to each gallon. India-rubber is rendered more readily 
soluble by first digesting it with a solution of carbonate of 
soda, or water of ammonia. 


Solvents for Gutta-Percha. Benzole readily dissolves it. 
So do chloroform and bisulphuret of carbon. 

Solvent for Old Putty and Paint. Soft soap mixed with 
solution of potash or caustic soda; or pearlash and slaked 
lime mixed with sufficient water to form a paste. Either of 
these laid on with an old brush or rag, and left for some 
hours, will render it easily removable. 

Soluble Glass. See Glass. 

Solutions used in Electrotype Manipulations, &c. 

. " For the Decomposing Cell. 1. Saturated solution of sul- 
phate of copper 2 parts, sulphuric acid 2 parts, water 6 or 8 
parts. 2. Mr. Walker directs 2 measures of a saturated 
solution of sulphate of copper, and 1 measure of accidulated 
water (1 part of sulphuric acid to 9 of water). 3. Robell's 
solution consists of 2 parts of a saturated solution of sul- 
phate of copper, and 1 part of a saturated solution of Glau- 
ber's salt, to which as much sulphate of copper has been 
added as it will take up. 

2. Grold Solution. Dissolve 2 oz. of cyanide of potassium 
(by Liebig's method) in a pint of warm distilled water, add 
\ oz. of oxide of gold, and agitate together. 

3. Silver Solution. Dissolve 2 oz. of Liebig's cyanide of 
potassium in a pint of distilled water ; add \ oz. of moist 
oxide of silver (precipitated by lime-water from a solution of 
the crystallized nitrate), and agitate together till the oxide is 

4. Solution in which Steel Articles are dipped before 
Electroplating them. Nitrate of silver 1 part, nitrate of 
mercury 1 part, nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.384) 4 parts, water 120. 

5. Solution, or Pickle, for immersing Copper Articles in 
before Electroplating. Sulphuric acid 64 parts, water 64, 
nitric acid 32, muriatic acid 1 ; mix. The article, free 
from grease, is dipped in the pickle for a second or two. 
See Gilding, Silvering, Electro-brassing, &c. 

Solution for Mullins' Voltaic Battery. In contact with 
the Zinc : 1 part of sal ammoniac to 5 of water. In contact 
with the Copper : a saturated solution of sulphate of cop- 
per. Mr. Bachhoffner uses a saturated solution of com- 
mon salt and a saturated solution of sulphate of copper. 


Solution for Soldering. Dissolve zinc in muriatic acid to 
saturation, and pulverized sal amnioniac, and boil for a short 
time. Applied with a sponge or feather it facilitates the 
flow of the solder. 

Solutions for the "Water-bath. Various salts dissolved in 
water materially raise the boiling-point, and thus afford 
the means of obtaining a steady temperature at different 
degrees above 212°. The following are some of the most 
useful : 

A saturated solution of nitrate of soda boils at 246° 
" " Rochelle salts at . . 240 

" " nitre at 238 

" " muriate of soda at . 224 

" " sulphate of magnesia at 222 

Solvent for Silver. Nitro-sulphuric Acid. Dissolve T 
part of nitre in 10 parts of oil of vitriol. Used for dissolv- 
ing the silver from plated goods, &c. It dissolves silver at 
a temperature below 200°, and scarcely acts upon copper,, 
lead, and iron, unless diluted. The silver is precipitated, 
from the solution, after moderately diluting it, by common 
salt, and the chloride reduced as directed, page 428. 

Spirit of Nitric Ether. See P. F. It need only be added' 
here, that its acidity is removed and prevented by rectifying, 
it from neutral tartrate of potash. 

Sponge, Blanched. Soak the sponges for several days in. 
cold water, renewing the water and squeezing the sponges 
occasionally. Then wash them in warm water, and place 
them in cold water to which a little muriatic acid has been 
added. Next day take them out and wash them thoroughly 
in soft water ; then immerse them in an aqueous sulphur- 
ous acid fsp. gr. 1.034) for a week. They are afterwards 
washed in plenty of water, squeezed, and allowed to dry in 
the air. For burnt, prepared, and waxed sponge, see 
Spongia, p. F. 

Stains for Wood, Ivory, &c. See Ivory, to Stain ; Wood, 
Stains for ; Bookbinder's Stains, &c. 

Stains, to Remove. Stains of iodine are removed by rectified 
spirit. Ink stains by oxalic acid or superoxalate of potash. 
Iron moulds by the same ; but, if obstinate, it has been 
recommended to moisten them with ink, then remove them 
in the usual way. See page 425. 



G-rease Spots. See Scouring Drops. 

• Bed Spots on black cloth, from acids, are removed by- 
spirits of hartshorn, or other solutions of ammonia. 

Stains of Marking Ink or Nitrate of Silver, to remove. 1. 
Wet the stain with fresh solution of chloride of lime, and 
after 10 or 15 minutes, if the marks have become white, dip 
the part in solution of ammonia or of hyposulphite of soda. 
In a few minutes wash with clean water. 

2. Stretch the stained linen over a basin of hot water, wet 
the mark with tincture of iodine. 

3. They may also be removed by cyanide of potassium ; 
but this should be done by the druggist, and not intrusted to 
any one else. 

Starch. Starch is procured from various roots and seeds. 
Its varieties are numerous ; but a few of the most important 
only can be noticed here. 

Arrowroot (West Indian). The fecula of the tubers of 
the Maranta arundinacea. The fresh tubes are washed and 
beaten to a pulp, which is well stirred in a large tub of cold 
clean water, and the fibrous part wrung out by the hands, 
and thrown away. The water in which the fecula is sus- 
pended is passed through a hair sieve or coarse cloth, allowed 
to settle, and the water poured off. After being repeatedly 
washed, the wet starch is drained, and afterwards dried in the 
sun. (The other varieties of arrowroot (see page 277) are pre- 
ipared by analogous processes from the roots which yield them.) 

Potato Starch. The tubers are washed and peeled, usu- 
ally by machinery, rasped by a revolving grater, and the 
pulp washed on hair sieves till freed from the starchy matter. 
Successive portions of the pulp are thus treated till the 
vessel over which the sieves are placed is sufiiciently full. 
The starch held in suspension in water subsides to the 
bottom ; the water is then drawn off, and the starch stirred 
.up with fresh water, and again allowed to subside. This is 
repeated several times till the starch is sufficiently pure. 
The fibres and the washing waters are used as manures. 
The washed fibres have also been recommended as an in- 
gredient in bread for diabetic patients. 

Wheat Starch. Wheat flour is steeped in water for a 
week or two and allowed to ferment. The acid liquor is 
drawn off, and the residue washed on a sieve : what passes 


through is allowed to settle, the sour liquor drawn off, and 
the starch thoroughly washed from the slimy matter. It is 
. then drained in perforated boxes, cut up into square lumps, 
placed on bricks to absorb the moisture, and dried in a stove. 
See Dr. Pereira's " Elements." 

Various means are adopted to free the starch from gluten 
and other impurities. In the patent rice starch, and proba- 
bly other kinds of starch, alkaline solutions are used. Am- 
monia has been recommended, as it does not, like potash and 
soda, dissolve any portion of pure starch. 

The various kinds of fecula are distinguishable by the 
form of their particles or grains. By a microscopical 
examination of these the mixture or substitution of potato 
starch with the more expensive kinds is readily detected. 
Figures of the different kinds of starch grains are given i,ii 
the " Pharmaceutical Journal," vol. iv., in Dr. Pereira S 
"Elements," &c. M. Gobley has proposed to distinguish 
them by the coloration produced when the several kinds are 
exposed to the vapor of iodine ; but the effect seems to de- 
pend greatly on the relative dryness of the samples. 

Stearine, Stearic Acid. Fat is saponified, and the soap 
decomposed by an acid, with a large quantity of water, the 
mixture being kept warm and well stirred. The water being 
drawn off, the fatty matter is well washed, allowed to cool, 
and submitted to strong pressure. 

Storm Glass. Take 2| dr. of camphor, 38 gr. of nitre, and 
38 gr. of sal ammoniac ; dissolve them in 9 dr. of water, and 
6 dr. of rectified spirit, with a gentle heat. It is placed in a 
glass tube covered with a brass cap, with a small hole to 
admit air. Or it may be put in an eau de Cologne or other 
long bottle, tied over with bladder. Its various changes are 
supposed to indicate changes of weather, but the indications 
are not to be relied on. 

Stuffing Birds and Animals, Preparations for. 1. Cam- 
phor 1 oz., corrosive sublimate 1 oz., alum J oz.j sulphur 1 
oz. ; all finely powdered and mixed. 

2. Tanner's bark dried and powdered 2 oz., burnt alum 1 
oz., snuff 1 oz. ; mix, and add arsenic ^ oz., camphor ^ oz., 
sulphur 1 dr. 

3. Becceur's Arsenical Soap. Camphor 5 .dr., arsenic 4 
oz., white soap 4 oz., carbonate of potash 12 oz., air-slaked 
lime 4 oz. ; make a stiff paste with a little water. 


Styrol. Mix 20 parts of storax with 7 of carbonate of soda, 
and put them into a retort with water, and apply heat. A 
limpid fluid distils, which becomes, when heated to a certain 
point, a transparent solid. 

Sugar Resin. Mix 16 parts of strong sulphuric acid Avith 8 
of the strongest nitric acid ; when cooled to 70° Fahr. stir 
in 1 part of finely-powdered sugar. In a few seconds, when 
the sugar has become pasty, take it out of the acid and 
plunge it into cold water. Add more sugar to the acid, and 
proceed as before. Wash the resinous matter carefully, and 

, dissolve it in alcohol or ether. Evaporate the solution with 
a gentle heat. It is very combustible. Its solution may 
be used to render gunpowder, lucifer matches, &c., water- 

Sulphite of Copper. To a concentrated solution of bi- 
sulphite of potash add a cold solution of sulphate of copper, 
filter, and heat gently. 

SuLPHOCYANiDE OF Ammonium. Saturate 2 parts of common 
water of ammonia (sp. gr. 0.950) with sulphuretted hydro- 
gen ; and add 6 parts of the same ammonia. To this mix- 
ture add 2 parts of sulphur, and the product of the distilla- 
tion of 6 parts of prussiate of potash, 3 of sulphuric acid, 
and 18 of water. Digest till the sulphur is no longer acted 
on, and the liquid becomes yellow. Boil the liquid till it 
becomes colorless, filter, evaporate, and crystalHze. 

Sulphuret of Carbon. See Bisulphuret of Carbon. 

Syrup of Milk. Evaporate, with constant stirring, 6 lb of 
skimmed milk to 3 ib ; add 4J lb of sugar ; dissolve with a 
gentle heat, and strain. It may be flavored with the addi- 
tion of 1 oz. of cherry-laurel water. (For other Syrups, see 
P. F.) Milk may be preserved by first heating it, and, when 
cold, charging it with carbonic acid gas. 

Tannin. See Acid, Tannic, page 307. 

Terpine. Leave oil of turpentine for a long time in contact 
with a mixture of nitric acid and alcohol. Crystals of ter- 
pine form. By boiling an aqueous solution of terpine with a 
small quantity of sulphuric or other acid, terpinole is formed, 
and may be separated by distillation. It has the odor of 



Test Liquors, Test Papers, &c. Distilled water only should 
be used in these preparations. In preparing the papers, 
the liquid should be placed in an earthenware plate or dish, 
and the paper carefully immersed in it so as to be uniformly 
wetted, then dried out of the reach of acid, ammoniacal, or 
other vapors likely to affect it ; and afterwards kept in 
bottles, jars or cases. Dr. Faraday recommends unsized 
paper, but Mr. Parnell and other good authorities direct 
good letter paper to be used. 

Brazil Paper. Dip paper in a strong decoction of Brazil 
wood, and dry it. (It is rendered purple or violet by alka- 
lies ; generally yellow by acids.) 

Qahhage Paper. Make a strong infusion of red cabbage 
leaves, strain it, and evaporate it by a gentle heat till con- 
siderably reduced. Then dip the paper in it and dry it in 
the air. (This paper is of a grayish color ; alkalies change 
it to green, acids to red. It is a very delicate test ; if 
rendered slightly green by an alkali, carbonic acid will re- 
store the color.) 

Dahlia Paper. From the petals of violet dahlias, as 
cabbage paper. 

Elder-berry Paper. This is merely paper stained with 
the juice of the berries. Its blue color is changed to red by 
acids, and to green by alkalies. 

Indigo Paper. Immerse paper in sulphate of indigo, 
wash it with water rendered slightly alkaline, then with 
pure water, and dry it in the air. 

Iodide of Potassium and Starch Paper. Mix starch paste 
with solution of iodide of potassium, and moisten bibulous 
paper with it. (It becomes blue when exposed to ozone. 
Chlorine has the same effect.) 

Jjead Paper. Paper dipped in a solution of acetate of 
lead. (When moistened it detects sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which renders it black.) 

Blue Litmus Paper. Bruise 1 oz. of litmus in a mortar, 
and add boiling water ; triturate together, put them in a 
flask, and add boiling water to make up to half a pint ; when 
cool, strain it, and dip paper in it. More color may be ex- 
tracted from the litmus by hot water, but the liquid will re- 
quire to be concentrated by evaporation. (Acids change 


the color to red, but it does not become green' with alka- 

Red Litmus Paper. As the last, adding to the strained 
infusion a few drops of nitric acid, or of pure acetic acid. 
Dr. Faraday recommends holding blue litmus paper over a 
large jar, into which a few drops of muriatic acid have been 
introduced, till sufficiently reddened. 

Rose Paper. Make a strong infusion of the petals of the 
red rose, and dip unsized paper in it. Dipped in an alkaline 
solution, so weak as not to affect turmeric paper, it assumes 
- a bright green color. 

Manganese Paper. Dip paper in a solution of sulphate 
of manganese. (It becomes black in an ozonized atmos- 

Rhuharh Paper. Dip paper in a strong infusion of rhubarb, 
and dry it. (Alkalies render it brow;n. It is not, like tur- 
meric paper, affected by boracic acid.) 

Starch Paper. This is merely paper imbued with starch 
paste. Cotton cord is sometimes used instead of paper. 
(As a test for iodine, which it turns blue.) 

Turmeric Paper. Boil 1 oz. of coarsely-powdered tur- 
root in half a pint of water for half an hour, and strain ; 
dip paper in the liquid, and dry it. (It is rendered brown 
by alkalies, and also by boracic acid and borates.) 

Test Solutions, &c. (The vegetable preparations are here 
placed first.) 

Tincture and Infusion of Red Oahhage. Digest red cab- 
bage with rectified spirit in a warm place for a few days ; 
strain, distil off most of the spirit, and evaporate what re- 
mains to the consistence of syrup. It will keep for years. 
"When required for use, dilute it with a little water ; or the 
concentrated infusion directed above for the paper may have 
a little spirit added to it. (If the cabbage leaves be well 
dried, they may be kept in a close vessel for use, and a 
strong infusion made when wanted.) 

Acid Infusion of Red Cabbage. Dr. Faraday directs 
one or more red cabbages to be cut up in strips, and boiling- 
water poured on them, and a little dilute sulphuric acid 
(equal to J oz. of oil of vitriol to a large cabbage) to be 


added, and the whole kept hot for an hour or two in a 
copper or earthen vessel. It is then strained, the cabbage 
infused in a little more water and acid, and the mixed infu- 
sion evaporated to one-third its first bulk, allowed to settle 
and put into bottles. When required for use, the acid is 
neutralized by caustic potash or soda. Another plan is to 
dry the leaves at 120°, and when required for use to make 
a strong infusion, adding a drop of sulphuric acid to neutral- 
ize the strained infusion with marble ; filter, and add a little 
spirit, if required to be kept. 

Infusion or Tincture of Litmus. This is made as directed 
above for litmus paper. Or an ounce of powdered litmus 
may be triturated with 6 oz. of boiling water, digested near 
the fire for an hour, and mixed, when cool, with 2 oz. of 
spirit. Or digest 1 oz. of powdered litmus in a pint of 
proof spirit for 7 days. If required red, a few drops of ace- 
tic acid are added to either of these. The next day, decant 
the clear liquor. Dr. Pereiea directs 1 part of litmus to 
25 of water. When made very strong, it must be diluted 
when used. 

Tincture of Gfalls, Infusion of G-alls, ^c. Fresh pow- 
dered blue galls 1 oz , proof spirit 8 oz. ; digest in a close 
vessel for a week, and filter. A watery infusion of galls 
may be made in the same proportion with boiling water for 
immediate use. Pettenkofer directs 1 oz. of powdered 
galls to be infused in 3 or 4 oz. of boiling water for several 
hours, and 2 oz. of salt added. After filtration, it retains 
its transparency and power of precipitating gelatine for 
years. (This is used to detect iron, with the salts of which 
it produces a black color ; for gelatine, which it precipitates 
in brownish-white fiocks ; and several of the organic alka- 

Marsh's Dahlia Test. Make a strong infusion of the 
petals of dark dahlias ; strain, and add to every pint i- oz. 
of strong sulphuric acid ; stir w^ith a glass rod, and when 
cold, add to each pint 2 gr. of corrosive sublimate. Filter 
through coarse cloth, and bottle. When required for use, 
neutralize it carefully with ammonia, and use the liquid by 
dipping paper in it. 

Syriip of Violets. On 4 oz. of fresh petals of violets pour 
half a pint of water at 104° Fahrenheit, stir them together, 
and in a minute or two strain ofl" the water with gentle 


pressure, and pour 8 oz. of boiling distilled water on the 
flowers. In 12 hours, strain through linen, let the infusion 
settle, and decant, then dissolve in it twice its weight of re- 
fined sugar, by a gentle heat. (A delicate test for acids 
and alkalies.) 

Dr. Clark's Test for Hardness of Water. Dissolve 1 oz. 
of Hawes's best white soap in a gallon of proof spirit. If 
not of such strength that it requires 32 measures to be 
added to 100 measures of solution of chloride of calcium of 
16 degrees of hardness" (see below) before it lathers, it must 
be adjusted to that strength. (The chloride of calcium 
-solution is thus made: Dissolve 16 gr. of pure carbonate of 
" lime in a small quantity of pure hydrochloric acid, avoiding 
loss for effervescence ; evaporate the solution to dryness, 
and dissolve the residue in water, and again evaporate till a 
neutral solution is obtained; then dissolve in a gallon of 
water. This forms the standard solution of 16 degrees of 
hardness. One measure of this solution with 15 of distilled 
water constitutes a solution of one degree of hardness; and 
so on up to 16 degrees. The degree of hardness expresses 
the number of grains of carbonate of lime per gallon con- 
tained in the watei*. For the mode of using this test, 
see Dr. Clark's pamphlet, or Parnell's Chemical Analy- 

Solution of Qarhonate of Ammonia. Mr. Pajrnell directs 
this test to be prepared by dissolving 1 part of sublimed 
carbonate of ammonia in 3 of water, and adding 1 part of 
water of ammonia. 

Solution of Oxalate of Ammonia. Dissolve 1 oz. of crys- 
tallized oxalate of ammonia in a pint of water. 

Solution of Sulphuretted Hydrogen. Pass sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas (see Gases, page 361) through cold distilled 
water, which has been recently boiled, till it will absorb no 
more. Keep it in small bottles securely closed. 

Solution of Hydro sulphur et of Ammonia. Pass sulphu- 
retted hydrogen gas (see page 361) through water of ammo- 
nia till the liquid occasions no precipitate in a solution of 
sulphate of magnesia. 

'Solution of Ammonio -nitrate of Silver. To a solution of 
nitrate of silver (1 part of crystallized nitrate to 20 of dis- 
tilled water) add gradually weak water of ammonia till a 
mere trace of the oxide first precipitated is left undissolved. 


Let it settle, decant it into a clean stoppered bottle, and 
keep it from the light. The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia 
directs 44 grains of nitrate of silver to be dissolved in a fluid 
ounce of water, and sufficient ammonia added as above. (It 
gives a pale yellow precipitate with arsenious acid, and a 
chocolate red with arsenic acid ; the same with their salts.) 

Solution of Nitrate of Silver. The Edinburgh Pharmaco- 
poeia directs this test to be prepared by dissolving 40 grs. 
of the nitrate in a fluid ounce of distilled water. The Lon- 
don Pharmacopoeia directs 60 gr. to a fluid ounce. Mr. 
Parnell recommends 1 part to 15 or 20 of water. (It is 
used chiefly for the detection of chlorine or muriatic acid. 
The precipitate, chloride of silver, is insoluble in nitric acid. 
Also for hydrocyanic acid, with which it gives a white pre- 
cipitate, which is decomposed by heat, the silvering being 

Solution of Ammonio-sulphate of Copper. Dissolve 1 dr. 
of sulphate of copper in 2 oz. of water, and add ammonia 
till the precipitate first thrown down is nearly all dissolved. 
Let it settle, and pour off" the clear solution. (Chiefly used 
as a test for arsenical compounds, with which it gives a green 

Solution of Chloride of Barium. Dissolve 60 grains of 
the chloride in a fluid ounce of distilled water. 

Solution of Nitrate of Barytes. (Ed. Ph.) Dissolve 40 
grains of nitrate of barytes in 800 grains of distilled 

Solution of Indigo. Digest 1 part of fine indigo in 10 
parts of oil of vitriol, and dilute with water. 
Eor the Test Solutions of the B. P. see P. F. 

Hahnemann's Wine Test, for detecting lead in wine. 
Sulphuret of lime 3 oz., tartaric acid 3 oz., water 2 lb, mix, 
decant and add 1 oz. of tartaric acid. Or, simple sul- 
phuretted hydrogen water 4 oz., tartaric acid 1 dr. 

Trommer's Test for sugar in urine. Put some of the 
suspected urine into a large test tube, and add a few drops 
of solution of sulphate of copper, then sufficient solution of 
potash to render it strongly alkaline. If sugar be present, 
the precipitated oxide redissolves into a blue liquid, and on 
boiling red oxide of copper is precipitated. (White merino 


that has been wet with a solution of bichloride of tin is said 
to form a ready test for sugar in urine, &c. A portion wet 
with the suspected liquor, and exposed to 260° to 300° of 
heat, becomes blackened if sugar is present.) The follow- 
ing is proposed as a quantitative test for sugar : Dissolve 
400 grains of pure crystallized sulphate of copper in 1600 
grains of distilled water ; add this gradually to a solution of 
1600 grains of neutral tartrate of potash in a little water 

. mixed with 6000 or 7000 grains of solution of caustic soda, 
of 1.12 sp. gr. Add water to make up the whole 11,544 
grain measures (26 fl. oz., 2 fl. dr., 54 minims). 1000 grain 

. measures are equivalent to 5 grains of grape sugar. 

Pbttenkofer's Test for bile, in urine, &c. Put a small 
quantity of the suspected liquid into a test-tube, and add to 
it, drop by drop, strong sulphuric acid till it becomes warm, 
taking care not to raise the temperature above 122° Fahr. 
Then add from 2 to 5 drops of syrup, made with 5 parts of 
sugar to 4 of water, and shake the mixture. If the liquid 
contain bile, a violet coloration is observed. Acetic acid, 
and those substances which are converted into sugar by sul- 
phuric acid, may be substituted for sugar. 

ToBAcgo Water. See Washes for vermin on plants. 

Touch Paper. Dip a piece of white blotting-paper, or print- 
ing-paper, in a solution of 1 oz. of nitre in 8 oz. of water. 
Dry it perfectly. 

Trees, Metallic. Lead Tree. Dissolve 1 oz. of sugar of 
lead in a quart of distilled or filtered rain-water, adding a 
few drops of acetic acid. Filter, and put the clear solution 
into a decanter or bottle. Suspend in it a piece of zinc, 
and set it aside. 

Silver Tree. Dissolve 20 gr. of crystallized nitrate of 
silver in an ounce of distilled water ; put into a vial, and 
add about J a drachm of pure quicksilver. 

Tin Tree. Dissolve 3 dr. of muriate of tin in a pint and 
a half of water, with 10 or 15 drops of nitric acid ; and 
suspend in it a rod of zinc. 

Turpentine, Venice (factitious). It is usually made by dis- 
solving black resin in oil of turpentine. Dr. Pereira 
states the proportion to be 5 fluid oz. of the oil to 16 oz. of 
resin ; but some makers put as much as 8, 10, or even 12 


oz. of oil of turpentine to each pound of resin. (We have 
introduced this factitious preparation because no genuine 
Venice (or larch) turpentine is now to be obtained.) 

Turpentine, Oil of. Common turpentine, chiefly American, 
is distilled with water ; the oil comes over with the water, 
and is found floating on it. It is rectified by distilling it 
again with water. See Camphene and Solvents for India 
Rubber, for further modifications of this oil. 

Urn Powder. Oxide of iron, crocus, or jewellers' rouge. * 

Varnishes. These constitute a distinct branch of manufacture, 
and many of them can be advantageously or safely made 
only on the large scale on premises adapted for the purpose. 
A few of the most easily prepared and useful varnishes have 
been selected for insertion. For fuller information see Dr. 
Ure's "Dictionary of Arts," Dumas' " Chimie appliqu^e 
aux Arts, &c." Some practical information on this subject 
will be found in Mr. Redwood's edition of Gray's Supple- 
ment, and in the 49th vol. of the Transactions of the Society 
of Arts. 

Spirit Varnishes. The spirit employed should not be less 
than 60° overproof. In preparing and using them, they 
should be kept at a distance from a candle or other flame. 
Respecting the gums (resins) employed, it may be useful to 
mention that shellac is rendered more soluble by being pow- 
dered and exposed for a long time to the air ; sandarach gives 
hardness to varnishes ; mastic gives a gloss to a solution of 
other gums ; benzoin still more, but its color is objectionable ; 
anime readily dissolves, but renders the varnish long in dry- 
ing ; copal and amber are scarcely soluble in spirit, but are 
rendered partially so by other gums, and also by being pre- 
viously fused by heat. Shellac gives a durable varnish, 
objectionable only on account of its color, which may be 
rendered paler by charcoal. See Lac. 

1. White Spirit Varnish. Rectified spirit 2 gallons, gum 
sandarach 5 K). Put them into a tin bottle, cork securely, 
and agitate frequently, placing the tin occasionally in hot 
water till the gum is dissolved, then add a quart of pale tur- 
pentine varnish. 

2. Brown. Rectified spirit 2 gallons, sandarach 3 lb, 
shellac 2 ft), pale turpentine varnish a quart. Proceed as 
the last. 


3. Sandarach 2 oz., shellac | oz., rectified spirit 16 fluid 

4. Wliite. Gum sandarach 1|^ oz., mastic |^ oz,, elemi \ 
oz., foreign oil of lavender \ oz., rectified spirit 8 oz. 

Copal Spirit, or Drying Varnish. Copal, fused and pul- 
verized, 3 oz., sandarach 6 oz., mastic 3 oz., Venice turpen- 
tine 2| oz., highly rectified spirit a quart, powdered glass 3 
oz. Mix the powdered glass and resins, and sift them ; in- 
troduce them into a matrass with the spirit, and heat to boil- 
ing, constantly agitating till the gums are dissolved ; then 
add the turpentine. Heat the varnish for half an hour, and 
" when removed from the fire agitate till cold. 

Brilliant Amher Spirit Varnish. Fused amber 4 oz., 
sandarach 4 oz., mastic 4 oz., highly rectified spirit a quart. 
Expose to the heat of a sand-bath, with occasional agitation, 
till dissolved. (The amber is fused in a close copper vessel, 
having a funnel-shaped projection, which passes through the 
bottom of the furnace by which the vessel is heated.) 

Amber Varnish for Photographs. Dissolve 3 to 4 gr. of 
amber in 1 ounce of chloroform. 

Colorless Variiish for Photographs. Dissolve shellac by 
heat in 8 parts of water and 1 of pearlash. Precipitate by 
chlorine, and dissolve in rectified spirit. — Dr. Hare. 

Chinese Varnish. Mastic 2 oz., sandarach 2 oz., rectified 
spirit a pint. Close the matrass with bladder, with a pin- 
hole for the escape of vapor ; heat to boiling in a sand or 
water-bath, and when dissolved strain through linen. 

Crystal Varnish. Picked mastic 4 oz., rectified spirit a 
pint, animal charcoal 1 oz. Digest and filter. 

French Polish and Lacquers are varieties of spirit var- 
nishes. The former has already been noticed (page 353). 
A few formulae for the latter are here added : 

Pale or Gfold Lacquers. To a pint of rectified spirit add 
as much gamboge as will give it a bright yellow color, then 
add 12 oz. of seed-lac in fine powder, and set it in a sand- 
bath till dissolved. Or a tincture of annotto (1 part to 8 of 
spirit) may be added to give th« desired color. 

Darh Lacquer. Clear seed-lac 1 Bb, dragon's blood 1 oz. ; 


pulverize together, and add them to a pint and a half of 
rectified spirit. Set in a warm place till dissolved. 

Lacquer for Brass Work. Turmeric 1 oz., saffron J oz., 
Spanish annotto J oz., rectified spirit a pint. Digest at 
a gentle heat for several days ; strain through coarse linen, 
put the tincture in a bottle, and add 3 oz. of good seed- 
lac coarsely powdered. Place in a moderate heat, and 
shake frequently till dissolved ; if wanted of a redder shade, 
increase the quantity of annotto, or add a little dragon's 
blood. (Some makers prepare a strong tincture of the 
various coloring ingredients, and add them to the lacquer 
to produce the required shade.) 

Oil of turpentine, and other essential oils, are used as 
solvents, forming essence varnishes, as the following : 

Mastic Varnish. Clean mastic 5 oz., rectified oil of tur- 
pentine (camphene) a quart. Digest in a warm place, shaking 
frequently till the solution is complete, then strain. 

Picture Varnish. Ohio turpentine 2J oz., mastic 12 oz., 
camphor J dr., pounded glass 4 oz., rectified oil of turpentine 

3 pints. For oil paintings. 

Canada Varnish. Clear Balsam of Canada 4 oz., cam- 
phene 8 oz. ; warm gently, and shake together till dissolved. 
For maps, drawings, &c. ; they are first sized over with a 
solution of isinglass, taking care that every part is covered ; 
when dry, the varnish is brushed over it. 

Tingry's Essence Varnish. Mastic in powder 12 oz., pure 
turpentine 1| oz., camphor \ oz., powdered glass 5 oz., 
rectified oil of turpentine a quart. 

Common Turpentine Varnish. This is merely clear pale 
resin dissolved in oil of turpentine ; usually 5 ft) of resin 
to 7 ft) of turpentine. 

Oil Varnishes. These consist of copal and other gums 
dissolved by heat in boiled linseed oil ; generally with the 
addition of oil of turpentine. 

Cabinet Varnish. , Fuse 7 ft) of African copal, and pour 
on it 4 pints of hot clarified linseed oil (see Oils) ; in 3 or 

4 minutes, if it feels stringy, take it out of the building, 
where there is no fire near, and when it has cooled to 150° 
mix in 3 gallons of oil of turpentine of the same temperature, 
or sufficient to bring it to a due consistance. (Various 
qualities of copal varnish are made for different purposes ; 


inferior gums are often substituted for or mixed with, 

Amber Varnish. Amber 16 oz. ; melt in an iron pot, 
and add J pint of drying linseed oil, boiling hot, and then 
3 oz. of resin and 3 oz. of asphalte, each in fine powder. 
Stir till they are thoroughly incorporated ; remove from the 
fire, and add a pint of warm oil of turpentine. 

Common Oil Varnish. Resin 3 K), drying oil J a gallon ; 
melt together, and add, when removed from the fire, 2 quarts 
of warm oil of turpentine. 

Varnish for Printers' Ink. To every 10 Sb of clarified 
linseed oil (page 389) add 5 lb of clear black resin, and 
J ft) oil of turpentine. It is then ready for mixing with 
lamp-black or other coloring matter. A twelfth part of 
Canada balsam is sometimes added for the finer parts. 

A few miscellaneous varnishes are added. 

Varnish for Engraving on Copper. Yellow wax 1 oz,, 
mastic 1 oz., asphaltum Joz.; melt, pour into water, and 
form into balls for use. A softer varnish for engravers is 
made with 1 part of tallow and 2 of yellow wax; or with 
2 oz. of wax, 1 dr. of common turpentine, and 1 dr. olive 
oil. See Etching Varnishes, page 347. 

Varnish for Engraving on Grlass. 1. Wax 1 oz., mastic 
J oz., asphaltum J oz., turpentine J dr. 

2. Mastic 15 parts, turpentine 7, oil of spike 4 parts. 

Le Blond's Varnish. Keep 4 ft) of balsam of copaiva 
warm in a sand or water-bath, and add 16 oz. of copal, pre- 
viously fused and coarsely powdered, by single ounces daily, 
and stir it frequently; when dissolved add a little Ohio 

Bessemer' s Varnish, for metallic paint. This is made 
with 8 ft) of copal, 2J gallons of drying oil, and 25 gallons 
of oil of turpentine. These are made into a varnish nearly 
as directed for Cabinet Varnish ; and afterwards mixed with 
a gallon of slaked lime, and left for 3 days to settle. The 
clear portion is then drawn ofi", and .5 parts of varnish mixed 
with 4 parts of bronze powder. 

Macintosh's Caoutchouc Varnish. Dissolve 1 ft) of 
India-rubber cut in shreds in a quarter of a pint of rectified 
coal naphtha. (Caoutchouc varnishes may be made with 
any of the solvents noticed above, page 431. The following 
are also used :) 


India-Ruhher Varfiish, for boots. Dissolve J oz. of 
caoutchouc in 2 oz. of mineral naphtha. Dissolve also 
^ oz. of asphaltum in 1 oz. of oil of turpentine. Mix the 

Balloon Varnish. Melt India-rubber in small pieces with 
its weight of boiled linseed oil, and thin it with oil of tur- 

Varnish for Frames for Hot Beds. Mix 4 oz. of pulver- 
ized white cheese, 2 oz. of slaked lime, and 4 oz. of boiled 
linseed oil. Mix, and add 4 oz. each of whites and yolks 
of eggs, and liquefy the mixture by heat. This curious 
mixture is said to produce a pliable and transparent 

Colored Varnishes. Oil varnishes are colored by grinding 
with them the most transparent colors, as distilled verdigris 
for green, &c. Spirit varnishes are also colored with dragon's 
blood, gamboge, &c. 

Sealing-Wax Varnish. Black or colored sealing-wax 
broken small, and suflBcient rectified spirit to cover it, 
digested till dissolved. An article called black lac is sold 
as an economical substitute for black sealing-wax. 

Black Japan for Leather, ^c. Boil together a gallon of 
boiled linseed oil, 8 oz. of umber, and 3 oz. of asphal- 
tum. When sufficiently cool, thin in with oil of tur- 

Jajjan for Tin-ware. 1. Common Copal varnish. 2. 
Dissolve copal 2 oz., and camphor 1 dr., in oil of turpentine 
8 oz. 

Brunswick Black. Melt 4 lb of asphaltum, and 2 lb of 
hot boiled linseed oil, and when sufficiently cool add a gallon 
of oil of turpentine. 

Varnish for Cfun Barrels, after browning them. Shellac 
1 oz., dragon's blood |- oz., rectified spirit a quart." Dissolve 
and filter. 

Transfer Varnish. Alcohol 5 oz., pure Venice turpentine 
4 oz., mastic 1 oz. 

Jfair Varnish. Dissolve 1 part of clippings of pigs' 
bristles, or of horsehair, in 10 parts of drying linseed oil 
by heat. Fibrous materials (cotton, flax, silk, &c.), imbued 


■with the varnish and dried, are used as a substitute for 

Glass Varnisli. This is a solution of soluble glass, and 
should be thus made : Fuse together 15 parts of powdered 
quartz (or of fine sand), 10 parts of potash, and 1 of char- 
coal. Pulverize the mass, and expose it for some days to the 
air ; treat the whole with cold water, which removes the 
foreign salts, &c. Boil the residue in 5 parts of water until 
it dissolves. It is permanent in the air, and not dissolved 
by cold water. Used to j^rotect wood, ^c, from fire. 

Vegetable Parchment. De la Rue's Patent. Strong un- 
sized paper is immersed for a few seconds in oil of vitriol, 
diluted with half its volume of water. It is then washed in 
pure water. It strongly resembles animal parchment, and is 
used for the same purpose. (The acid solution must be 
exactly of the strength indicated, and not warmer than 
the air around.) 

YiXEGAR. Vinegar may be made from wine or ale, by keep- 
ing it for some weeks or months in a warm place, with access 
of air. In this country it is usually made from malt, or a 
mixture of malted and unmalted barley, which is mashed as 
for beer, and fermented with yeast. The fermented liquor 
is then placed in a -warm room for many weeks in unclosed 
casks, and finished bv transferring it into large vessels with 
false bottoms, on which are placed the refuse raisins, &c., 
from which wine has been prepared. A much quicker 
method of acetification is sometimes employed: the fer- 
mented liquor is made to pass in drops into tubs filled with 
beech chips, so as to expose an extended surface to the 
action of the air. In Germany it is also made by the direct 
acetification of spirit by means of platina black. The 
method of preparing wood vinegar has already been noticed. 
(See Ptroligxeous Acid.) The following is one of the pro- 
cesses followed in making vinegar from sugar : Boil 10 gal- 
lons of water for 10 minutes with a quart of bran ; run it 
into a tub through a flannel, and put into it 12 ft of coarse 
brown sugar, and when cooled to 70° add a quart of yeast 
at three diff"erent times. Let it work for four days, then 
take oS" the yeast, and run the liquor into a clean tub. Fill 
the tub nearly with the liquor, leaving room for 2 ft of 
bruised crab apples and 1 ft of raisins. If it ferments, add 

MISCELLA^^;ous treparatioxs. 4-49 

a little reserved liquor, or water boiled with sugar, till the 
fermentation ceases. Then place the cask upon a plank 
fronting the sun in summer, and near the fire in winter. 
Put into it 1 oz. of isinglass well beaten up with a quart of 
old vinegar, and cover the bunghole with a piece of hop-bag 
(fastened to the edge of the hole by pitch), and lay a tile 
over it. Leave it in this state till it becomes fit for use. 
On a small scale, Dr. Turxer states that vinegar may be 
^ made from 120 parts of water, 12 of brandy, 3 of brown 
sugar, 1 of tartar, and J of sour dough, left some weeks in 
a warm place. 

Wafers, Gelati:?sE. Dissolve fine glue or isinglass in such a 
quantity of water as that the solution, when cold, may be 
consistent. Pour it hot on a plate of mirror glass (previ- 
ously warmed with steam and slightly greased), which is 
fitted in a metallic frame, having edges just as high as the 
wafers should be thick. Lav on the surface a second glass 
plate, also hot and greased, so as to touch every point of the 
o;elatine while resting on the edges of the frame. Bv its 
pressure the thin cake is rendered uniform. When the 
glass plates have cooled, the gelatine will be solid, and may 
be removed. It is cut into discs of different sizes by means 
of proper punches. 

Washes for Yermix ix Plaxts. 1. Tobacco Wafer. In- 
fuse 1 ft) of tobacco in a gallon of boiling water, in a covered 
vessel, till cold. 

2. Far Lice in Vines. Boil ^ ft) of tobacco in 2 quarts 
of water ; strain, and add |- ftj of soft soap and J ft) of sul- 
phur ; mix. 

3. For Aphides. Boil 2 oz. of lime and 1 oz. of sulphur 
in water, and strain. 

4. For Red Spiders. A teaspoonful of salt in a gallon 
of water. In a few days wash the plant with pure water. 
See Blights, remedies for. 

Washixg Powders. These consist of soda-ash combined with 
gelatinous substances, as a solution of glue, linseed jelly, &c., 
dried and powdered. 

Washixg Liquids are chiefly solutions of caustic soda. 

Water for Marixe xiQUARirii. See p. 313. 

Water, Hard, Dr. Clark's patent for softening. This con- 
sists simply in adding milk of lime to the water in the 



reservoir. It .combines with free carbonic acid-, which it 
precipitates as carbonate of lime, and at the same time 
causes the deposition of the carbonate of lime previously 
held in solution by that gas. 

Waterproofing Compounds. For Boots, ^c. 1. (Roome's 
patent.) Suet 8 oz., linseed oil 8 oz., yellow beeswax 6 oz., 
neatsfoot oil 1^ oz., lamp-black 1 oz., litharge J oz. Melt 
together, and stir till cold. 

2. Linseed oil 8 oz.,. boiled ditto 10 oz., suet 8 oz., yelloAV 
wax 8 oz. Melt. 

3. Dr. Harvard's. Wax 8 oz., resin 4 oz., mutton suet 
> 4 oz. ; boil together, and apply warm to new boots. 

4. Col. Hawker's. Drying oil 1 pint, wax 2 oz.. Bur- 
gundy pitch 1 oz., oil of turpentine 2 oz. Melt over a slow 
fire, and add a few drops of oil of lavender or thyme. Brush 
the boots repeatedly with the composition before the fire, till 
they appear fully saturated. 

5. For Leather, ^c. Cut 3 drachms of India-rubber into 
small pieces, soak them for 24 hours in a solution of common 
soda; dissolve this and 3 oz. of asphaltum in 12 oz. of cam- 
phene, then add ^ oz. of boiled linseed oil. 

For Cloth. It is alternately dipped in a solution of ace- 
tate of lead with a little gum, and solution of alum. 

For Hats. Boil 8 ft> shellac, 3 ib frankincense, and 1 ft) 
borax in sufficient water. 

For Canvas, ^c. Gutta percha 3 parts is dissolved in 
resin spirit 9 parts, at a heat of 120° to 140° Fahr., stirring 
occasionally. — Mr. Castley. 

Wax. Yellow beeswax is bleached by pouring the melted wax 
in a divided state on a revolving cylinder partly immersed 
in water, so as to form it into fine ribbons, which are exposed 
to air and moisture till bleached, and subsequently refined 
by melting with water containing sulphuric acid. — Dr. Pe- 
REIRA. It has been proposed to bleach wax by adding to 
each pound of melted wax 2 oz. of powdered nitrate of soda, 
and afterwards stirring in, by little at a time, 1 oz. of sul- 
phuric acid diluted with 10 parts of water, keeping the 
mixture warm, and constantly stirred with a glass rod in a 
capacious earthen vessel, till all the acid is added. It is 
then allowed to become somewhat cool, and the vessel filled 
with boiling water, well agitated, and set aside. The cake 
of wax is removed into boiling water, till this no longer 
produces a precipitate with chloride of barium. — M. In- 


GENHOL. (We have not found this render wax perfectly 

Wax for Modeling. Lead plaster 8 oz., beeswax 8 oz., Bur- 
gundy pitch 8 oz. ; melt together, stir in sufficient chalk to 
form a paste, and form it into small sticks for use. (For 
Sealing-wax, see page 426.) 

Welding Composition. Mix borax with yLt^ of sal am- 
moniac, fuse the mixture, and pour it on an iron plate. 
When cold, pulverize it, and mix it with an equal weight 
of quicklime, sprinkle it on iron heated to redness, and 
replace it in the fire. It may be welded below the usual 

Wheat, Steep for. A pound of genuine sulphate of copper 
in sufficient water, for each sack of seed. Arsenic is also 
used ; sulphate of zinc has been recommended ; so has quick- 
lime, which is thus used : Soak the seed in a warm mixture 
of 36 to 48 oz. of quicklime to 6 or 7 gallons of Avater. 
This is for 4J bushels of wheat : the solution should be 
sufficient to cover the seed 3 or 4 finger-breadths deep, and 
it should lie in it 24 hours. M. Boussingault has proposed 
to sprinkle the grain, first with water, then with a mixture 
of 10 parts of lime with 1 of white arsenic. (This has the 
double object of preserving the grain, and destroying a 
plague of field mice.) Sulphate of copper has seemed to 
give satisfactory results. It would be desirable, however, to 
find an innocuous substitute, as traces of copper have been 
found in wheat grown from the steeped seed. This appears 
to have been discovered in the use of a solution of sulphate 
of soda with lime, which has proved more successful in France 
than either arsenic or sulphate of copper. See Blights, 
Remedies for. 

Wood, to stain. 1. Mahogany color [dark). Boil J ft) of 
madder and 2 oz. of logwood in a gallon of water ; and brush 
the wood well over with the hot liquid, When dry, go over 
the whole with a solution of 2 dr. of pearlash in -a quart of 

2. [Light.) Brush over the surface with diluted nitrous 
acid, and when dry apply the following with a soft brush : 
Dragon's blood 4 oz., common soda 1 oz., spirit of wine 3 
pints ; let them stand in a warm place, shaking frequently, 
then strain. Repeat the application until the proper color 
is obtained. 


3. [To stain- Maple a Mahogany color.) Dragon's blood 
J oz., alkanet |^ oz., aloes 1 dr., spirit of wine 16 oz. Apply 
it with a sponge or brush. 

4. Roseivood. Boil 8 oz. of logwood in 3 pints of water 
until reduced to half; apply it boiling hot two or three times, 
letting it dry between each. Afterwards put in the streaks 
with a camel-hair pencil dipped in a solution of copperas and 
verdigris in decoction of logwood. 

5. Ehony. Wash the wood repeatedly with a solution of 
sulphate of iron ; let it dry, then apply a hot decoction of 
logwood and nutgalls for two or three times. When dry, 

. "wipe it with a wet sponge; and when again dry, polish with 
linseed oil. 

6. To stain Wood Med. Use a strong decoction of Brazil 
wood and alum. ( Woods may be stained with the various 
dyes before described. See Dyes.) 

Yeast, Artificial. Honey 5 oz., cream of tartar 1 oz., malt 
16 oz., water at 122° F. 3 pints ; stir together, and when 
the temperature falls to 65°, cover it up, and keep it at that 
temperature till yeast is formed. 

Zinc, Ammonio-Chloride of. By dissolving equal equiva- 
lents of chloride of zinc and sal ammoniac, a crystallizable 
salt is formed, which dissolves oxides of copper and of iron, 
and is useful in tinning or zincing those metals. 

Zinc, Amalgamated (for voltaic plates). Put a little mer- 
cury on the zinc plate, and pour on it dilute sulphuric acid ; 
then rub the mercury over the surface by means of a piece 
of linen. Another method, which is said to give a more 
permanent coating, is that of Mr. Walenn. Having cleared 
the plates by emery, and by immersion in diluted sulphuric 
acid, and then in clean water, dip them into a mixture of 
equal parts of a saturated solution of corrosive sublimate 
and a similar solution of acetate of lead ; then rub them with 
a cloth. 

Zinc, Platinized, for Br. Wright's Battery. Saturated solu- 
tion of chloride of platinum ^ dr , sulphuric acid |- dr., water 
2 dr. . Mix ; dip the zinc plates into the solution for a few 
seconds, and wash them quickly. 

Zinc, Oxide of. It may be prepared from the purified 
sulphate by precipitating it from a hot solution by carbo- 
nated or bicarbonated alkalies. It cannot be obtained 


pure by caustic ammonia: M. J. Lefort. Mr. Midgley 
prepares it on a large scale by the combustion of zinc in a 
. muffle, heated by a furnace of peculiar construction ; the zinc 
is introduced into the muffle from time to time, as the com- 
bustion proceeds ; he is thus able to prepare one or two hun- 
dred-weights at a time, by a continuous process. 

Zinc, Purification of. Granulate zinc by melting it, and 
pouring it while very hot into a deep vessel filled with water. 
Place the granulated zinc in a Hessian crucible, in alternate 
layers, with one-fourth its weight of nitre, with an excess of 
nitre at the top. Cover the crucible, and secure the lid; 
then apply heat. When deflagration takes place, remove 
from the fire, separate the dross, and run the zinc into an 
ingot mould. It is quite free from arsenic. 




Apothecaries' Weight. (L. P.) 

g 5 
Ounces. Drachms. 

12 = 96 = 






of water. 


1=8 = 






1 = 














The Troy Pennyweiglit, 24 grains, is not used in compounding 

Apothecaries' Measure. 





0. fS 
Octarii. Fluid 
Pints. Ounces. 

= 8 = 160 








Grains of 


1 = 20 


















Imperial Measure. — (^Common Divisions.') 

Quarter. Bushels. 






1 = 8 





= 256 










= 32 








= 8 






= 4 



= ■ 













Avoirdupois Weight. (B. P.)* 








Other weights used are the ton, 20 hundred-weight ; the hundred- 
weight, 112 lb. ; and the quarter, 28 lb. 

Table for Converting Troy into Avoirdupois Weight. 

(From Dr. Duncan's "Edinburgh Dispensary.") 






ounces. grains. 






1 42 i 







2 85 







3 127^ 







4 170 







5 212i 







6 255 





175 Troy ounces are equal to 129 Avoirdupois. 





oz. gr. 

13 72J 





oz. gr. 

12 430 




















137 J 
































































287 J 

























67 J 




















21 2 J 


























* The Dublin College of Physicians have adopted the avoirdupois weight in their last Phar- 
macopoeia (1850), but they divide the oz. into 8 drachms, and the drachm into 3 scruples, as in 
Troy weight. 



The following are the divisions of the old wine gallon adopted in 
the London Pharmacopoeia before 1836, and the Dublin Pharma- 
copoeia before 1850. Its use in this kingdom is no longer legal. 

Former Apothecaries' Measure. 

1 = 

1 = 





128 = 






16 = 






1 = 














Comparison between the Old and New Measure. 

Grains of distilled water. 

Cubic Inches. 





. . 58317.8 70000 




. . 7289.7 8750 



f5j • 

. . 455.6 437.5 



f3j . 

. . 56.9 54.7 



The old gallon was very nearly ^ths of the new; the new is -|ths 
of the old. The exact factor for converting the old measure into new 
is .83311 ; and for converting new into old, 1.20032. 

Relative Value of the Former and Present Apothecaries' 


(From the American Dispensatory.) 





















































To find the weight of any given measure of a liquid, multiply the 
weight of the water it will contain by the specific gravity, water 
being 1.000. The weight of a gallon of any liquid, in avoird. lbs. 
and decimal parts, is at once seen from its density, merely removing 
the decimal point one place to the right. Thus a gallon of ether at 
.750 weighs 7.50 (7-2-) lb. A gallon of nitric acid at 1.500 weighs 
15 lb. 





OC^iOCOMi— ic-loOiOMfOJr-fOOas 

ig oooi^-a30ic»^£-oooiroooTj<iOrH 

-5 9 


i-i— iCiCTJOOOiOC^OiOt— •^>— ii— I 

;- iHfe^H^ HWH}M HiC^pHJN r^)tH|C^ ^j^^tJHHJN 

■- J>-C000<riC^05i-00mOir-J>-t— CDJr- 




! J3 ,s S =•-. =*H 


: 'O h-5 







Weights and Measures op other Countries. 

lu the United States of America the weights are the same as in 
this country; but they have not adopted our imperial measure, 
and retain the old wine gallon and its divisions in the Pharma- 

The unit of the British India ponderary system is the tola, equal 
to 180 Troy grains. 32 tolas are equal to R)j Troy. The maund is 
equal to 100 Troy ounces. 

In France the metrical or decimal system is now the only legal one. 
The following table shows the correspondence of the French metrical 
weights with English grains. 

Troy Grains. 

















Troy Grains 





The measures of capacity in France are multiples and divisions of 
the litre, which is the measure occupied by a kilogramme (15434 
Troy grains) of distilled water at its greatest density. It exceeds 
the old Paris pinte by -j-V^'lij ^^^ is equal to 35 fluid ounces and 103 
minims, or 1.7608 imperial pints, or 61.028 English cubic inches. 
4i litres makes an imperial gallon, within about f^xij. 

The following table will show the relations between the litre and 
the imperial gallon of 277.2738 c. inches : 


Cubic Inches. 




Fl. 5 Min. 











2 49 






4 10.36 







1 43.69 








1 16.9 







4 49 







6 40 







275i bushels.) 

French Measures of Length. 

The standard unit is the metre, equal to 39.371 English inches, or 
1 yard 3 inches and Y^^ths. The hilometre (1000 metres) is 4 fur- 
longs 213 yards 1 foot 11 inches. 

The following are some of the weights and measures formerly used 
in France. 

The old French pound, Kvre poids de marc, was equal to 489.5 
grammes, or 7561 Troy grains ; but the metrical pound, livre 
metrique, substituted for it in 1812, contained exactly 500 grammes, 



or 7717 Englisli grains, 
are their divisions : 

Both are now abolished. The following 

Livre. Once. Cros. 

1 16 118 

1 8 


Scrupl. Grs. Poids de Marc. Mitrique. 

S84 9261 = grammes 489.5 500 

24 576 = " 30.6 31.25 

3 72 = " 3.824 3.90 

1 24 = " 1.274 1.30 

1 = <' . .053 .054 

. In the Paris Codex and medical works the grain is represented by 
0.05 grammes (5 centigrammes), 2 grains by 0.1 (1 decigramme) ; 
the half gramme by 2 grammes ; the drachm by 4 grammes ; and 
the ounce by 32 grammes. 

The old French measures used in pharmacy were : 

other Commercial Measures. 


La pinte 



La Chopine 



Le demi-Setier 



Le Poisson 



Le demi-Poisson 




8 Pintes (un velte) 

= 7.450 

13.97 (ancien boisseau) 

= 13.010 

288= 1 muid 

^ 268.220 

576 = 1 tonneau d'Or- 

leans, ou muids 

= 536.440 

(From Guibourt's " Pharmacopee Raisonnee.") 

The litre, with its divisions and multiples, is the measure now 
used. It contains 1000 grammes of water; the number of grammes 
of other liquids corresponds with their specific gravity ; water being 

The former measures of length in France were the 

Toise = 1.949 metres, or 6.3945 English feet. 
Foot (pied) = 0.32484 metres = 12.785 English inches. 
Inch (pouce) = 0.02707 metres, or 1.0654 English inches. 
Line (Hgne) or yj^^ ^^ ^^ inch. = .002256 metres. 
The metre is equal to 3 ft. 11 lines old French measure, or 3 ft. 
3.7 in. English. 

Other Foreign Weights and Measures. 
1 . — Medicinal pounds of 12 ounces^ in English grains. 

(From Jourdan's "Pharmacopee Universelle.") 

The following are divided as our Apothecaries' weight : 
The pound of Austria weighs 6482.42 grains; Bavaria, 5556.24; 
Holland, 5787.75; Lubec, 5697.09; Nuremberg (G-erman pound), 
5522.96; Poland, 5533.25; Prussia, 5113.99; Sweden, 5497.01; 
Venice {sottile), 4649.17. 


The division of tlie following differs in the scruple being divided 
into 24 grains : 

Bologna, 5026.32; Lucca, 5162.67; Modena, 5254.61; Parma, 
5062.35; Portugal, 5312.23; Rome, 5233.25; Spain, 5325.84; 
Tuscany, 5240.49; Piedmont (Turin), 5123.49. 

The Naples pound contains 5490.63 Troy grains; the ounce is 
divided into 10 drachms; the scruple into 20 grains. 

2. — Various Foreign Weights. 

The old Paris pound was divided into 16 ounces; the scruple into 
24 grains. Its weight has been given above. The pound by which 
drugs are weighed in Turkey is the Tcliegy^ equal to 4957 English 
grains, and is divided into 100 drachms, each drachm into 16 killos, 
and each killo into 4 grains. 

The oholo is half a Spanish scruple'; 3 silicua make 1 oholo^ and 4 
grains a silicua. 

A loth, in Germany, Poland, &c., is half an ounce. 

The commercial pound in several countries differs from the phar- 
maceutical. The civil pound of Bavaria and mark of Vienna are 
each about 19f avoirdupois ounces. That of Holland is the French 
kilogramme, or. 12 grains more than 2 tb 3J oz. avoirdupois. The 
mark is half a kilogramme. The Coburg commercial pound is nearly 
18 oz. avoirdupois. 

3. — Foreign Measures. 

The Austrian mass or hanne is equal to 1.415015 litres, or 2\ im- 
perial pints, within 40 minims. 

The kanna of Sweden = nearly 2.62 litres, or about 4 pints, 12 
ounces, imperial. 

Russian pound of water = 25.019 English cubic inches. 

The pott (half kanne) of Denmark = 0.9653 litres. 

The arroha of Spain = 16.073 litres. 

The almude of Portugal = 16.451 litres. 

The Prussian quart = 1.145 litres; or 1 qt. 3 fl. dr. imp. 

The harile of Naples = 43.6216 litres; of Rome, 58.5416 litres; 
of Tuscany, 45.584 litres. 

The wedro of Russia (10 stof or 30 Russian pounds) = 12.29 
litres, or 21 pints, 12 oz., 12\ dr. imperial. 

The mass of Wurtemburg = 1.537 litres, or about 3 pints, 14f 
oz. imperial. 


To convert the degrees of Centigrade into those of Fahrenheit, mul- 
tiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. 

To convert degrees of Centigrade into those of Reaumur, multiply by 
4 and divide by 5. 


To convert degrees of Falirenlieit into tliose of Centigrade, deduct 32, 

multiply by 5, and divide by 9. 
To convert degrees of Falirenbeit into those of Reaumur, deduct 32, 

divide by 9, and miiltiply by 4. 
To convert degrees of Reaumur into tliose of Centigrade, multiply by 

5 and divide by 4. 
To convert degrees of Reaumur into tbose of Falirenbeit, multiply by 

9, divide by 4, and add 32. 

In De Lisle's thermometer, used in Russia, the graduation begins 
at boiling-point, which is marked Zei'o, and the freezing-point is 


Deg. of Fahr. 

8696 Cast Iron melts (Morveau). 

2200 Gold melts (Kane), 2518 (Morveau). 

1996 Copper melts (Kane), 2548 (Daniell). 

2233 . Silver melts (Daniell). 

1869 Brass melts (Daniell). 

1000 Iron bright cherry red (Poillet). • 

980 Red heat, visible in daylight (Daniell). 

941 Zinc begins to burn (Daniell). 

793 Zinc melts (G-melin), 648 (Daniell). 

644 Mercury boils (Daniell), 662 (Graham). 

630 Whale oil boils (Graham). 

612 Pure lead melts (Parkes), 609 (Daniell). 

600 Linseed oil boils. 

545 Sulphuric acid boils (Phillips), 620 (Graham). 

518 Bismuth melts (Gmelin), 476 (Phillips). 

442 Tin melts. 

380 Arsenious acid volatilizes. 

356 Metallic arsenic sublimes. 

.315 Oil of turpentine boils (Kane). 

302 J^therification ends. 

256 Sat. sol. of acetate of soda boils. 

257 " sal ammoniac boils (Taylor). 

248 " nitric acid 1.42 boils, and sol. soda 1.44. 

238 " nitre boils. 

232 Sulphur melts (Turner), 226 (Fownes). 

221 Sat. sol. of salt boils (Paris Codes). 

220 " alum, carb. soda, and sulph. zinc boil. 

218 " chlorate and prussiate of potash boil. 

216 " sulph. of iron, sulph. of copper, nitrate of lead, 

214 " acetate of lead, Bulph. and bitartrate of potash, 

boil. • 


Deg. of Fahr. 

213 Water begins to boil in glass (or 213.5). 

212 Water boils in metal, barometer at 30°. 

211 Alloy of 5 bismuth, 3 tin, 2 lead, melts. 

201 " 8 bismuth, 5 lead, 3 tin, melts (Kane). 

194 Sodium begins to melt. 

185 Nitric acid 1.52 boils. 

180 Starch dissolves in water. 

176 Rectified spirit boils, benzole distils, 

173 Alcohol (sp. gr. .796 to .800) boils. 

151 Beeswax melts (Kane), 142 (Lepage). 

150 Pyroxylic spirit boils (Scanlan). 

140 Chloroform, and ammonia of .945, boil. 

136 Potassium melts (Daniell). 

132 Acetone (pyroacetic spirit) boils (Kane). ■; 

122 Mutton suet and sfeyracine melt. 

116 Bisulphuret of carbon boils (Graham). 

115 Pure tallow melts (Lepage), 92 (Thomson). 

112 Spermaceti and stearine of lard melt. 

99 Phosphorus melts. 

98 Ether (.720) boils. Temperature of the blood. 

88 Acetous fermentation ceases, water boils in vacuo. 

77 Vinous ferm. ends, acetous ferm. begins. 

62 Oil of anise liquefies, congeals at 60. 

59 Gray Lussac's AhoometTe graduated at. 

55 Syrups to be kept at. 

42 Sulphuric acid, sp. gr. 1.741, congeals (or 41). 

36 Olive oil freezes. 

32 Water freezes. 

30 Milk freezes. .i^ 

28 Vinegar freezes. 

20 Wine freezes. 

Cold produced by snow and salt. 

— 7 Brandy freezes. 
— 39-40 Mercury freezes. 

Gentle Heat of London and United States pharmacopoeias, and In- 
ferior Heat of Dub. ph., from 90 to 100° 
Medium Heat, Dub. ph., from 100 to 200° 
Superior Heat, Dub. ph., from 200 to 212° 
Macei'ation, Dub. ph., to be performed at 60 to 90° 
Digestion, Dub. ph., at 90 to 100° 
Specific Gravities, taken at 60° Lond. ph. ; at 62° Ed. ph. 



• 1. Solids. Water, 1.000. 

Platinum, 20.980 ; add, 19.250; Mercury, 13.560; Lead, 11.350; 
Silver, 10.500; Bismuth, 9.822; Copper, 8.895; Cadmium, 8.604; 
Cobalt, 8.538; Nickel, 8.279; Iron, 7.788; Tin, 7.291; Zinc, 
6.861 to 7.100; Antimony, 6.720; Sodium, .972 ; Potassium, 
.865; Caoutchouc, .933; Amber, 1.078; Scammony, 1.210; Resin, 
1.072; Camphor, .988; Grum arabic, 1.452; Beeswax, .962; Sper- 
maceti, .943; Sulphur, 1.990; G-lass, 2.540 to 2.953. 

2. Liquids. Water, 1.000. 

Mercury, 13.560; Sulphuric acid, 1.843; Nitric acid, (mono-hydra- 
- ted), 1.517; Pure nitric acid (Ed. and Dub. ph.), 1.500; Nitric 
acid (Lond. ph.), 1.420; Commercial nitric acid, 1.380 to 1.390; 
Double aqua fortis, 1.360; Single aqua fortis, 1.220; Muriatic 
acid (strongest), 1.210; Muriatic acid, Lond. ph., 1.160; Ditto, 
Ed. ph., 1.170; Ditto, Dub. ph., 1.176; Solution of caustic pot- 
, ash, Lond. ph. (containing 6.7 per cent.), 1.063; Ditto. Dub. ph., 
1.068; Ditto, Ed. ph., 1.072; Water of ammonia, Lond. and Ed. 
ph. (containing 10 per cent.), .960; Ditto, Dub. ph. (12.7 per 
cent.), .950; Stronger water of ammonia, Lond. ph. (32 per cent.), 
.882; Ditto, Ed. ph. (33 per cent.), .880; Ditto, Dub. ph. (27 
per cent.), .900; Saturated solution of alum, 1.033; Saturated 
solution of common salt, 1.200; Saturated solution of sulphate of 
copper, 1.150; Saturated solution of sulphate of magnesia, 1.218; 
Sea-water, 1.027; Milk, 1.032; Alcohol, .976; Rectified spirit, 
.838; Proof spii-it, .920; Chloroform, 1.496 (not less than 1.480, 
Lond. ph.); Bisulphuret of carbon, 1.272; Spirit of nitric ether, 
Lond. ph., .834; Ed. ph., .847; Ether (pure), .724; Lond. and 
Dub. ph., not above .750; Ed. ph., 735; Acetic ether, .917; 
Caoutchoucine, .680 ; Oil of turpentine, .876 to .869 ; Olive oil, 
.9175; Spermaceti oil, .890; Southern whale oil, .920; Almond 
oil, .917; Creasote, 1.046; Oil of wine, 1.05; Essential oil of 
anise, .985; of caraway, .938; of cinnamon, 1.008; of cloves, 
1.055; of cajeput, .911; of lemon, .847; of rosemary, .897; 
Tincture of sesquichloride of iron, .992 ; Tincture of opium, 


3. Gases and Vapors. AtmospTieric Air, l.GOO. 

Hydrogen, .690; Nitrogen, .972; Oxygen (G-raham), 1.1056; Car- 
bonic oxide, .972; Carbonic acid, 1.524; Light carburetted 
hydrogen, .5595; Olefiant gas, .981; Chlorine, 2.470 (2.421 
Grraham) ; Vapor of ether, 2.582 ; v. of water, .620 ; v. of sul- 
phur, 6.648 (6.617 Graham); v. of phosphorus, 4.327; v. of 
iodine, 8.700. 



Table of Chemical Elements, with their Symbols and 
Equivalent Numbers. 


Antimony [Stibium], . . . 


Barium (Phillips, 68), . . 







Cerium, . . 




Columbium [Tantalium], 
Copper [Cuprum], ... 


Glucinum (Phillips, 27), . . 

Gold [Aurum], 


Iodine (Liebig, 127.1), . . . 

Iridium, , 

Iron [Ferrum], . . . . , 
Lead [Plumbum], . . . , 
Lithium (Graham, 6.43), . 

Magnesium, , 

Manganese, , 

Mercury (Phillips, 200), . , 


Nickel (Phillips, 30), . . 




Palladium (Phillips, 53), 
Phosphorus (Schrotter, 31), 


Potassium [Kalium], . . 



Silicium, or Silicon, . . 
Silver [Argentum], . . . 
Sodium [Natrium], ... 





Tin [Stannum], .... 


Tungsten [Wolfram], . . 





Zirconium (Phillips, 22), 

Htdeogen 1. 

Oxygen 100. 












































































































































. 655.90 

















































































Remarks. — The first column of figures shows the equivalent numbers 
adopted by Prout, Brande, Dumas, Phillips, and other chemists, who regard 
all equivalent numbers as simple multiples of that of Hydrogen, which they 
adopt as unity. 




In the second column are those of Turner and others, who adopt Hydro- 
gen as unity, but do, not consider that the other equivalents are exact mul- 
tiples of it. 

In the third column are the numbers of Berzelius, &c., who adopt oxygen 
as unity, or rather as 100. ■ 

Besides the difference in the numbers arising from the adoption of a 
different standard, there are others which arise from discordant views of 
the composition of the compounds from which the equivalents are deter- 
mined. Some Continental chemists also make a distinction between the 
equivalents and Atomic zveights, supposing the equivalents of certain ele- 
ments to consist of two atoms. But this distinction is not adopted by 
English chemists. 

The newly discovered metals, Didymium, Erbium, Lanthanum, Niobium, 
Norium, Pelopium, Ruthenium, and Terbium, require further investigation. 
The following numbers on the Hydrogen Scale have been assigned to some 
o.f them: Lanthanum 48 (Graham), Didymium 49.6 (Marignac), Ruthe- 
nium 52. 

Composition, Equivalent Numbers, and Symbols, of some of 
the more important compounds employed in pharmacy 
AND THE Arts. 

[The numbers here adopted for the elements are those of the first column of the preceding 



Acetone C3 H, . . 

Acid Acetic (anhydrous) . . . C^ H3, O3 (or a) 

— Acetic, glacial A, HO . 

— Arsenious As O3 . 

— Arsenic As O5 . 

— Benzoic C^^ A^ O3 

Crys C. H,0„HO 

Boracic So O3 

— Crys Bo 0, 

. HO 

Carbonic C Oj, (or c) 

— Chromic Cr O3 . 

— Citric (dry) Ci, H, 

Crys. (commercial) . . . C, 4 HO 

— Hydrochloric H CI . 

— Hydrocianic C, N H (or H Cy) 

— Hydrosulphuric . . . . S H 

— Iodic ........ I O5 

— Nitric (dry) NO. 

— Nitric, sp. gr. 1.5 . . . . N OJ 

— Nitrous N 0^ 

— Oxalic (dry) C, 

— Oxalic, crys ^2 0„. 

— Phosphoric . . . ... P 0^ 

— Sulphuric SO3 . . 

— Sulphuric, liquid .... SO3, HO 


(or o) 
3 HO 





























Symbols. Equiv. 

Acid Tartaric C, 0^ H, (or f) 66 

— Tartaric, crys • T, HO 75 

— Chromic Cr O3 52 

— Alcohol C, HgO, 46 

Alumina Al^ O3 52 

Alum crys f Al, O3, (SO,) ; KO, 

^^''°'' ^'^^ I SO3 + 24 HO 

Ammonium NH^ 18 

Amidogen NH^ " 16 

Ammonia NH, 17 

— Hydrochlorate NH,, H CI 54 

— Sulphate, crys NH3, SO3, 2 HO .... 75 

— Sesquicarb 2 NH,, 3 CO,, 2 HO . . .118 

— hydrated bicarb NH,, 2 CO,, 2 HO . . . . 79 

Antimony, sesquioxide . . . Sb O3 153 

— Sesqui- or ter-sulph . . . Sb S3 . . , 177 

— potassio-tartrate KO, T, Sb O3, T, 3 HO . . 360 

Baryta Ba 77 

— Carbonate Ba 0, CO, 99 

— Sulphate Ba 0, SO3 117 

Barium, chloride Ba CI 105 

Bismuth, oxide Bi 0, 237 

— Nitrate (dry) Bi O3, NO5 291 

Borax Na 0, 2 BO3, 10 HO . . . 192 

Calcium, chloride Ca CI 56 

— Chloride, crys Ca CI, 6 HO 110 

— Oxide (Lime) Ca O 28 

Chloroform C, H CI3 121 

Cinchonia 0,^ H,, NO . . . . . .154 

Copper, oxide . ' Cu ........ 40 

— Dinoxide Cu, . . 72 

— Sulphate Cu 0, SO3 80 

Crys CuOSOg, 5H0 . . . .125 

— Nitrate Cu 0, NO^ 94 

Crys CuO, NO., 3H0 . . . .121 

— Acetate, crys Cu 0, A, HO 100 

Cyanogen C, N {or Cy) 26 

Ether C, H, 37 

Ethule C, H, .29 

Glycerine, anhydrous . . . . Cg H^ O5 ' . 83 

Gum Cj, Hjj Oil 1^1 

Iron, protoxide Fe 36 

— Black oxide Fe3 0, 116 

— Sesquioxide Fe, O3 . 80 

(Phillips) Fe Oi^ {or \ Fe, 0,) . . . 40 

— Chloride FeCl ...'..... 64 

— Sesquichloride Fe^ CI3 164 


Symbols. Eqiiiv. 

Iron, Sesquichloride (Phillips) . Fe Cl^^ (or i Fe^ CI3) '. . . 82 

— Iodide (dry) Fe I 154 

— Sulphate Fe 0, SO3 ■ . . 76 

— Sulphate, crys Fe 0, SO3, 7 HO . . . .139 

— Potassio-tartrate . . . . T KO, Fe^ O3, T 260 

Lead, acetate, crys Pb 0, A, 3 HO . ... . 190 

— Diacetate 2 (Pb 0) A 275 

— Protoxide Pb ........ 112 

— Carbonate Pb 0, CO^ 134 

— Iodide Pb I 230 

— Chloride ■ . . Pb CI 140 

— Sulphate Pb 0, SO3 152 

.— Nitrate, crys Pb 0, NO5 166 

Lime, carbonate Ca 0, COj 50 

— Hydrate Ca 0, HO 37 

— Sulphate Ca 0, SO3 68 

— Phosphate (bone-earth) . . 3 Ca 0, PO5 156 

Magnesia ........ Mg 20 

— Com. carbonate 5 Mg 0, 4 CO,, 6 HO . . 242 

— Sulphate ....... Mg 0, SO3 60 

— Sulphate, crys Mg 0, SO3, 7 HO . . . .123 

Manganese, binoxide .... Mn 0, 44 

— Chloride Mn CI 64 

— Sulphate Mn 0, SO3 76 

Mannite Cg H, Og 91 

*Mercury, chloride .... Hg CI 236 

— Bichloride Hg CI, ........ 272 

— Protoxide Hg 208 

— Binoxide Hg 0, 216 

— Iodide Hgl . . 326 

— Biniodide ...... Hg I, 452 

— Ammnio-chloride .... Hg, CI, NH, 252 

— Nitrate (proto-) Hg 0, NO5 262 

— Nitrate, crys Hg 0, NO^, 2 HO . . . .280 

— Bipersulphate . . . . . Hg 0„ 2 SO3 296 

— Bisulphuret Hg S, 232 

Morphia, dry . . . . . . H,„ C35 NOg 292 

— Crys . . H,„ C33 NOg, 2 HO . . . .310 

— Acetate, crys. . . . . . H^^ C35 NOg, Ac, HO . . . 352 

— Muriate, crys H,„ 035 NOg, H CI, 6 HO . . 383 

* Mr. Brande has now adopted 100 as the equivalent of Mercury, with Dr. 
Kane and others with the B. P. ; but we have here retained the old symbols 
and equivalents, which are those of Phillips, as the change would neces- 
sitate an alteration in the pharmacopoeial and established names of the 
several mercurial compounds. Two must be added to each of these num- 
bers, if mercury be 202, as stated by Turner. The ammonio-chloride, con- 
taining 2 eq. of mercury, will be 526. 


Symbols. Equiv. 

Morphia, Sulphate, crys H,„ C35 NO^, SO3, 6 HO . . 386 

Platinum, chloride ..... PI Cl^ 171 

— Ammonio-bichloride . . . PI CI,, NH3, H CI . . . .225 

Potash, dry KO 48 

Potash, hydrate KO, HO 57 

— Acetate, dry KO, A • . 99 

— Carbonate KO, CO, 70 

— Carbonate, hydrated . . . KO, CO,, IJ HO . . . .83^ 

— Bicarbonate, crys KO, 2 CO,, HO . . . . 101 

— Chlorate . KO, CI O5 124 

— Chromate KO, Cr O3 100 

— Bichromate KO, 2 Cr O3 152 

— Nitrate KO, NO5 102 

— Sulphate KO, SO3 88 

— Bisulphate, crys KO, 2 SO3 + 2 HO . . . 146 

— Tartrate KO, T 114 

— Bitartrate KO, 2 T, HO 189 

Potassium, bromide . . . . K Br 118 

— Chloride KCl 76 

— Iodide KI 166 

Proteine C,g Hg^ N^ 0^, 520 

Quinia C,„Hj„NO, 162 

— Disulphate, crys 2 (C,^ H^, NO,,) SO3, 8 HO . 436 

— Neutral sulphate . . . . C^ H,, NO,, SO3, HO . . . 274 

— Hydrochlorate 2 '(C,„ H^, NO,,) H CI, 3 HO 338 

Silver, oxide Hg 116 

— Chloride Ag CI 144 

— Iodide Agl 234 

— Cyanide Ag Cy . 134 

— Nitrate Ag 0, NO 170 

Soda NaO . ! , 32 

— Carbonate Na 0, CO, 54 

— Carbonate, crys Na 0, CO,, 10 Ho . . . . 144 

— Bicarbonate Na 0, 2 CO,, HO .... 85 

— Sesquicarbonate . . . . Na 0, IJ CO,, 2 HO . . . 83 

— Sulphate, dry Na 0, SO3 72 

— Sulphate, crys Na 0, SO3, 10 HO . . . . 162 

— Bisulphate . . . . . . Na 0, 2 SO 112 

— Phosphate 2 Na 0, PO, 25 HO . . .361 

— Potassio-tartrate, crys. . . Na 0, KO, 2 T, 10 HO . . 302 

Sodium, chloride Na CI 60 

Starch (anhydrous) . . . . Cj, H^^ Oj^ 162 

Strychnia C^ H,, 0, N, 348 

Sugar (anhydrous) Cj, Hg O3 -. . 153 

— Crys C„ H,, 0,, 171 

Sulphuretted hydrogen . . . SH . 17 

Veratria C,, H„ NO, 288 




Water HO 

— Oxygenated HO,^ .... 

Zinc, oxide Zn . . . . 

— Carbonate Zn 0, CO,^ . . 

— Sulphate, crys Zn 0, SO3, 7 HO 

— Chloride Zn CI . . . . 


. 9 
. 17 
. 40 
. 62 
. 143 
. 68 

Table of the Neutralizing Proportions of some of the 
Acids and Alkaline Carbonates, omitting minute frac- 
.TioNS. The best Commercial Preparations are intended. 


■P-2 - 






. ^^ 




s. g 



a . 

T. 3 

s a 

s . 





•5 1-2 






























20 J 












































- ^ 















21 J 































































































































We have estimated the equivalent of subcarbonate of potash (Potassas 
carbbnas of the Pharmacopoeia), and of sesquicarbonate of soda, at 84 each. 
Mr. Phillips makes the former 83.5 ; but .5 may be allowed for impurity 
and extra moisture ; the sesquicarbonate of soda he makes 83, but the com- 
position of the best commercial specimens approaches nearer to the bicar- 
bonate, which is 85. 



Table op the Relation between the Principal Areome- 
ters EOR Liquids Lighter than Water. 

[The first five columns are from Soubeiran, the last from Dr. Christison 
and Mr. Redwood. The degrees of Gay-Lussac's alcohometer indicate 
the percentage by measure of pure alcohol ; but are not quite exact as 
here given, the fractions being neglected.] 







Under proof. 












































































Over proof. 




































































32. G4 


















































































Specific G-ravities corresponding with the Degrees op 
Baum^'s Areometer for Liquids Heavier than Water. 
— \_Pliarmacopoeia Batava.'\ 




3 ! 





8 ..... . 

9 ..... . 

■10 ..... . 

11 ..... . 

12 ..... . 

13 ..... . 

14 ..... . 

15 ..... . 

16 ..... . 

17 ..... . 


19 ..... . 

20 ..... . 


22 ..... . 

23 !'.!.. . 

24 ..... . 

25 ..... . 



28 ..... . 

29 ..... . 

30 ..... . 

31 ..... . 


33 ..... . 






Sp. gr. 


Sp. gr. 


39 ... . 

. . . 1372 


40 . . . . 

. . . 1384 


41 ... . 

. . . 1398 


42 ... . 

. . . 1412 


43 ... . 

. . . 1426 


44 ... . 

. . . 1440 


45 ... . 

. . . 1454 


46 ... . 

. . . 1470 


47 ... . 

. . . 1485 


48 ... . 

. . . 1501 


49 ... . 

. . . 1516 


50 ... . 

. . . 1532 


51 ... . 

. . . 1549 


52 ... . 

. . . 1566 


53 ... . 

. . . 1583 


54 ... . 

. . . 1601 


55 ... . 

. . . 1618 


56 ... . 

. . . 1637 


57 ... . 

. . . 1656 


58 ... . 

. . . 1676 


59 ... . 

. . . 1695 


60 ... . 

. . . 1715 


61 ... . 

. . . 1736 


62 ... . 

. . .- 1758 


63 . . . 

. . . 1779 


64 . . . 

. . . 1801 


65 . . . 

. . . 1823 


66 . . . 

. . . 1847 


67 . . . 

. . . 1872 


68 . . . 

. . . 1897 


69 . . . 

. . . 1921 


70 . . . 

. . . 1946 


71 . . . 

. 1974 


72 . . . 

. . . 2000 


73 . . . 

. . . 2031 


74 . . . 

. . . 2059 


75 . . . 

. . . 2087 


76 . . . 

... 2116 



Observe : For Medicines for Horses, Cattle, &c. 
see the Veterinary Index at the end. 

Abernethy's Pills, 166 
Abernethy Biscuits, 286 
Acetate of alumina, 301 

iron, 301 

lime, 302 

oxide of amyle, 347 

soda, 302 
Acetic acid, 302 

perfumes, 226 

fumigation, 357 
Acetimetry, 302 
Acid, acetic, 302 

carbonic, 357 

chloric, 303 

chromic, 303 

cinnamic, 303 

fluoric, 303 

hippuric, 304 

iodic, 304 

muriatic, 304 

nitric, 305 

nitro muriatic, 305 

oxalic, 305 

phosphoric, 305 

pyrogallic, 306 

sulphuric, 306 

sulphuric, dry, 306 

sulphurous, 307 

tannic, 307 
Acidimetry, 308 

Acids for galvanic batteries, 307 
Acids and alkaline carbonates, table 
of the neutralizing proportions of 
some, 470 
Acidulated kali, 272 

effervescing powders, 273 

Acidulated lemonade, 271 

lemonade powder, 271 

syrup of raspberries, 275 

syrup of strawberries, 275 
Acton's solution for baldness, 244 
jEgyptiacum, 107 
Aerated chalybeate, 210 

ginger-beer, 268 

ginger-beer powders, 269 

lemonade, 271 

lemonade powders, 271 

orangeade, 272 

orangeade powder, 273 

sherbet, 272 

sherbet powder, 273 

waters, 205, 211 

waters, alkaline, 205 

waters, chalybeate, 210 

lithia water, 206 

magnesia, 205 

saline, 206 
Ague drops, 166 
Aix-la-Chapelle water, 209 
Albespeyres paper, 196 
Albumen process, 404 

photographic, 404 
Albuminous size, 308 
Alcohol, 308 
Alibert's cosmetic, 233 
Alkalimetry, 308 

Alkaline lotion for the mouth, 263 
Alkaline solution, Brandish's, 172 
Alloys, various, 309 
Almond flavor, 292 

paste, 235 

powder, 236 



Almond honey paste, 236 

soap, 238 

bloom, 238 
Alum, 310 

mordants, 343 
Aluminium, frosted, 311 

bronze, 311 
Amalgams, 309 

for teeth, 266 
Amalgamated zinc, 452 
Amadou, 311 
American shampoo, 244 

tooth-powder, 255 
Ammonia, carbonate, 311 

sulphate, 311 
Ammoniacal gas, 360 
Ammoniated perfumes, 225 

Eau de Cologne, 225 
Anatomical preparations, to preserve, 

Anchovies, essence, 294 

paste, 295 
Anderson's pills, 166 
Angelica, spirit of, 219 
Animal charcoal, 330 
Animals, to preserve, 311 
Annotto, purified, 312 

solution, 312 
Anodyne necklaces, 167 
Anti-attrition, 313 
Antibilious pills, 167 
Antifermeut, 313 
Antipertussis, 167 
Antiscorbutic elixir, 262 
Antiseptic tooth-powder, 255 
Antispasmodic drops, Grinrod's, 187 
Aperient pills, various, 167 
Apothecaries' measure, 454 

(the former), 457 

weight, 454 
Apparatus, luting for, 329 
Aqua cosmetica, 232 

fortis, 313 
Aquarium, marine, salts for, 313 
Arabine, 314 
Arbor Dianfe, 314 
Argentum musivum, 314 
Armenian cement, 326 
Aromatic pastils, 230 
Aromatic tooth-powder, 255 

vinegar, 167, 226 
Arquebusade (acid), 167 

aromatic, 214 
Arrowroot, 276 
Artificial manure, 390 

sea-water, 313 
Asiatic tooth-powder, 255 

Asses' milk, artificial, 278 
Atkinson's infant preservative, 168 
Atropine paper, 168 
Aurum musivum, 314 
Australian moss, 279 
Avoirdupois weight, 456 
Axle-grease, 313 
Azote, or nitrogen, 362 
Azure blue, 415 

Bacher's pills, 168 
Baden water, 206 
Baking powder, 169 
Bailey's itch ointment, 169 
Baillie's pills, 169 
Balaruc water, 209 
Baldwin's phosphorus, 314 
Baldness, cures for, 244, 245 
Balm of Gilead, 169 

of Rakasiri, 169 
Balls, ash, 314 

blacking, 315 

breeches, 315 

camphor, 236 

for copying, 315 

wash, 240 

heel, 314 

scouring, 315 

furniture, 315 
Balsam of honey, 188 

of horehound, 184 
Bancroft's solution of tin, 343 
Bandoline, 251 
Barclay's pills, 169 
Bareges water, 209 
Baregian balls, 169 
Barium, peroxide of, 315 
Bark, ess. salt of, 169 
Barker's tooth-tincture, 169 
Barley water, 278 
Barth's green, 417 
Barytes, chlorate of, 331 
Baster's farina, 282 
Bates's eye-water, 170 

anodyne balsam, 170 
Bates unguentum criniscum, 243 
Bateman's drops, 169 

itch ointment, 169 
Bathing spirits, 170, 184 
Bath digestive pills, 170 

lozenges, 170 
Battley's senna powder, 170 
Baume de vie, 170 
Bayntou's plaster, 170 
-Bean-flower water, 212 
Bear's grease, 244 



Bear's grease, factitious, 246 

green, 247 
Becoeur's arsenical soap, 435 
Beddoe's pills, 1*70 
Belloste's pills, ITO 
Beef tea, 284 
Beer, ginger, 268 

spruce, 2*74 

treacle, 274 
Beetle wafers, 170, 315 

poison, 315 
Bell metal, 309 
Bengal chitni, 291 
Benzole, 315 

Bestucheflf's nervous tincture, 171 
Betton's British oil, l7l 
Bewley's chalybeate, 171 
Beverages, 268 
Bird-lime, 316 
Biscuits, Abernethy, 286 

aperient, 171 

meat, 284 

gluten, 287 

sponge, 286 
Bismuth, white, 238 
Bisulphuret of carbon, 316 
Bistre, 414 
Black, Brunswick, 323 

draught, l7l 

drop, 171 

flux, 351 

ink, 373 

dyes, 342 

japan, 318 

oils, 97 

reviver, 318 
Blacking ball, 318 

liquid, 316 

paste, 317 

for harness, 318 

without brushing, 317 

patent India-rubber, 317 
Blaine's distemper powders, l7l 
Blake's toothache remedy, 264 
Blanc-mange, 280 

Irish moss, 278 
Bleaching of oils, 395 

of wax, 450 

liquid, 318 

Blights, remedies for, 319 
Blistering paper, 171 

tissue, 172 
Blue for linen, 320 

ink, 376 

pigments, 415 

Prussian, 421 

smalts and azure, 414 

Blue, Turnbull's, 421 

verditer, &c., 415 
Bochet's syrup, 172 
Boerhaave's odontalgic, 264 
Boilers, to prevent incrustations in, 

Bones, sulphated, 320 
Bookbinders' stains, 321 
Boot powder, 321 
Boot-top liquid, 320 
Boots, to render waterproof, 446 
Borax, glass of, 364 
Borated tincture of myrrh, 261 
Bories' odontalgic, 262 
Bottle cement, 327 
Boudet's depilatory, 254 
Braden's farina, 282 
Brande's toothache tincture, 264 

ink, 375 
Brandish's alkaline solution, 172 
Brazil paper, 437 
Bread, aerated, 285 

unfermented, 285 

gluten, 287 
Breakfast powder, 282 
Bright's nutritious farina, 282 
Brighton green, 416 
Brine for pork, &c., 299 
British herb tobacco, 172 

oils, 172 
Brodum's cordial, 172 
Brocchieri's styptic, 173 
Broma, 281 
Bronze (alloys), 309 

for figures, 322 

powder, 321 
Bronzing liquids, 322 

ball, 323 
Bronzing pastes, 323 
Brosse de corail, 323 
Browning for gun-barrels, 323 
Brugnatelli's fulminating silver, 355 
Brunswick black, 323 

green, 416 
Bug poison, 323 
Bullock's semola, 282 
Burnett's (Sir W.) disinfecting fluid, 

Butter of antimony, 324 

to preserve, 324 
Butyric ether, 324 

Cabbage paper, 437 
Cachou aromatise, 230 
Cadet's tooth powder, 255 
Cajeput liniment, 173 



Calotype process, 403 
Camphene, 324 
Camphor, artificial, 324 

ball, 236 

fluid, 195 

ice, 236 

liniment, 173 

Avashballs, 240 
Camphorated chalk, 255 

tooth-powder, 256 
Candies, 324 
Candy, caraway, 193 

live-long, 193 
Canton's phosphorus, 325 
Caoutchouc, solvents for, 431 
Cap cement, 32*7 
■Capillaire syrup, 274 

limoniated, 274 
Capsules, gelatinous, 324 
Caraway candy, 193 

essence of, 293 
Carbon, see Charcoal, 330 

writing ink, 379 

snlphuret of, 315 
Carbonic acid gas, 360 

oxide, 360 

dentifrice, 256 
Carburetted hydrogen, 361 
Carlbad water, 206 
Carmine, 412 
Carminative, Dalby's, 178 
Carabelli's tooth powder, 256 
Carrageen, 278 
Carron oil, 173 
Carthamine, 413 
Cartwright's tooth-powder, 256 
Case-hardening powders, 324 
Cassareep, 296 
Cassolettes, 227 
Castillion's powders, 173 
Castor-oil pomade, 248 
Catsup, mushroom, 295 

walnut, 295 
Cattell's hair dye, 253 
Caustic for corns, 178 
Cayenne, soluble, 292 

essence, 293 
Celery, essence of, 293 
Cements, various, 325, 330 

Armenian, 326 

for apparatus, 329 
Cement, bottle, 327 

cap, 327 

coppersmith's, 327 

curd, 327 

diamond, 326 

engineer's, 328 

Cement for cracks in iron, 328 

for jewels, 326 

for leather and metal, 328 

for marble, 327 

French, 329 

hydraulic, 328 

Massatt's, 328 

oxychloride of zinc, 328 

Roman, 328 

shellac, 325 . 

soft, 329 

for teeth, various, 265 

Singer's, 327 

Turner's, 327 
Cephalic snuff, 173 
Ceylon moss, 279 
Chalybeate, Palmer's aerated, 196 

water, 210 
Chamberlaine's pills, 172 
Chameleon mineral, 331 
Chamomile pills, 173 

drops, 173 
Charcoal, animal, 330 

aluminized, 331 

from coal tar, 331 

vegetable, 330 

tootih powder, 256 

tooth paste, 260 
Chelsea pensioner, 173 
Cheltenham salts, 174 
Chemic blue, 331 
Chemical elements, table of, 465 
Cherry paste for teeth, 260 
Chevallier's hair dye, 252 
Chilblain's, remedies for, 174 
Chinese depilatory, 254 
Ching's lozenges, 174 
Chirayta pills, 176 
Chitni, Bengal, 291 
Chlorate of barytes, 331 

of potash, 332 
Chloride of lime, 332 

potash, 332 

soda, 332 
Chlorine gas, 360 

fumigation, 355 

lozenges, 231 
Chlorodyne, 175 
Chloroform, 333 
Chocolate and cocoa, 280, 281 
Cholera, remedies for, 175 
Chromate of lead, 415 

of potash, 333 
Chromatype paper, 407 
Chrome red, &c., 415 

yellow, 415 
Chromic acid, 303 



Cinnamic acid, 303 
Cinnamon, essence of, 298 

water, 212 

tincture of, 292 
Circassian cream, 247 
tooth-powder, 256 
Clicliee moulds, 310 
Clothes, powder to keep moths from, 

Glutton's febrifuge, 116 
Coathupe's writing fluid, 379 
Cochineal coloring, 334 

lake, 413 

liquid, 388 
Cochrane's cough mixture, 176 
Cod-liver, Soyer's preparations of, 

with cod roe, 289 

and potatoes, 289 

and rice, 289 

and tapioca, 289 

sauce, 290 
Coffee, dandelion, 179 
Cold cream, 234 

granulated, 235 
Collier's wine of quinine, 176 
Collin's disinfecting powder, 339 
Collodion, 334 

elastic, 334 

photographic, 401 

process, 404 
Colors for maps, 336 

for confectioners, 336 

for druggists' show bottles, 335 

liqueurs, 337 

liquid, 336 

vehicles for, 336 
Colored fires, 344 

flames, 350 
Coloring for brandy, &c., 337 
Comparison of thermometic scales, 

Composition for electro-moulds, 346 
Condinents, various, 290 
Consumption, remedies for, 176 
Copaivi, solution of, 200 
Copper, black and red oxide, 337 

nitrate of, 337 
Coral dentifrice, 256 

tooth-paste, 260 
Corns, caustic for, l78 

plasters, 177 

plasters, mechanical, 177 

solvents for, 177 
Cosmetics, hair, 242 

skin, 232 

teeth, 255 

Cosmetics for chapped nipples, 199 
Cosmetiques, in sticks for hair, 253 
Cottereau's toothache drops, 264 
Cotton, gun, 369 
Cough lozenges, 193 

linctus, 177 
Court plaster, 178, 371 
Crayons, lithographic, 380 

for writing on glass, 338 
Cream, Circassian, 247 

cold, 234 

lemon, 234 

wash-balls, 240 
Crystalline cream, 247 

castor-oil pomade, 248 
Cucumber pomade, 234 
Culinary essences, 292 
Currant jelly, 276 
Curry powder, 290 

paste, true, 291 
Custard powder, 288 

Daffy's elixir, 178 
Daguerreotype plates, 417 
Dalby's carminative, 178 
Dahlia test, 437, 439 
Dandelion coffee, 179 
Darby's oils, 98 
Darcet's lozenges, 179 
Dawson's lozenges, 179 
De Handel's toothache paste, 265 
Dalamott's golden drops, 179 
Denham'sfood, 282 
Dentifrices, various, 255, 260 
Deodorizing fluid, Ellerman's, 338 
Depilatories, various, 254 
Derbyshire's embrocation, 179 
Deschamps' tooth-powder, 257 
Desforges' tooth-powder, 257 

extract of pellitory, 262 
Detergent tooth-powder, 257 
Deutoxide of hydrogen, 397 
Dextrine, 338 
Diapente, 77 
Diamond cement, 326 
Diastase, 338 
Dictamia, 281 
Dietetic articles, 276 • 
Digestive pills, 179 
Dinneford's fluid magnesia, 206 
Dinner pills, 179 
Disinfectants, 338 
Disinfecting fluid, Burnet's 338 

Ellerman's, 338 

Ledoyen's, 339 

compounds, 338 



Distemper powders, Blaine's, 173 
Dixon's pills, 180 
Dover's powders, 180 
Drayton's silvering process, 367 
Driers, for painters, 339 
Drinks, summer, 268 
Drying oil, 339 
Dubbing, curriers', 339 
Duffin's Harrogate salts, 188 
Duncan's lactuc. lozenges, 180 

fl. ext. of senna, 180 

gout remedy, 180 
-Dupasquier's gaseous water, 211 
Dupuytren's eye-salve, 180 

pomade, 242 
Dutch drops, 180 
Dyers' compounds, 340 
Dyes, various, 340 

for the hair, 251 

for ivory, 386 

for wood, 451 
Dyon's tooth-paste, 260 

Earache, simple cure for, 267 
Eaton's styptic, 180 
Eau d'ambre, 207 

d'ange, 215 

de Bottot, 262 

de bouquet, 216 

des carmes, 214 

de Cologne, 214 

collante, 251 

dentifrice de Stahl, 262 

d'Egypte, 252 

d'elegance, 216 

d'heliotrope, 216 

de jarvelle, 181 

d'Ispahan, 216 

de luce, 225 

de mareschale, 216 

de miel, 215 

de millefleurs, 216 

de magnanimite, 180 

medicinale d'Husson, 180 

de O'Meara, 262 

de Portugal, 216 

Romaine, 216 

de Rabel, 181 , 

sanspareille, 216 

de Rosieres, 217 

de Mdme. Vrilliere, 263 
Ebony pomatum, 253 
Edinburgh lozenges, 183 

ointment, 181 
Effervescing aperients, 195 

powders, 272 

Effervescing lemonade, 271 

powder, 271 

orangeade, 272 

orangeade powder, 272 

sherbet, 272 
Effervescent sherbet powders, 273 

chalybeate water, 211 

Seidlitz powders, 199 
Eger water, 207 
Eggs, to preserve, 345 
Elderflower water, 212 
Electric tissue, 345 
Electro-gilding, 364 

solutions for, 364 
Electro-brassing, 345 

bronzing, 345 

coppering, 345 

silvering, 429 
Electrotype moulds, 346 

solutions, 428 
Electuarj^, Mahomed's, 194 
Elixir Daffy's, 178 

de Garus and Haller's, 181 

Radcliffe's, 198 

of roses, 262 

Squire's, .201 

Stoughton's 201 

for the teeth, 263 

of vitriol, 181 
Ellerman's deodorizing fluid, 181 
Emerald Green, 416 
Ems water, 207 
Embrocation, Roche's, 199 
Embrocations for the* hair, 244 
Emulsions, cosmetics, 232 
Engraving, liquid, 347 

on glass, 364 
Engrasdngs, to clean, 346 
Engraver's varnish, 446 
Epicurean sauce, 295 
Equivalents, table of, 466-470 
Ervalenta, 283 
Eschalot wine, 294 
Esprit de suave, 2l7 

rose, &c., 218 
Essence of Ambergris, 221 

anchovies, 294 

aromatic, 293 

d'ambrette, 219 

of bark, 181 

of bitter almonds, 292 

Cambrian, 300 

of caraway, 292 

of cayenne, 293 

cedrat, 221 

of celery, 292 

chamomile, 182 



Essence cinnamon, cloves, &c., 292 

clove pink, 221 

Cologne, 221 

cubebs, 182 

flavoring, 292 

ginger, 182 

heliotrope, 221 

honeysuckle, 221 

hovenia, 221 

jargonelle pears, 347 

jessamine, 224 

of jonquil, 222 

Madden's, 194 

magnolia, 222 

mignonette, 222 

moss rose, 222 

myrtle, 222 

musk, 219, 222 

mustard, 182 

peppermint, 182 

pennyroyal, 182 

patchouli, 222 

of pineapple, 293 

of rennet, 425 

of roses, 218 

rondoletia, 222 

royale, 222 

of sarsaparilla, 182 

for scenting pomatums, 223 

for smelling bottles, 225 

sweet brier, 223 

sweet pea, 223 

of Tyre, 225 

of vanilla, 220 

of verbena, 223 

ofvetiver, 220 

of violets, 218 

Westphalian, 300 

white lilac, 223 
Essences, culinary, 282 

cone, infusions, 183 

vinous, 183 

perfumed, 220, 223 
Etching fluids, 347 

varnish, 347 
Extrait de bouquet, 220 

de mareschale, &c., 221 
Extract of liquorice, 384 

of meat, 284 

of malt, 184 
Extracts [JExiraits) of flower, 220 

Fairthorn's pills, 184 
Fards, or face paints, 237 
Farinaceous food. Hard's, &c., 282 
Farina, see Starches, 434 

Farina, Bright's nutritious, &c., 282 
Fats, to obviate racidity in, 348 
Ferculum Saxonia, 282 
Filter for corrosive liquids, 348 
Filtering powder, 348 
Findings for spirits, 348 
Fireproofing, 350 
Fires, colored, 348 

to extinguish, 348 
Fixateur, 251 
Flames, colored, 350 
Flavoring essence, 293 
Flint, liquor of, 350 
Floating soaps, 239 
Florentine dentifrice, 257 
Flowers, to expand, 350 

. to preserve, 350 
Fluide de Java, 250 
Fluxes, black and white, 351 
Flux, Christison's, 351 

crude, 351 

Cornish, 351 

Morveau's, 352 

Fresenius's, &c., 351 

Taylor's, 351 
Fly poison, 352 
Food for infants, 284 
Ford's balls, horehound, 184 

laudanum, 184 
Foreign weights and measures, 459 
Fothergill's pills, 184 
Fox's cream, 248 
Frangipanni bouquet, 223 
Frank's solution, 201 
Freckles, lotion for, 233 
Freeman's bathing spirit, 181 
Freezing mixture, 352 
French polish, 353 
French lip-salve, 237 

mustard, 294 

tooth-powder, 257 
Fryar's balsam, 184 
Frigorific mixtures, 352 
Fruit lozenges, 193 
Fulminating compounds, 354 

cotton, 369 

powder, 354 

mercury, 354 

silver, 355 
Fumigating pastils, 229 
Fumigations, acetic, 357 

chlorine, 355 

muriatic, 357 

nitric, 356 

sulphur, 357 

tar, 357 

for toothache, 265 



Furniture cream, 357 

oil, 357 

paste, 357 
Fusible metal, 309 

Gad's cement, 328 

Galvanic battery, acids for, 307 

tooth-powder, 257 
Gall, clarified, 358 
Galls, tincture of, 439 
Gant's cosmetiques, 237 
Garancine, 358 

Gardiner's alimentary pp.. 282 
Gannal's solution, 311 
Ganteine, 359 

Garret's covering for pills, 359 
Gtises, to collect, 360 
"Gas, ammoniacal, 360 

carbonic acid, 360 

carbonic oxide, 360 

chlorine, 360 

hydrogen, 361 

hydrochloric acid, 361 

carburetted hj'drogen 361 

phosphuretted hydrogen, 361 

sulphuretted hydrogen, 361 

nitrogen, 362 

protoxide, 362 

oxygen, 362 

ozone, 362 

sulphurous acid, 362 
Gelatine, 362 

capsules, 324 

bone, 363 

wafers, 449 
Gelee pour le goitre, 185 
Gentil's gluten flour, 288 
German lip-salve, 237 

paste, 363 

pomade, 247 

silver, 309 

tooth-powder, 257 
Gilding, 364 

electro, 364 

by immersion, 364 
Ginger beer, 268 

beer powders, 269 

essence of, 182 

aromatic tincture, 293 
Gingerbread, common, 287 

cake, 287 

purgative, 185 
Girambing, 269 
Glass, to cut, 364 

to mark or write on, 364 

to silver, 366 

of borax, 364 

Glass flux, 327 

soluble, 364 
Glazes, 367 - 
Gloves, to clean, 359, 387 
Glue, 368 

liquid, 368 

marine, 368 

mouth, 368 
Gluten, vegetable, 369 

bread, 287 

granulated, 288 
Glycerine jelly, 185 

paste, 185 
Goadby's solutions, 312 
Godbold's veg. balsam, 185 
Godfrey's cordial, 185 

smelling salts, 186, 225 
Gold, factitious, 309 

mosaic, 314 
Golden ointment, 187 

spirit of scurvy grass, 186 

compound, 369 
Gout, specific, Murray's, 195 

paper, 187 

medicine, Duncan's, 180 

pills, Lartigue's, 190 

tincture, Wilson's, 204 
Granulated gluten, 288 
Granville's (Dr.) lotions, 187 
Grape lip-salve, 237 
Graves' (Dr.) chilblain remedy, 174 

gout, preventive, 187 
Grecian water, 254 
Gregory's powder, 187 
Green dyes, 342 

pigments, 416 
Greenough's tincture, 187 
GrifiBn's tincture, 187 
Griffith's mixture, 187 
Grinrod's antispasmodic, 187 
Grosvenor's tooth powder, 257 
Gruel, oatmeal, 283 
Guestonian embrocation, 188 
Gum, British, 369 

Arabic, purified, 369 
Gun cotton, 369 

powder, 370 

barrels, browned, 323 
Guthrie's black ointment, 188 

eye ointment, 188 
Gutta-percha moulds, 346 

solvents for, 432 
Gypsum, to harden, 370 

Haerlem drops, 180 
Hahnemann's hair dye, 252 



Hahnemann's wine test, 441 
Hair cosmetics, 242 

dyes, 251 

oils, 248 

pomades, 247 

powder, 242 

washes, 250 

to remove, 254 

to promote, 242 

to stiffen, 251 
Halford's (Sir H.) pills, 188 
Hamilton's pills, 168 
Harness blacking, 318, 371 
Harrogate salts, 188, 210 

water, 210 
Hartshorn jelly, 279 
Heading for beer, 274 
Helvetius stypic, 188 
Hemet's dentifrice, 257 
Henbane fumigation, 265 
Henry's magnesia, 188 
Herb soup-powder, 291 

tobacco, 172 
Hill's balsam of honey, 188 
Hoffman's pills, 188 
Honey, balsam of, 188 

paste, 236 

soap, 239 

water, 215 
Hooper's pills, 188 
Hooping-cough remedies, 189 
Horseradish powder, 291 
Houlton's laudanum, 188 
Hudson's tincture, 262 
Huiles antiques, 248 

rose, jessamine, &c., 248 
Huile macassar, 250 

de phenix, 249 

philocome, and comogene, 249 
Hungar^^ water, 215 
Hunt's breakfast powder, 282 
Huxham's tincture of bark, 189 
Hydrochloric acid, 304 

gas, 361 
Hydrogen gas, 361 
deutoxide, 398 

carburetted, &c., 361 
Hydrophobia, to prevent, 159 
Hypochlorite of potash, 332 
Hyposulphite of soda, 431 

Iceland moss, 278 
chocolate, 278 
jelly, 278 

Imperial drink, 270 
pop, 269 

Imperial measure, 454 
Incense, 229, 371 
India pickles, 299 

rubber, solvents for, 431 

court plaster, 371 
Indigo, purified, 372 

dyes, 340 

solutions, 331 

test paper, 437 
Infants' preservative, 168 
Ink, to keep from mouldiness, 384 

alizarine, 375 

powder, 375 

red, 375 

blue, 376 

green, 378 

yellow, 378 

gold and silver, 378 

indestructible, 378 

Indian, 379 

horticultural, 380 

for writing on steel, 380' 

lithographic, 380 

for marking linen, 380 

without preparation, 382 

crimson marking, 382. 

printers, 383 

Runge's, 374 

sympathetic, 383. 

Weber's, 375 

violet, 377 

Normandy's, 377, 379^ 

Reade's, 382 

Redwood's, 382 

Stephen's, 376 
Inks, various, 373-384 

writing, black, 373 

anti-corrosive, 373 

copying, 375 

packers', 375 
Insects, to kill, 384 
lodate of potash, 384 
Iodide of potassium, 384 
Iodine, 385 
Iodized paper, 407 

test, 437 

collodion, 403 

albumen, 404 
Iridescent paper, 399 
Irish moss, preparation of, 278 
Iron, acetate of, 301 

liquor, 344 

persulphate of, 385 

cement, 328 
Isinglass, 386 

plaster, 192 
Issue peas, 189 




Ivory black, true, 386 
flexible, 386 
to stain, 386 
to bleach and gild, 387 

James's analeptic pills, 189 

powders, 189 
Japan black, 318 
Japanese cement, 329 
Jarave, Spanish, 190 
Jelly, currant, 276 

gelatine, 280 

hartshorn, 279 

Iceland moss, 278 

of Ceylon moss, 279 

salep, 279 
. isinglass, 280 
Jessamine, esprit, 218 

perfumed oil of, 249 

extract, 220 

water, 212 
Jesuits' drops, 190 
Jones's patent flour, 286 

Kalydor lotion, 232 

Kemmerer's tooth-powder, 258 

Kennedy's corn-plaster, 19.0 

Keyser's pills, 190 

Kid glove cleaner, 387 

King cup, 270 

King's yellow, 415 
cordial, 190 

Ketchup, mushroom, 295 
walnut, 295 

Kirkland's cerate, 190 

Kittoe's freckle lotions, 233 

Kitchener's essence of cayenne, 293 
of ginger, 293 
of spices, 293 
pease powder, 291 
peristaltic persuaders, 190 
soup herb-powder, 291 
spirit of soup herbs, 293 
savory spices, 293 
tincture of cinnamon, 292 

Kyan's solution for wood, 387 

Labarraque's liquid, 387 
Labels, indestructible, 387 
Lac, stickj seed, and shell, 387 

to "bleach, 388 

cement, 325 

spirit, 353 
Lacquers, 444 

Lactucarium lozenges, 193 
Lait de fraicheur, 233 ' 

virginal, 233 
Lakes, 388, 413 
Lake, cochineal, 413 

Brazil, &c., 414 

liquid, 388 

yellow, &c., 414 
Landerer's cure for baldness, 245 
Lane's, Dr., vinous essences, 183 
Lardner's tooth-powder, 258 
Lartigue's gout-pills, 190 
Lavender tooth-powder, 258 

water, 213 
Leath's alimentary farina, 282 
Lee's pills, 191 

Ledoyen's disinfecting fluid, 100 
Leech-bites, astringent for, 191 
Lefoulon's elixir, 263 

tooth-powder, 258 
Lefandiniere's elixir, 262 
Lejeune's balsam, 191 
Lemazurier's odontalgic, 264 
Lemon-juice, 388 

factitious, 270, 388 

flavor, 292 

kali, 272 

pickle, 295 

embrocation, 233 

cream, 233 

wash balls, 240 
Lemonade, acidulated, 270 

aerated, 271 

dry, 271 

powders, 271 

milk, 271 
Lentil powder, 283 
Leroy's purgative, 191 
Lenses, extemporaneous, 388 
Liebert's nipple cosmetic, 190 
Liebig's food for infants, 284 

soup for children, 284 
Lignum's drops, 191 
Limoniated ginger-beer, 269 
Linctus, for coughs, 177 
Liniment, cajeput, 173 

camphorated, 173 

St. John Long's, 192 
Linseed tea, 278 

oil, refined, 389 

boiled, 339 

clarified, 389 
Lip-salve, rose, 236 

Peruvian, 237 

German, 237 

grape, 237 

French, 237 



Liqueur doree, 191 
Liquid amalgam, 310 

blister, 192 

disinfecting, 338 

glue, 368 

for the teeth, 261 
Liquids, tables of weights and meas- 
ures of, 458 
Liquorice, purified, 389 
Lisbon water, 216 
Liston's plaster, 192 
Lithographic paper, 398 

ink, 378 
Litmus, 389 

paper, 437 

tincture, 439 
Live-long candy, 193 
Locatelli's balsam, 192 
Locock's lotion for the hair, 244 

wafers, 192 
Long's, St. John, liniment, 192 
Lotions for the mouth, 261 

of chloride of soda, 263 

for chilblains, 174 

for the skin, 232 
Lozenges, absorbent, 192 

alkaline, 179 

aperient, 192 

Ching's, 174 

black currant, 192 
and ipecac, 193 

cough, 193 

digestive, 193 

Edinburgh, 193 

fruit, 193 

marshmallow, 193 

peppermint, 194 
Lubricating compounds, 389 
Lucifer matches, 391 
Luminous vials, 390 
Lutes, various, 329 
Lynch's embrocation, 194 

Macassar oil, 250 

MacPherson's photo-lithographic 

process, 411 
Madden's essence, 194 
Magnesia, fluid, 194 
Magnesian aperient, 195 
Mahomed's electuary, 194 
Mahy's plaster, 194 
Maissatt's cement, 328 
Manures, artificial, 390 
Maredant's Norton's drops, 194 
Marble, to clean, 391 
to stain, 391 

Marienbad water, 207 
Marine glue, 368 

soap, 430 
Marking ink for linen, 380 

without preparation, 381 
Marmoratum, 267 
Marmalade, 275 
Marsden's drops, 194 
Marsh's dahlia test, 439 

Marshall's cerate, 194 

eye-drops, 194 
Marrow oil, 250 

pomatum, 246 
Mastic varnish, 443 
Marten's photographic albumen, 405 
Matches, lucifer, &c., 391 
Mathieu's vermifuge, 194 
Maurj^'s tooth-powder, 258 
Measures, tables of, 460 
Meat biscuit, 284 

extract of, 284 
Medals, to bronze, 322 
Medallions, perfumed, 228 
Mercury, fulminating, 354 
Metallic cements, 266 
Metges' tooth-powder, 258 

tooth-paste, 260 
Mialhes' dentifrice, 258 

chalybeate water, 211 

ioduretted water, 211 
Mice and rat poison, 423 
Microscope, formulae for, 392 
Milk of cucumbers, 232 

of houseleek, 232 

of roses, 232 

preserved, 393 
Mineral green, 416 

waters, 205 

chameleon, 331 
Mistura odorata, 223 
Modelling, clay for, 394 
Mohr's lute for retorts, 330 
Moiree metallique, 394 
Montein's balls for baths, 195 
Mont d'Or Water, 210 
Mordants, alum, 343 

for marking ink, 380 

tin, 343 
Morrison's paste, 195 • 

pills, 195 
Morveau's flux, 351 
Moseley's pills, 195 
Moss, Australian, 279 

Ceylon, 279 

Iceland, 278 

Irish, 278 
Moulds, electrotype, 346 



Mouth cosmetics, 255 

Moxon's magnesian aperient, 195 

Munro's cough medicine, 195 

M Itum, 394 

Muriatic acid, 304 

Muriate of tin, 343 

Murray's fluid magnesia, 194, 206 

camphor, 195 

gout specific, 195 
Musliroom catsup, 295 
Mustard for the table, 294 

French, 294 
Myrrh dentifrice, 258 

tincture, odoriferous, 261 

Nankeen dye, 342 
'Naples water, 210 

yellow, 416 
Nelligan's, Dr., pills, 168 
Nelson's gelatine, 363 
Nepenthe, 196 

Neutralizing proportions, table of, 470 
Niepce's photo-lithographic process, 

410 ' 
Nipples, lotion for, 191 
Nitrate of barytes, 394 

of silver, 394 

strontian, 395 
Nitrate of potash, 395 
Nitrogen gas, 362 

protoxide of, 362 
Nitroprusside of sodium, 395 
Norris's drops, 196 
Nouffleur's worm medicine, 196 
Novargent, 396 

Odontalgic tinctures, 263 

elixir, 262 
Odoriferous tincture of myrrh, 261 

lavender water, 213 

oil, boiled and drying, 339 

furniture, 358 

Macassar, 250 

marrow, 250 
Oils of ambergris, musk, &c., 249 

roses, violets, &c., 248 

perfumed, various, 248 

for the hair, 248 

to purify, 396 

to bleach, 396 

for machinery, 39*7 

Carroii, 173 

Darby's, 98 

nine, 98 
Ointments, Bailey's, 169 

Bateman's, 170 

Ointments, Edinburgh, 181 

golden, 187 

Plunket's, 197 

Smellome's, 200 
Oleine, 397 

Ollivier's biscuits, 196 
Opodeldoc, 196 
Orangeade, 272 

aerated, 272 

powder, 272 . 
Orange chrome, 415 

juice, factitious, 270 

marmalade, 275 
Orfila's hair-dye, 251 
Or-molu, 309 
Ormskirk medicine, 196 
Ostermaier's cement, 266 
Oxygen gas, 362 
Oxygenated water, 398 
Ozone, 362 

Palamoud, 281 

Palm oil, to bleach, 396 

Palmer's tooth-powder, 258 

aerated chalybeate, 196 

vitaroborant, 282 
Panada, 277 
Paper, calotype, &c., 403-409 

Brazil, cabbage, &c., 437 

copying, 398 

fire-proofing for, 399 

hydrographic, 398 

tests, various, 437 

lithographic, 398 

paste, 399 

photographic, 406 

tracing, 399 

iridescent, 399 

waxed, 399 
Papier epispastique, 196 

Fayard, 197 

mache, 398 
Papyrine, 400 
Paraguay-roux, 264 
Paraffine, 400 
Parfum des rois, 217 
Passey water, 211 
Paste, almond, 235 

flour, 329 

furniture, 558 

honey, 236 

Regnauld's, 198 

Swediaur's, 174 

tooth, various, 259 

for toothache, 265 

Ward's. 203 



Paste for cleaning brass, 400 

for razors, 400 

blacking, 317 
Pastils for burning, 229 

for the mouth, 230 
Pate divine de Venus, 234 
Payne's prejmration for wood, 400 
Pearl dentifrice, 258 

white, 238 
Pease powder, 291 
Pelletier's quinine dentifrice, 258 

odontine, 260 
Pensioner, Chelsea, 173 
Percussion caps, 401 
Peristaltic persuaders, 190 
Perfumes, various, 212-231 

acetic, 226 

ammoniated, 225 
Peruvian lip-salve, 239 
Peter's pills, 197 
Pettenkofer's test, 442 
Pharaoh's serpents, 401 
Philanthrope muophobon, 424 
Phosphorescent oil, 401 
Phosphoric acid, 306 
Phosphorus, Baldwin's, 314 

Canton's, 325 

matches, 401 

bottles, 401 

paste, 401 
Photolithography, 410 
Photography, 401-411 

collodion, 401 

calotype process, 403 

collodion process, 403 
dry, 404 

albumen process, 404 
Photographic papers, 406 

solutions, 405 

recipes, miscellaneous, 409 

engraving, 410 
Phosphuretted hydrogen, 361 
Pickle for pork, &c., 299 
Pickles, various, 296 
Pickled beet, 297 

cabbage, cucumber, &c., 297 

mangoes and mashrooms, 298 

nasturtiums and onions, 298 

walnuts, 298 

piccalilli, 299 
Pigments, various, 412 

vegetable, 412 

mineral, blue, &c., 414 •' 
Piles, remedies for, 197 
Pills, Abernethy's, 166 

Anderson's, 166 

aperient, 167 

Pills, antibilious, 167 

Bacher's, 168 

Baillie's, 169 

Baillie's dinner, 169 

Barclajr's, 169 

Bath, 170 

Beddoe's, 170 

Belloste's, 171 

Chamberlaine's, 173 

chamomile, 173 

digestive, 179 

dinner, 179 

Dixon's, 180 

Fairthorn's, 184 

Fothergill's, 184 

Halford's, Sir H., 188 
. Hamilton's, 168 

Hooper's, 188 

James's analeptic, 189 

Johnson's, 167 

Kitchener's, 190 

Lartigue's, 190 

Lee's, 191 

Lynn's, 168 

Morrison's, 195 

Moseley's, 195 

quinine and camphor, 198 

Reece's chirayta, 198 

Robinson's, 199 

Smith's (Hugh), 200 

Speedman's, 200 

Vance's, 167 

"Ward's red, 203 

Whitehead's, 204 

covering for, 197 
Pivots for teeth, 267 
Plaster, Baynton's, 170 

court, 178 

isinglass, 192 

Liston's, 192 

Mahy's, 194 
Plate powder, 418 

for boiling, 418 
Plates, Daguerreotype, 417 
Platina, black, 418 

chlorides, 419 

sponge, 419 
Platinated asbestos, 418 
Platinized silver, 418 
Plumbe's farinaceous food, 283 
Plunket's ointment, 197 
Poison for beetles, 170, 315 

for bugs, 323 

for rats and mice, 423 
Poitevin's photo-lith. process, 411 
Polish, French, 353 

furniture, 358 



Polishing powder, 419 
Pomades for baldness, 242 
Pomade for the skin,. 233 

de beaute, 233 

de Ninon, &c., 234 
Pomatum, common, 246 

colored, &c., 247, 253 

crystalline, 247 * 

cucumber, 234 

marrow, 246 

hard or roll, 247 

rose, &c., 246 
Pommade contre I'alopecie, 243 

castor oil, 248 

Cattell's, Dr., 243 

Cazenave's, 243 
. coUante, 251 

d'Hebe, 234 

divine, 197, 235 

Dupuytren's, 242 

for beautifying hair, 246 

for coloring hair, 253 
Potash, 419 
Pot-pourri, 227 
Pop, imperial, 269 
Portland powder, 108 
Potato-disease, remedies for, 420 

Poudre clarifiante, 420 

metallique, 267 

a la mousseline, 228 

de Chypre, &c., 228 
Pounce for parchment, 420 

marking ink, 380 
Powder, almond, 236 

baking, 169 

filtering, 348 

fulminating, 354 

ginger-beer, 269 

gun, 370 

hair, 242 

hand, 234 

lemonade, 272 

orangeade, 272 

spruce-beer, 274 

soda, 273 

soup, 291 
Seidlitz, 199, 208 

for rats, &c., 424 

plate, 417 
Powders for the teeth, 255 
Powell's balsam, 198 
Preserving animals, 311, 435 
Prince of Wales's food, 282 
Prometheans, 392 
Prussiate of potash, 421 
red, 421 
Prussian blue, 421 

Prussian blue, soluble, 421 

TurnbuU's, 421 
PuUna water, 207 

salts, 207 
Purging drinks. Dr. Young's, 204 
Purple of Cassius, 421 
Pyrmont water, 211 
Pyroacetic spirit, 422 
Pyrogallic acid, 253, 306 
Pyroligneous acid, 422 
Pyrophorus, 423 
Pyroxylic spirit, 422 

Queen of Hungary's water, 198, 215 
Quin sauce, 295 
Quinine dentifrice, 258 

wine, 176 

and camphor pills, 198 

Racahout des Arabes, 281 

Radcliffe's elixir, 198 

Ragout spice, 291 

Ramsey's photo-lith. process, 411 

Raspail's cigarettes, 198 

Raspberry vinegar, 275 

syrup, acid, 275 
Rat poisons, 423 

without arsenic, 424 
Redwood's marking ink, 382 

depilatory, 254 
Reece's chirayta pills, 198 
Regnauld's dentifrice, 259 

pectoral paste, 198 
Rennet, 425 

liquid, 425 

wine, 288 
Reynolds' gout specific, 199 
Revalenta, 283 
Rhatany tooth-powder, 259 
Rice cake, 286 
Riga balsam, 199 
Righini's tooth-powder, 259 
Robinson's pills, 199 

tooth-cement, 266 
Roche's embrocation, 199 
Roge's magnesian purgative, 199 
Rose lip-salve, 236 

tooth-powder, 259 

pink, 414 

soap, 239 

tooth-paste, 260 

water, 212, 224 
Rosemary tooth-paste, 260 
Rosewood, spirit of, 219 
■Rouge, 237 



Rouge, jewellers', 418 
Rousseau's drops, 199 
Ruspini's tincture, 263 

tooth-powder, 259 

styptic, 199 
Russian tooth-powder, 259 
Rust's toothache pill, 265 
Rust, to remove and prevent, 425 
Ryan's essence of coltsfoot, 199 
Rymer's tincture, 199 

Sachets, 228 

Sago, to prepare, 277 

milk, 277 

posset, 277 
Salep, 279 
Saline solutions, 433 

tooth-paste, 260 

waters, 206, 209 

powders, Stevens', 175 
Salts, Cheltenham, 174 

Harrogate, 188 

Marienbad, 207 

Pullna, 207 

Seidlitz, 207 

smelling, 225 

Vichy, 208 
Sap green, 414 
Sauce, anchovy, 294 

Epicurean, 295 

Quin, 295 

superlative, 296 

Waterloo, 295 
Saunders' dentifrice, 259 
Savon au bouquet, 239 
Savonettes, 240 
Savorj^ spices, 291 
Scent bags, 228 

balls, 228 

for pomatums, 223 

powders, 228 

for snuff, 223 
Scented soaps, 238 
Scott's plaster, 199 
Scouring drops, 426 
Sea-water, 209, 313 

salts for, 209 
Sealing-wax, 426 
Seidlitz water, 207 

salts, 208 

powders, 199, 208 
Seidschutz water, 208 
Seltzer water, 208 
Semolina, 283 
Shaving liquid, 241 

paste, 241 

Shaving powder, 240 
Shampoo liquor, 244 
Shellac, 387 

to bleach, 388 

cement, 325 
Sherbet, 272 

powders, 273 
Siemmerling's cosmetic, 233 
Silica cement, 266 
Silk-cleaner, 428 
Silver, to clean, 428 

fulminating, 354 

oxidized, 429 

to purify and reduce, 429 

tree, 442 
Silvering, 429 

glass, 366 
. powder, &c., 428 
Singer's cement, 327 
Singleton's ointment, 200 
Sirop d'orgeat, 274 
Size, oil, &c., 430 
Skeleton leaves, 430 
Skin cosmetics, 232 
Smalts, 414 
Smelling salts, 225 
Smellome's eye-salve, 200 
Smith's (Hugh) pills, 200 
Smoking fluid, 430 
Snuff, cephalic, 173 
Soap, 430 

arsenical, 435 

marine, 430 

powder, 240 

paste, 240 

toilet, scented, various, 238 

floating, 239 

transparent, 239 

Windsor, 239 
Soda, hyposulphite of. 431 

powders, 200, 273 
Soft cement, 329 
Solders, various, 310 
Solomon's balm of Gilead, 200 
Solvents for gutta percha, 432 

India-rubber, 431 

corns, 177 

old putty, 432 

silver, 433 
Soluble glass, 364, 432- 

cayenne, 292 
Solution of copaiba, 200 
Solution for electro-plating, 432 

Gannal's, 311 

for soldering, 433 

for voltaic battery, 432 

for water-baths, 432 ' 



Soubeiran's tooth-cement, 265 
Soup for children, 28-i 
Soup-powder, 291 
Soy, 296 

Specific gravities, 464 
Speedimau's pills, 200 
Spiced vinegar, 296 
Spices, mixed, 291 

ragout, 291 

savory, 291 

sausage, 291 

essences of, 292 
Spilsbury's drops, 201 
Spirit of nitric ether, 433 

savory spices, 293 

soup herbs, 293 
Spjrits, perfumed, 213, 217, 224 
Sponge, blanched, 433 
Spruce beer, 274 
Squire's elixir, 201 
Stains, to remove, 433 
Standert's mixture. 201 

stomachic candy, 201 
Starch, 434 

potato, &c., 434 
Steam-pipe cement, 328 
Stearic acid, 435 
Steer's opodeldoc, 201 
Stiifening for the hair, 251 
Stopping for teeth, 265 
Storey's worm cakes, 202 
Storm-glass, 435 
Stoughton's elixir, 201 
Strawberry syrup, 275 


water, 212 
Stuffing birds, &c., 435 
Styptic, Brocchieri's, 173 

Eaton's, 180 

Helvetius', 188 
Styrol, 436 
Struve's lotion, 202 
Sugar resin, 436 
Sulphite of copper, 436 
Sulphocyanide of ammonium, 436 
Sulphuretted hydrogen, 361 

waters, 209 
Swaim's vermifuge, 202 
Sydenham's laudanum, 202 
Syrup of almonds, 274 

capillaire, 274 

limoniated, 274 

milk, 436 

pineapple, 274 

raspberries, 275 

strawberries, 275 
Syrups for effervescing draughts, 273 

Table of weights and measures, 454 

foreign weights, &c., 459 

chemical ec^uivalents, 465 
Taffetas vesicant, 172 
Talbot's photo-lith. process, 411 
Tarmara, 291 
Tannin, 307 

mouth lotions, 261 
Tanjore pills, 202 
Tapioca,' 277 

milk, 277 

pudding, 217 
Taupenot's photographic albumen 

Taveare's tooth cement, 266 
Teeth cosmetics, 255 

stopping for, 265 
Temperature, effects of, 462 
Terpine, 436 
Test papers, 437 

solutions, 438 

Clark's, for water, 440 

Hahnemann's wine, 441 

Pettenkofer's, for bile, 442 

Trommer's, 441 
Thibaut's balsam, 202 
Tin, solutions of, 343 

mordant's, 343 

tree, 442 
Tincture of ambergris, 219 

civet, 220 

red cabbage, 438 

balsam of Peru, 219 

galls, 439 

of ginger, 293 

litmus, 439 

musk seed, 219 

musk, 219 

myrrh, odoriferous, 261 

borated, 261 

patchouli, 220 

of quinine, 202 

of rhodium, 229 

of vanilla, 220 

vetiver, 220 
Tinctures, culinary, 292 

for the teeth, 261 

perfumed, 219 

test, 438 ' 
Tissot's purgative, 202 
Tissue, blistering, 172 
Tobacco water, 442 
Tooth powders, 255 

pastes, 259 

tincture, 261 
Toothache remedies, 263 
Touch-paper, 442 



Tons les mois, 277 

Trade chemicals, 301 

Transparent soap, 239 

Treacle beer, 274 

Trees, metallic, 442 

Trophazome, 284 

Trousseau's chalybeate, 211 

Troy weight, table for converting- 

into avoirdupois, 456 
Turlington's balsam, 202 
Turner's cement, 327 
Turpentine, oil of, 443 

as a solvent, 431 

Venice, 442 
Tyre, essence of, 252 

Unfermented bread, 285 
Urn-powder, 443 

Valangin's mineral solvent, 202 
Vance's pills, 167 
Vanilla, essence of, 220 

tooth-paste, 260 
Varnish, amber, 444, 446 

Bessemer's, 446 

copal, 444 

cabinet, 445 

Canada, 445 

Le Blond's, 446 

Macintosh's, 446 

India-rubber, 447 

for hotbeds, 447 

sealing-wax, 447 

hair, 447 

colored, 447 

colorless, for photographs, 444 

glass, 448 

Japan, 447 

for gun-barrels, 447 
Varnishes, 443 

spirit, 443 

(lacquers), 444 

essence, 445 

oil, 446 

various, 445 
Vegetable extract for the hair, 250 

gluten, 369 
Venlo's syrup, 202 
Verditer, 415 
Vermifuge, Matthieu's, 194 

Nouffleur's 196 

Swaim's, 202 
Vichy water, 208 

salts, 209 
Victoria perfume, 217 

Vinaigre de Cologne, &c., 226 

de quatre voleurs, 227 
Vinegar (wine, malt, &c.), 448 

wood, 422 

curry, 294 

camp, 294 

garlic, shallot, &c., 294 

raspberry, 275 

spiced, 296 

Tarragon, &c., 293 
Vinegars, culinary, 293 

perfumed, 226 
Vinous preparations. Dr. Lane's, 18c 
Violet tooth-powder, 259 
Violets, essence of, 220 
Vogler's pill for toothache, 265 
Vrilliere's mouth-wash, 263 

Wacaka des Indes, 281 
Wafers, gelatine, 449 
Walnut catsup, 295 
Warburg's fever tincture, 203 
Ward's dropsy powder, 203 

essence for headache, 203 

paste, 203 

red pill, 203 

sweating powder, 203 

washing powder, 449 

white drop, 203 

white oils, 97 
Walker's Jesuit's drops, 203 
Warner's cordial, 203 
Warren's hair dye, 252 
Warwick's powders, 203 
Wash for the hair, 251 

powder, for the hands, 236 

balls, 240 
Washes for vermin in plants, 449 
Washing powders, 449 

liquids, 449 
Water, hard, to soften, 449 
Waters, mineral, 205, 211 

aerated, 205 

alkaline, 205 

chalybeate, 210 

distilled (perfumed), 212 

saline, &c., 209 

perfumed, 212-224 

spirituous (perfumed), 213 
Water-bath, solutions for, 432 
Waterloo sauce, 295 
Waterproofing compounds, 450 
Wax, to bleach, 450 

sealing, 426 

modelling, 451 
Waxed paper, 399 



Webster's diet drink, 204 

(Lady) pills, 204 
Weights and measures, tables of, 454, 

Welding composition, 451 
Wheat, steep for, 451 
Whey, 275 

powder, 275 
Whitelaw's tinct. of lobelia, 204 
Whitehead's essence of mustard, 204 

pills, 204 
White flux, 351 

bismuth, 238 

zinc, 417 

lead, 417 

antimony, 417 
Wilson's gout tincture, 204 

. lotions for baldness, 244 
Windsor soap, 239 
Windham's pills, 191 
Wine of shallots, 294 

Wine, quinine, 176 
Wines, Lane's medicated, 183 
Wirth's tooth-cement, 266 
Wisdom's eye-water, 204 
Withering cosmetic, 233 
Wright's pearl ointment, 204 
Writing fluids, see Inks, 373 
Wood, to stain, 451 
Worm lozenges, Ching's, 174 
Storey's, 202 

Yeast, artificial, 452 
Young' purging drink, 204 

Zinc, ammonio-chloride, 452 
amalgamated, 452 
oxide, 452 
platinized, 452 
purified, 453 



The Veterinary Materia Medica being alphabetically^ arranged, it is not 
considered necessary to include the Drugs, whose uses and doses are 
there stated, in this Index. 

Abbreviations employed in this list : c, Cattle ; s, Sheep ; d, Dogs ; siv, 
Swine. The Horse Medicines hav